# Rectifier

 Rectification

is the process of converting AC to

DC  A diode is used as the rectifier  A diode will conduct only when it is given forward bias  i.e. when the anode is more +ve than the cathode  Hence when AC is applied to a diode it will conduct only in one direction, giving DC

Half-wave rectifier
D1

+
_

the diode gets forward bias  Now current flows from Anode to Cathode through the Load resistor RL back to the secondary winding .Half wave rectifier  AC is applied to the Power Transformer and it steps down the voltage to the required AC  This AC is applied to the diode D1  During the +ve half cycle.

the diode gets reverse bias  Now the diode stops conducting  Thus. at the output  During the –ve half. This current produces a voltage across RL  Thus we get one half of the AC input. the diode conducts only for one half and gives the output for that alf .

it is called as Half wave rectifier circuit  This way the diode rectifies AC to DC  But the obtained DC is a fluctuating DC & not a constant DC . As the diode conducts only for one half of the applied AC.

Full-wave rectifier A D1 + RL B _ D2 .

 The full wave rectifier uses 2 diodes & a centretapped transformer  In any transformer the ends of the secondary will give out of phase voltage  i.e. for one half cycle  And at lower (negative) potential during the next half and so on . the voltage will be alternating with one end at a higher (positive) potential than the other.

Full-wave rectifier A D1 + RL B _ .

 During the first half. the top end A gets the +ve half while the bottom end B gets the –ve half  Now D1 gets forward bias and D2 gets reverse bias  Hence only D1 will conduct during this half  The current will now flow from A through D1. through RL to the centre tapping of the transformer  This produces a voltage with positive polarity as shown .

Full-wave rectifier A + RL _ B D2 .

it is referred to as Full wave rectifier  During .the next half. while D1 gets reverse bias & stops conducting  The current now flows from B through D2. the end A gets –ve half. while B gets +ve half  Now D2 gets forward bias and starts conducting. through RL in the same direction back to the centre tapping  Hence this half also gives a positive voltage  As the diode conducts during the full cycle (both halves).

Bridge rectifier A D4 D1 D2 B D3 RL + _ .

 The bridge rectifier uses 4 diodes  The circuit has 4 balanced arms (diodes)  Hence it is called as Bridge Rectifier circuit  As before. when the secondary end A is +ve going. the end B will be –ve going  The +ve voltage at A forward biases D1 & reverse biases D4  The –ve voltage at B provides forward bias for D2 and reverse biases D3 .

through RL. Thus for one half D1 & D2 conduct and for the other half D3 & D4 conduct  The circuit diagram can be redrawn omitting the non-conducting diodes for easier understanding  During the first half the current flows from A through D1. through D2 back to the secondary .

Bridge rectifier A D1 D2 RL + _ B .

current flows from B through D3. During the next half. through RL. producing a +ve signal as shown  Thus the bridge rectifier also gives a full wave output . through D4 back to the secondary  In both the cases. the current flows through RL in the same direction.

Bridge rectifier A D4 D3 RL + _ B .

Comparison  Out of the 3 rectifiers. half wave rectifier is the simplest and cheapest  But the output contains only one half  This makes it more difficult to convert the fluctuating DC to a pure DC  A centre-tapped transformer is a must for Full wave rectifier .

we may have to use a high wattage resistor to reduce the voltage to the required value  In .Comparison  The half wave and bridge rectifier circuits can also be drawn without the power transformer that case.

voltage is taken across one half of the secondary  Hence the number of turns in the secondary will be double for the centre-tapped (full wave) transformer compared to the one used for the bridge circuit  Or. the voltage output per turn is more for the bridge rectifier transformer .Comparison  In full wave rectifier.

End .