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Engineering Materials An Overview

Why Study Materials ???

Ashby,: Material Selection in Mechanical Design

Engineering Materials

Ferrous metals: carbon-, alloy-, stainless-, tool-and-die steels Non-ferrous metals: aluminum, magnesium, copper, nickel, titanium, superalloys, refractory metals, beryllium, zirconium, low-melting alloys, gold, silver, platinum, Plastics: thermoplastics (acrylic, nylon, polyethylene, ABS,) thermosets (epoxies, Polymides, Phenolics, ) elastomers (rubbers, silicones, polyurethanes, ) Ceramics, Glasses, Graphite, Diamond, Cubic Boron Nitride Composites: reinforced plastics, metal-, ceramic matrix composites Nanomaterials, shape-memory alloys, superconductors,

Properties of materials

Mechanical properties of materials Strength, Toughness, Hardness, Ductility, Elasticity, Fatigue and Creep Physical properties Density, Specific heat, Melting and boiling point, Thermal expansion and conductivity, Electrical and magnetic properties Chemical properties Oxidation, Corrosion, Flammability, Toxicity,

Material Specification Chemical composition Mechanical properties Strength, hardness (under various conditions: temperature, humidity, pressure) Physical properties density, optical, electrical, magnetic Environmental green, recycling

Ferrous Metals
Cast irons Steels

Non-ferrous metals
Aluminum and its alloys Copper and its alloys Magnesium and its alloys Nickel and its alloys Titanium and its alloys Zinc and its alloys Lead & Tin Refractory metals Precious metals

Super alloys
Iron-based Nickel-based Cobalt-based

General Properties and Applications of Ferrous Alloys

Ferrous alloys are useful metals in terms of mechanical, physical and chemical properties. Alloys contain iron as their base metal. Carbon steels are least expensive of all metals while stainless steels is costly.

Carbon and alloy steels Carbon steels Classified as low, medium and high: 1. Low-carbon steel or mild steel, < 0.3%C, bolts, nuts and sheet plates. 2. Medium-carbon steel, 0.3% ~ 0.6%C, machinery, automotive and agricultural equipment. 3. High-carbon steel, > 0.60% C, springs, cutlery, cable.

Carbon and alloy steels Alloy steels Steels containing significant amounts of alloying elements. Structural-grade alloy steels used for construction industries due to high strength. Other alloy steels are used for its strength, hardness, resistance to creep and fatigue, and toughness. It may heat treated to obtain the desired properties.

Carbon and alloy steels High-strength low-alloy steels Improved strength-to-weight ratio. Used in automobile bodies to reduce weight and in agricultural equipment. Some examples are: 1. Dual-phase steels 2. Micro alloyed steels 3. Nano-alloyed steels

Stainless steels Characterized by their corrosion resistance, high strength and ductility, and high chromium content. Stainless as a film of chromium oxide protects the metal from corrosion.

Stainless steels Five types of stainless steels: 1. Austenitic steels 2. Ferritic steels 3. Martensitic steels 4. Precipitation-hardening (PH) steels 5. Duplex-structure steels

Typical Selection of Carbon and Alloy Steels for Various Applications

T A B L E 5 . 1 P r o d u c t
A i f ro c a fr t g i n g s , t u b i n g , f i t n g s A u t o m o b i l e b o d i e s A x l e s B a l b e a r i n g s a n d r a c e s B o l t s C a m s h a f t s C h a i n s ( t r a n s m i s i o n ) C o i l s p r i n g s C o n e c t i n g r o d s C r a n k s h a f t s ( f o r g e d )

S t e l
4 1 4 0 , 8 7 4 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 4 0 , 4 1 4 0 5 2 1 0 1 0 3 5 , 4 0 4 2 , 4 8 1 5 1 0 2 0 , 1 0 4 0 3 1 3 5 , 3 1 4 0 4 0 6 3 1 0 4 0 , 3 1 4 1 , 4 3 4 0 1 0 4 5 , 1 4 5 , 3 1 3 5 , 3 1 4 0

P r o d u c t
D i f e r n t i a l g e a r s G e a r s ( c a r a n d t r u c k ) L a n d i n g e a r L o c k w a s h e r s N u t s R a i l r o a d r a i l s a n d w h e l s S p r i n g s ( c o i l ) S p r i n g s ( l e a f ) T u b i n g W i r e W i r e ( m u s i c )

S t e l
4 0 2 3 4 0 2 7 , 4 0 3 2 4 1 4 0 , 4 3 4 0 , 8 7 4 0 1 0 6 0 3 1 3 0 1 0 8 0 1 0 9 5 , 4 0 6 3 , 6 1 5 0 1 0 8 5 , 4 0 6 3 , 9 2 6 0 , 6 1 5 0 1 0 4 0 1 0 4 5 , 1 0 5 1 0 8 5

Mechanical Properties of Selected Carbon and Alloy Steels in Various Conditions

T TH A yS B pt L ie E co 5 ay . 2 lc M ee cl he as no io ct ah la P ri oe pd ern t t i R el so o f , S l t e d C a r b n n d A l N o r m a l i z e d , a n d A n e a l e d C o n d i t o n
A I S I C o n d i t o n U l t i m a t e YE i e l d l o n g a t i o n i n R e d u c t i o n o f H a r d n e s t e n s i l e S t r e n g t h 5 0 m a m r ( %e ) a ( % ( ) H B ) s t r e n g t h ( M P a ) ( M P a ) 4 8 3 4 6 3 6 5 9 1 4 3 4 1 3 0 3 5 6 7 1 3 1 3 9 3 2 9 4 3 6 6 1 1 1 0 1 0 5 8 6 1 2 1 7 2 9 3 9 6 5 5 2 4 1 2 0 2 9 3 6 1 5 3 7 5 2 4 4 5 1 7 4 8 9 1 5 9 1 9 5 7 2 6 2 6 8 9 4 2 2 4 5 0 1 9 7 1 2 7 9 8 6 1 1 2 3 6 3 6 3 7 4 4 7 2 2 4 9 2 1 7 6 3 2 3 8 5 2 6 5 9 1 8 3 5 3 6 3 5 7 3 1 6 2 1 4 9

1 0 2 0

1 0 8 0

3 1 4 0 4 3 4 0 8 6 2 0

A s r o l e d N o r m a l i z e d A n e a l e d A s r o l e d N o r m a l i z e d A n e a l e d N o r m a l i z e d A n e a l e d N o r m a l i z e d A n e a l e d N o r m a l i z e d A n e a l e d

AISI Designation for High-Strength Sheet Steel

TABLE 5.3 Yield Strength psi x 10 35 40 45 50 60 70 80 100 120 140

Chemical Composition S = structural alloy X = low alloy K = killed W = weathering

Deoxidation Practice F = killed plus sulfide inclusion control

MPa 240 275 310 350 415 485 550 690 830 970

O = nonkilled D = dual phase

Room-Temperature Mechanical Properties and Applications of Annealed Stainless Steels

TABLE 5.4 Room-Temperature Mechanical Properties and Typical Applications of Selected Annealed Stainless Steels Ultimate tensile Yield Elongation AISI strength strength in 50 mm (UNS) (MPa) (MPa) (%) Characteristics and typical applications 303 550620 240260 5350 Screw machine products, shafts, valves, bolts, (S30300) bushings, and nuts; aircraft fittings; bolts; nuts; rivets; screws; studs. 304 (S30400) 316 (S31600) 565620 240290 6055 Chemical and food processing equipment, brewing equipment, cryogenic vessels, gutters, downspouts, and flashings. High corrosion resistance and high creep strength. Chemical and pulp handling equipment, photographic equipment, brandy vats, fertilizer parts, ketchup cooking kettles, and yeast tubs. Machine parts, pump shafts, bolts, bushings, coal chutes, cutlery, tackle, hardware, jet engine parts, mining machinery, rifle barrels, screws, and valves. Aircraft fittings, bolts, nuts, fire extinguisher inserts, rivets, and screws.




410 (S41000) 416 (S41600)







Tool and die steels Designed for high strength, impact toughness, and wear resistance at a range of temperatures.

Basic Types of Tool and Die Steels

T A B L E 5 . 5 T y p e H i g h s p e d H o t w o r k A I S I M (s m o le y b d e n u m b a ) T ( t u n g s t e n b a s e ) H 1 ti o H 1 9 ( c h r o m u m b a s e ) H 2 0 tt o H 3 9 ( t u n g s e n b a s e ) H 4a 0s td o H 5 9 (e m o l) y b e n u m b D (h hm ig g) h c a ri b o n ,u h i c h r o m A (i m en d ih u m a ln o y ,g a r a r d e i ) O ( o i l h a r d e n i n g ) S P 1 tr o P 1 9 ( l o w c a b o n ) P 2 0 t) o P 3 9 ( o t h e r s L ( l o w a l o y ) F () c a r b o n t u n g s t e n W

C o l d w o r k S h o c k r e s i s t i n g M o l d s t e l s S p e c i a l p u r p o s e W a t e r h a r d e n i n g

Processing and Service Characteristics of Common Tool and Die Steels

TABLE 5.6 Processing and Service Characteristics of Common Tool and Die Steels
AISI designation M2 T1 T5 H11, 12, 13 A2 A9 D2 D3 H21 H26 P20 P21 W1, W2 Resistance to decarburization Medium High Low Medium Medium Medium Medium Medium Medium Medium High High Highest Resistance to cracking Medium High Medium Highest Highest Highest Highest High High High High Highest Medium Approximate hardness (HRC) 6065 6065 6065 3855 5762 3556 5461 5461 3654 4358 2837 3040 5064 Machinability Medium Medium Medium Medium to high Medium Medium Low Low Medium Medium Medium to high Medium Highest Toughness Low Low Low Very high Medium High Low Low High Medium High Medium High Resistance to softening Very high Very high Highest High High High High High High Very high Low Medium Low Resistance to wear Very high Very high Very high Medium High Medium to high High to very high Very high Medium to high High Low to medium Medium Low to medium

Source: Adapted from Tool Steels, American Iron and Steel Institute, 1978.

Aluminium and aluminium alloys

Factors for selecting are: 1. High strength to weight ratio 2. Resistance to corrosion 3. High thermal and electrical conductivity 4. Ease of machinability 5. Non-magnetic

Magnesium and magnesium alloys

Magnesium (Mg) is the lightest metal. Alloys are used in structural and nonstructural applications. Typical uses of magnesium alloys are aircraft and missile components. Also has good vibration-damping characteristics.

Copper and copper alloys Copper alloys have electrical and mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, thermal conductivity and wear resistance. Applications are electronic components, springs and heat exchangers. Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc. Bronze is an alloy of copper and tin.

Nickel and nickel alloys Nickel (Ni) has strength, toughness, and corrosion resistance to metals. Used in stainless steels and nickel-base alloys. Alloys are used for high temperature applications, such as jet-engine components and rockets.

Superalloys Superalloys are high-temperature alloys use in jet engines, gas turbines and reciprocating engines.

Titanium and titanium alloys Titanium (Ti) is expensive, has high strengthto-weight ratio and corrosion resistance. Used as components for aircrafts, jet-engines, racing-cars and marine crafts.

Refractory metals Refractory metals have a high melting point and retain their strength at elevated temperatures. Applications are electronics, nuclear power and chemical industries. Molybdenum, columbium, tungsten, and tantalum are referred to as refractory metal.

Other nonferrous metals 1. Beryllium 2. Zirconium 3. Low-melting-point metals: - Lead - Zinc - Tin 4. Precious metals: - Gold - Silver - Platinum

Special metals and alloys 1. Shape-memory alloys (i.e. eyeglass frame, helical spring) 2. Amorphous alloys (Metallic Glass) 3. Nanomaterials 4. Metal foams

Heat Treatment of Metals Annealing

Full annealing Normalising (faster rate of cooling) Recovery annealing (longer holding time, slower rate of cooling,) Stress relieving (lower temperature)

Martensite formation in steel

Austenitizing (conversion to austenite) Quenching (control cooling rate Tempering (reduce brittleness)

Heat Treatment of Metals Precipitation hardening

Solution treatment (-phase conversion) quenching precipitation treatment (aging)

Surface hardening
Carburizing Nitriding Carbonitriding Chromizing and Boronizing

Heat Treatment of Steel

Precipitation Hardening

Solution treatment Quenching Precipitation treatment

Furnaces for Heat Treatment Fuel fire furnaces

gas oil

Electric furnaces
batch furnaces
box furnaces - door car-bottom furnaces - track for moving large parts bell-type furnaces - cover/bell lifted by gantry crane

continuous furnaces

Furnaces for Heat Treatment Vacuum furnaces Salt-bath furnaces Fluidized-bed furnaces Some of the furnaces have special atmosphere requirements, such as carbon- and nitrogen- rich atmosphere.

Surface Hardening Methods Flame hardening Induction heating High-frequency resistance heating Electron beam heating Laser beam heating

Surface Hardening Methods

Induction heating

High frequency resistance heating

Classification of Ceramics Ceramics

Traditional ceramics New ceramics Glass

Ceramics Traditional ceramics

clays: kaolinite silica: quartz, sandstone alumina silicon carbide

New ceramics
oxide ceramics : alumina carbides : silicon carbide, titanium carbide, etc. nitrides : silicon nitride, boron nitiride, etc.

Glass Glass products

window glass containers light bulb glass laboratory glass glass fibers optical glass

Glass ceramics - polycrystalline structure

Classification of Polymers
Thermoplastics Thermosets Elastomers

Polymers Thermoplastics - reversible in phase by heating and cooling. Solid phase at room temperature and liquid phase at elevated temperature. Thermosets - irreversible in phase by heating and cooling. Change to liquid phase when heated, then follow with an irreversible exothermic chemical reaction. Remain in solid phase subsequently. Elastomers - Rubbers

Acetals Acrylics - PMMA Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene - ABS Cellulosics Fluoropolymers - PTFE , Teflon Polyamides (PA) - Nylons, Kevlar Polysters - PET Polyethylene (PE) - HDPE, LDPE Polypropylene (PP) Polystyrene (PS) Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)

Thermosets Amino resins Epoxies Phenolics Polyesters Polyurethanes Silicones

Elastomers Natural rubber Synthetic rubbers

butadiene rubber butyl rubber chloroprene rubber ethylene-propylene rubber isoprene rubber nitrile rubber polyurethanes silicones styrene-butadiene rubber thermoplastic elastomers

Classification of Composite Materials

Metal Matrix Composites Ceramic Matrix Composites Polymer Matrix Composites

Composite Materials Metal Matrix Composites (MMC) Mixture of ceramics and metals reinforced by strong, high-stiffness fibers Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC) Ceramics such as aluminum oxide and silicon carbide embedded with fibers for improved properties, especially high temperature applications. Polymer Matrix Composites (PMC) Thermosets or thermoplastics mixed with fiber

Composite Materials

1D fibre

Woven fabric

Random fibre

Composite Materials

Taxonomy of Materials Selection

Ashby,: Material Selection in Mechanical Design