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HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT


A METHODOLOGY FOR ORGANISATIONAL CLIMATE ESTIMATION

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Are we in the right business ? Do we have the right people ? Are we in the right industries ? Are we in the right states ? Given the same country climate, why are we where we are ? is it because we have/lack Purpose Values Standards of behaviour Strategy

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Organisations are driven by human capital and it is crucial to have a scientific look at this factor of production

HRM & HRD

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HRM - deals with optimum utilization of human capital - integrative & supportive HRD - deals with development and upgradation of human capital

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HRM takes the stock of human capital as given and tries to optimally allocate it among different processes/activities such that output is maximized. HRD tries to bring about qualitative changes in this stock of human capital in accordance with the needs of the organization and corporate objectives. It tries to mould the stock as per requirements.

http://www.bized.co.uk Why Study Human Resources Management

Human Resources Management (HRM) The process of managing human resources (human capital and intellectual assets) to achieve an organizations objectives. Why Study HRM? Staffing the organization, designing jobs and teams, developing skillful employees, identifying approaches for improving their performance, and rewarding employee successesall typically labeled HRM issuesare as relevant to line managers as they are to managers in the HR department.

AN ILLUSTRATION MANAGERIAL FUNCTIONS OF HRM

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OBJECTIVES & POLICIES OF HRM

OPERATIVE FUNCTIONS OF HRM


COMPENSATION MGT

EMPLOYMENT Org design Planning

HR DEV Perf. app

HUMAN RELATIONS Motivaton

Training Recruitment Job design Selection Career pl

Job eva Morale Wage Perks Job satisfaction

Communication Grievance
Discp. action

Job analysis

Induction Quality of life Placement

Allocate Budget Manage the team

Manage the Budget

http://www.bized.co.uk Implement

Project planning

Development Appraisal

Monitor expenses

Liaise with Other Depts.

Schedule of implementation Get strategy vetted by Board Report preparation

Move the Committee Managers Mind Map Sanction Monitoring

Processing
Outgo of funds Manage enquiries Deal with customers

Design appropriate Instruments

Detailing

Human Resources Management

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Recruitment

Recruitment

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The process by which a job vacancy is identified and potential employees are notified. The nature of the recruitment process is regulated and subject to employment law. Main forms of recruitment through advertising in newspapers, magazines, trade papers and internal vacancy lists.

Recruitment

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Job description outline of the role of the job holder Person specification outline of the skills and qualities required of the post holder

Applicants may demonstrate their suitability through application form, letter or curriculum vitae (CV)

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Selection

Selection

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The process of assessing candidates and appointing a post holder Applicants short listed most suitable candidates selected Selection process varies according to organisation:

Selection

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Interview most common method Psychometric testing assessing the personality of the applicants will they fit in? Aptitude testing of applicants assessing the skills

In-tray exercise activity based around what the applicant will be doing, e.g. writing a letter to a disgruntled customer Presentation looking for different skills as well as the ideas of the candidate

Employment Legislation

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Employment Legislation

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Increasingly important aspect of the HRM role


Wide range of areas for attention Adds to the cost of the business

Even in a small business, the legislation relating to employees is important chemicals used in a hairdressing salon for example have to be carefully stored and handled to protect employees.

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Discrimination
Crucial aspects of employment legislation: Race Gender Disability

Disability is no longer an issue for employers to ignore, they must take reasonable steps to accommodate and recruit disabled workers.
Copyright: Mela, http://www.sxc.hu

Discipline

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Discipline

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Firms cannot just sack workers Wide range of procedures and steps in dealing with workplace conflict Informal meetings Formal meetings Verbal warnings Written warnings Grievance procedures Working with external agencies

Development

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Development

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Developing the employee can be regarded as investing in a valuable asset

A source of motivation A source of helping the employee fulfil potential

Training

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Training
Similar to development:

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Provides new skills for the employee Keeps the employee up to date with changes in the field Aims to improve efficiency Can be external or in-house

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Rewards Systems

Rewards Systems

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The system of pay and benefits used by the firm to reward workers Money not the only method Fringe benefits Flexibility at work Holidays, etc.

Trade Unions

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Trade Unions

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Importance of building relationships with employee representatives Role of Trade Unions has changed Importance of consultation and negotiation and working with trade unions Contributes to smooth change management and leadership

Productivity

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Productivity

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Measuring performance: How to value the workers contribution Difficulty in measuring some types of output especially in the service industry Appraisal Meant to be non-judgmental Involves the worker and a nominated appraiser Agreeing strengths, weaknesses and ways forward to help both employee and organisation

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Figure 14

Productivity Enhancements

Summary of HR Functions

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THE BUILDING BLOCKS OF HRM


Reactive and supportive HRM Integrative HRM Independent HRM

http://www.bized.co.uk REACTIVE AND SUPPORTIVE HRM - ADMINISTRATIVE EXPERT

Management of employee contribution/performance appraisal job definition Listening and responding to employees

Recruitment, salaries and remuneration, retraining, sustenance, growth


Union/association negotiations Data base, compendium

http://www.bized.co.uk INTEGRATIVE HRM - STRATEGIC PARTNER

What was a fine solution yesterday may not be valid tomorrow.


The 7 ss Strategy, systems, staff, skills, style, structure, shared values Generate a learning organization with knowledge workers

INDEPENDENT HRM

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- CHANGE AGENT/CONSULTANT
Observe the organization's movement over time at a certain level of abstraction and provide inputs for change correct age/skill distribution

ENERGY H H

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Peak Performance
Distress Boredom

Burnt out Exhausted


Recharge time

CHALLENGE
L

MANAGING STRESS

Challenge &http://www.bized.co.uk Development


H Delegate H L Beware of Dumping Tasks

Urgency
L Long term projects Leave

ANALYSING THE TASK

AN EXAMPLE

(Job Affected Well-being Scale) that has been designed http://www.bized.co.uk by Katwyk, Fox,
Spector, Kelloway (2000) for measuring the different affects that have an effect on peoples perceptions on their subjective job-related well-being.
JAWS Scale Emotion

High High (HH) High pleasure high arousal

energetic, excited, enthusiastic, inspired

ecstatic,

High Low (HL) High pleasure low arousal Low High (LH) Low pleasure high arousal

at-ease, calm, content, satisfied, relaxed angry, anxious, frightened, furious disgusted,

Low Low (LL) Low pleasure low arousal

bored, depressed, discouraged, gloomy, fatigued

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Recent Trends in Human Resource Management

Figure 11

Overall Framework for Human http://www.bized.co.uk Resource Management

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Competitive Challenges and HRM

The most pressing competitive issues facing firms: 1. Going global 2. Embracing new technology

3. Managing change
4. Managing talent, or human capital 5. Responding to the market

6. Containing costs

Competitive Advantage through People


Core Competencies Integrated knowledge sets within an organization that distinguish it from its competitors and deliver value to customers. Sustained competitive advantage through people is achieved if these human resources: Have value. Are rare and unavailable to competitors. Are difficult to imitate. Are organized for synergy.

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Challenge 1: Going Global

(contd)

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Corporate Social Responsibility The responsibility of the firm to act in the best interests of the people and communities affected by its activities Impact on HRM Different geographies, cultures, laws, and business practices Issues: Identifying capable managers and workers Developing foreign culture and work practice training programs. Adjusting compensation plans for overseas work

Challenge 1: Going Global

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Globalization The trend toward opening up foreign markets to international trade and investment Impact of globalization Anything, anywhere, anytime markets Partnerships with foreign firms Lower trade and tariff barriers NAFTA, EU, APEC trade agreements WTO and GATT

http://www.bized.co.uk Challenge 2: Embracing New Technology

Knowledge Workers Workers whose responsibilities extend beyond the physical execution of work to include planning, decision making, and problem solving. Knowledge-Based Training Online instruction Just-in-time learning via the Internet on company intranets

Influence of Technology in HRM

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Human Resources Information System (HRIS) A computerized system that provides current and accurate data for the purposes of control and decision making. Benefits: Store and retrieve of large quantities of data.

Combine and reconfigure data to create new information.


Institutionalization of organizational knowledge. Easier communications. Lower administrative costs, increased productivity and response times.

HRM IT Investment http://www.bized.co.uk Factors


Fit of the application to the firms employee base.
Ability to upgrade Increased efficiency and time savings Compatibility with current systems Availability of technical support

Time required to implement and train staff members to use HRIS


Initial and annual maintenance costs Training time required for HR and payroll

Challenge 3: Managing Change

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Types of Change Reactive change Change that occurs after external forces have already affected performance Proactive change Change initiated to take advantage of targeted opportunities Managing Change through HR Formal change management programs help to keep employees focused on the success of the business.

Challenge 4: Managing Talent, or Human Capital

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Human Capital The knowledge, skills, and capabilities of individuals that have economic value to an organization. Valuable because capital: is based on company-specific skills. is gained through long-term experience. can be expanded through development.

Challenge 5: Responding to the Market

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Total Quality Management (TQM) A set of principles and practices whose core ideas include understanding customer needs, doing things right the first time, and striving for continuous improvement. Six Sigma A process used to translate customer needs into a set of optimal tasks that are performed in concert with one another.

Challenge 5: Responding to the Market (contd)

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Reengineering and HRM Fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in cost, quality, service, and speed. Requires that managers create an environment for change.

Depends on effective leadership and communication processes.


Requires that administrative systems be reviewed and modified.

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Challenge 6: Containing Costs


Downsizing The planned elimination of jobs (head count). Layoffs Outsourcing Contracting outside the organization to have work done that formerly was done by internal employees. Offshoring The business practice of sending jobs to other countries.

HR-Leadership: emerging models


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LEADS MODEL
L E A D S

LISTENING EMPOWERING ADAPTING DELIVERING SELFUNDERSTANDING

HR-Leadership: emerging models


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GROW MODEL
G R O W

GOALS REALITY OPTIONS WILL

HR_Leadership: emerging models


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BOOST MODEL
B O O S T

BALANCE OBSERVE OWNERSHIP SPECIFIC TIME

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Conclusion

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Thank You