Chapter 1 Introduction to Systems Design and Analysis

Systems Analysis and Design Kendall and Kendall Sixth Edition

Readings & Major Topics
Readings
Chapter 1 (p. 1) in the textbook

Major Topics
Information systems SDLC (Systems Development Life Cycle) Phases of analysis and design CASE tools
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Information
 What is information?  Domain dependent Facts, concepts, or instructions; any sort of knowledge or supposition which can be communicated.  Organizational resource  Must be managed as carefully as other resources (e.g., raw material, labor)  Costs are associated with information processing  Production, distribution, security, storage, retrieval, …  Information processing must be managed to take full advantage of its potential
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Systems Analysis & Design
Goals
Analyze data input, processing or transforming data, data storage, and information output within the context of a particular business Analyze, design, and implement improvements in the functioning of a business via the use of computerized information systems
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How can we Analyze and Design Systems? Intuitive approach Pros and Cons? Systematic approach Pros and cons? 1-5 .

Systems Analysis and Design in this Course Systematic approach to identifying problems. and designing computerized information systems to solve a problem 1-6 . opportunities. analyzing the information flows in organizations. and objectives.

Systems Analyst Performs systems analysis and design Assesses how businesses function by examining the inputting and processing of data and the outputting of information with the intent of improving organizational processes 1-7 .

but rather entails a small modification or decision affecting a single department  Your role as a systems analyst: agent of change Catalyst for change (i.Different Types of Systems Analysts  Two major types  Outside consultants to businesses  Hired specifically to address information systems issues within a business  Supporting experts (within a business you are regularly employed)  Not a full-blown systems project.e.. improvements to the business that can be done via information systems) 1-8 .

1-9 .Interactions of a Systems Analyst A systems analyst interacts with users at different levels in the organization User managers Operations workers Systems managers Systems designers Programmers ….

including analysis of possible risks ….Qualities of a Systems Analyst  Analysts are problem solvers.  Communication skills  Analysts must be ethical with users and customers  ACM‟s (Association of Computing Machinery) code of ethics …  respect the privacy of others Give comprehensive and thorough evaluations of computer systems and their impacts.. 1-10 .

Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) SDLC is a systematic approach to solving business problems It is divided into seven phases Each phase has unique activities A phase is never accomplished as a separate phase Several activities can occur simultaneously Activities may be repeated 1-11 .

and objectives  Identifying  Problems: don‟t want to address the wrong problems  Opportunities: situations that can be improved  Objectives: how can the organization reach its objectives via computerized IS  Personnel involved  Analyst  User managers  Systems managers 1-12 . opportunities.Phase 1: Identifying problems.

Phase 2: Determining Information Requirement  Understand how the business functions and have complete information on the people. and the why (why is it done this way) 1-13 . and procedures  Interview management. how (procedures). what (business activities). where (environment in which the work takes place). goals. when (timing). operations personnel  Gather systems/operating documents  Use questionnaires  Observe the system and personnel involved  Learn the details of the current system functions: who (people involved). data.

Phase 2: Determining Information Requirement (cont‟d) Personnel involved Analyst User managers Operations workers Systems managers Information Analyst (phases 1 and 2) 1-14 .

Phase 3: Analyzing Systems Needs  Analyzing system needs  Create data flow diagrams  Document procedural logic for data flow diagram processes  Complete the data dictionary  Analyze structured decisions  Make semistructured decisions (decisions taken under risk)  Prepare and present the system proposal  Recommend the optimal solution to management 1-15 .

Phase 3: Analyzing Systems Needs (cont‟d) Analyst makes recommendations to management Management decide whether to continue or not Personnel involved Analyst User managers Systems managers 1-16 .

Phase 4: Designing the Recommended System  Accomplish the logical design of the information system  Design the user interface  Design output  Design input  Design files and/or database  Design control and backup procedures  Produce decision trees or tables  Produce program specifications 1-17 .

Phase 4: Designing the Recommended System (cont‟d) Personnel involved Analyst System designer User managers Operations workers Systems managers 1-18 .

and Web sites with Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) 1-19 . Nassi-Schneiderman charts.Phase 5: Developing and Documenting Software  Develop any original software that is needed  Design computer programs using structure charts. and pseudocode  Walkthrough program design  Write computer programs  Document software with help files. procedure manuals.

Phase 5: Developing and Documenting Software (cont‟d) Personnel involved Analyst System designer Programmers Systems managers 1-20 .

Phase 6: Testing and Maintaining the system  Testing and maintaining the system  Test and debug computer programs  Test the computer system  Enhance system  Personnel involved  Analyst  System designer  Programmers  Systems management 1-21 .

and Enhancing existing software Time spent on maintenance typically ranges from 48-60 percent of total time 1-22 .System Maintenance Maintenance: starts in phase 6 but carried out routinely throughout the life of the IS System maintenance is Removing undetected errors.

hardware.System Enhancements Systems are enhanced for the following reasons: Adding additional features to the system Business and governmental requirements change over time Technology. and software are rapidly changing 1-23 .

Phase 7: Implementing and Evaluating the System  Implementing and evaluating the system  Plan conversion from the old system to the new one  Train users  Purchase and install new equipment  Convert files  Install system  Review and evaluate system: whether the intended users are indeed using the system 1-24 .

Phase 7: Implementing and Evaluating the System (cont‟d) Personnel involved Analyst System designer Programmers User managers Operations workers Systems managers 1-25 .

microcomputer-based software packages for systems analysis and design  Four reasons for using CASE tools are:  To increase analyst productivity  Facilitate communication among analysts and users  Providing continuity between life cycle phases  To assess the impact of maintenance 1-26 .CASE Tools  Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE)  CASE tools are automated.

CASE Tool Categories CASE tools may be divided into several categories Upper CASE (also called front-end CASE) tools. performing both upper and lower CASE functions 1-27 . These tools generate computer language source code from CASE design Integrated CASE. used to perform analysis and design Lower CASE (also called back-end CASE).

Upper CASE Upper CASE tools Create and modify the system design Store data in a project repository The repository is a collection of records. diagrams. reports. and other project information These CASE tools model organizational requirements and define system boundaries 1-28 . elements. screens.

Lower CASE Lower CASE tools generate computer source code from the CASE design Source code may usually be generated in several languages 1-29 .

Lower CASE: Advantages of Generating Code Time to develop new systems decreases The time to maintain generated code is less than to maintain traditional systems Computer programs may be generated in more than one language CASE design may be purchased from thirdparty vendors and tailored to organizational needs Generated code is free from program coding errors 1-30 .

and converted into repository entities Uses Computer-Assisted Reengineering (CARE) software 1-31 .Reverse Engineering Reverse engineering is generating the CASE design from computer program code Source code is examined. analyzed.

records. if the program is online Report layouts for batch programs A structure chart showing the hierarchy of the modules in the program Database design and relationships 1-32 . and field Screen designs.Reverse Engineering Produces Depending on the tool set used: Data structures and elements. describing the files.

Advantages of Reverse Engineering It has the following advantages: Reduced system maintenance time Program documentation is produced for loosely documented programs Structured programs may be generated from unstructured. older programs Future system maintenance is easier to implement Unused portions of programs may be eliminated 1-33 .

Chapter 2 Information Gathering: Interactive Methods Systems Analysis and Design Kendall and Kendall Sixth Edition .

Readings & Major Topics Readings Chapter 4 in the textbook (p. 89) Major Topics Interviewing techniques Joint Application Design (JAD) Questionnaires 4-35 .

Information Gathering in SDLC Phase 1 Identifying problems. opportunities. and objectives Phase 7 Implementing and evaluating the system Phase 2 Determining information requirements Phase 6 Testing and maintaining the system Phase 3 Analyzing systems needs Phase 5 Developing and documenting software Phase 4 Designing the recommended system 4-36 .

Information Gathering: Two Approaches
 Interactive: talking with and listening to people in the organization through a series of carefully composed questions

 Unobtrusive: do not require the same degree of interactivity between analysts and users
 Our focus: Interactive methods
 Interviewing  JAD  Questionnaires  Example: observing

 Example: interviewing

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Interviewing
 Important method for collecting data on information system requirements  Directed conversation with a specific purpose that uses Q&A format  Reveals information about
Interviewee opinions Feelings about the current state of the system Organizational and personal goals Informal procedures
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Planning the Interview
Five steps in planning the interview are
Reading background material Establishing interview objectives Deciding whom to interview Preparing the interviewee Deciding on question types and structure

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Before the Interview
Contact the interviewee and confirm the interview Dress appropriately Arrive a little early Affirm that you are present and ready to begin the interview

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Recording the Interview Interviews can be recorded with tape recorders or notes Audio recording should be done with permission and understanding 4-41 .

Advantages of Audio Recording the Interview Providing a completely accurate record of what each person said Freeing the interviewer to listen and respond more rapidly Allowing better eye contact and better rapport Allowing replay of the interview for other team members 4-42 .

Disadvantages of Audio Recording the Interview Possibly making the interviewee nervous and less apt to respond freely Difficulty in locating important passages on a long tape 4-43 .

Note Taking During Interviews: Pros and Cons Pros Keeping the interviewer alert Aiding recall of important interview trends Showing interviewer interest in the interview Cons Losing vital eye contact Losing the train of conversation Causing excessive attention to facts and less attention to feelings 4-44 .

Beginning the Interview Shake hands Remind them of your name and why you are there Take out note pad or tape recorder Make sure tape recorder is working correctly 4-45 .

Opening Questions Start with pleasant conversation Listen closely to early responses Pick up on vocabulary Look for metaphors “The accounting department is a zoo” “We‟re one big family here” 4-46 .

During the Interview The interview should not exceed 45 minutes to one hour Make sure that you are understanding what the interviewee is telling you Ask for definitions if needed 4-47 .

Closing the Interview Always ask “Is there anything else that you would like to add?” Ask whom you should talk with next Set up any future appointments Thank them for their time and shake hands 4-48 .

then more detail Review the report with the respondent 4-49 .Interview Report Write as soon as possible after the interview Provide an initial summary.

Question Types There are two basic types of interview questions: Open-ended Closed 4-50 .

Open-Ended Questions Allow interviewees to respond how they wish. how is it processed? Appropriate when the analyst is interested in breadth and depth of reply 4-51 . and to what length they wish E.: Once the data is submitted via the Web site.g.

Advantages of Open-Ended Questions Putting the interviewee at ease Allowing the interviewer to pick up on the interviewee's vocabulary Providing richness of detail Revealing avenues of further questioning that may have gone untapped Allows more spontaneity Useful if the interviewer is unprepared 4-52 .

Disadvantages of Open-Ended Questions May result in too much irrelevant detail Possibly losing control of the interview May take too much time for the amount of useful information gained Potentially seeming that the interviewer is unprepared Possibly giving the impression that the interviewer is on a "fishing expedition” 4-53 .

: On average.g. reliable data which is easy to analyze 4-54 .Closed Interview Questions Limit the number of possible responses E. how many calls does the call center receive monthly? Appropriate for generating precise.

Advantages of Closed Interview Questions Saving interview time Easily comparing interviews Getting to the point Keeping control of the interview Covering a large area quickly Getting to relevant data 4-55 .

Disadvantages of Closed Interview Questions Boring for the interviewee Failure to obtain rich detail Missing main ideas Failing to build rapport between interviewer and interviewee 4-56 .

: Do you agree or disagree that ecommerce on the Web lacks security? 4-57 .g.: Do you want to receive a printout of your account status every month? E.Bipolar Questions Questions that may be answered with a „yes‟ or „no‟ or „agree‟ or „disagree‟ E.g.

g.: Please give an illustration of the security problems you‟re experiencing with your online systems? 4-58 .Probing Questions  Elicit more detail about previous questions  The purpose of probing questions is  To get more meaning  To clarify  To draw out and expand on the interviewee's point  E.

Tradeoffs: Open-ended and Closed Questions  Reliability of data  Efficient use of time  Precision of data  Breadth and depth  Interviewer skill required  Ease of analysis 4-59 .

Question Pitfalls  Leading questions: imply an answer  Tend to guide interviewees into responses apparently desired by the interviewer  Should be avoided to reduce bias and improve reliability and validity  E.: What decisions are made during a typical day and how do you make them? 4-60 .g.: You agree with other managers that inventory control should be computerized. don‟t you?  Double-barreled questions: two questions in one  Interviewees may answer only one question.g. leading to difficulties in interpretation  E.

Question Sequencing There are three basic ways of structuring interviews: Pyramid Funnel Diamond 4-61 .

Pyramid Structure Begins with very detailed. often closed questions Expands by allowing open-ended questions and more generalized responses Is useful if interviewees need to be warmed up to the topic or seem reluctant to address the topic 4-62 .

open-ended questions Concludes by narrowing the possible responses using closed questions Provides an easy.Funnel Structure Begins with generalized. non-threatening way to begin an interview Is useful when the interviewee feels emotionally about the topic 4-63 .

Diamond Structure A diamond-shaped structure begins in a very specific way Then more general issues are examined Concludes with specific questions Is useful in keeping the interviewee's interest and attention through a variety of questions 4-64 .

Joint Application Design (JAD)  Can replace a series of 1-on-1 interviews  Allows the analyst to accomplish requirements analysis and design the user interface with the users in a group setting  Systems analysts (SAs): passive role  SAs Should be present  May give expert opinions about any disproportionate costs of solutions 4-65 .

how. sending. monitoring and assigning. recording. what. processing. where. receipt processing/tacking. and why 4-66 .Topics Discussed in JAD  Requirements analysis and user interface design  But could be used at any appropriate phase of SDLC  Address topics such as  Planning. receiving. and evaluating  For each topic. ask:  Who.

… (8 to 12) Observers (technical experts) A scribe: write down everything A session leader  Senior person: visible symbol of organizational commitment May be outside management consultant 4-67 . executives.JAD Personnel Analysts Users.

g.. in comfortable surroundings Minimize the daily distractions and responsibilities of the participants‟ regular work Use of group decision support facilities (e. …) Make use everybody will be able to attend Orientation meeting (1/2 day) a week before the workshop 4-68 . networked computers.Preparing a JAD Session Two-to-four-day sessions offsite If possible. projection system. away from the organization.

When to Use JAD Users are restless and want something new The organizational culture supports joint problem-solving behaviors Analysts forecast an increase in the number of ideas using JAD Personnel may be absent from their jobs for the length of time required 4-69 .

compared with traditional interviewing (15%) Rapid development of systems Improved user ownership of the system Creative idea production is improved 4-70 .Benefits of JAD Time is saved.

the session may not go very well If the follow-up report is incomplete.Drawbacks of Using JAD Requires a large block of time be available for all session participants If preparation is incomplete. the session may not be successful The organizational skills and culture may not be conducive to a JAD session 4-71 .

Questionnaires  Also called Surveys  Respondent: person answering a questionnaire (or survey)  Useful in gathering information from key organization members about  Attitudes: what people say they want (in the new system)  Beliefs: what people think is actually true  Behaviors: what organizational members do  Characteristics: properties of people or things 4-72 .

When to Use Questionnaires  Organization members are widely dispersed  Many members are involved with the project  Exploratory work is needed: quantify what was found in interviews  Problem solving prior to interviews is necessary  May be used in conjunction with interviews  How widespread or limited an opinion expressed in an interview really is  Raise important issues before interviews are scheduled  Follow-up unclear questionnaire responses with interviews  Design questionnaires based on what was discovered in interviews 4-73 .

Question Types  Questions are designed as either  Open-ended  Try to anticipate the response you will get  Well suited for getting opinions  Useful in explanatory situations  Useful when it is impossible to list effectively all possible responses to a question  Closed  Use when all the options may be listed  When the options are mutually exclusive 4-74 .

Closed Questions Openended Slow High High Easy Difficult Closed Fast Low Low Difficult Easy 4-75 Speed of completion Exploratory nature Breadth and depth Ease of preparation Ease of analysis .Open-Ended vs.

Questionnaire Language  Simple: use the language of respondents whenever possible  Specific and short questions  Free of bias  Not patronizing: avoid low-level language choices  Technically accurate  Right question to the right person: addressed to those who are knowledgeable  Appropriate for the reading level of the respondent 4-76 .

Using Scales in Questionnaires  Assigning numbers or other symbols to an attribute/characteristic for the sake of measuring that attribute/characteristic  Devised to have respondents act as judges for the subject of the questionnaire 4-77 .

Measurement Scales There are four different forms of measurement scales: Nominal Ordinal Interval Ratio 4-78 .

Nominal Scales Nominal scales are used to classify things into categories What type of software do you use the most? 1 = Word Processor 2 = Spreadsheet 3 = Database 4 = An Email Program 4-79 .

Very Helpful 3. Moderately Helpful 4. Extremely Helpful 2.Ordinal Scales Allow classification Ordinal scales also imply rank ordering The support staff of the Technical Support Group is: 1. Not Very Helpful 5. Not Helpful At All 4-80 .

Interval Scales An interval scale is used when the intervals are equal There is no absolute zero How useful is the support given by the Technical Support Group? NOT USEFUL EXTREMELY AT ALL USEFUL 1 2 3 4 5 4-81 .

Ratio Scales The intervals between numbers are equal Ratio scales have an absolute zero Approximately how many hours do you spend on the Internet daily? 0 2 4 6 8 4-82 .

Guidelines for Using Scales Use a ratio scale when intervals are equal and there is an absolute zero Use an interval scale when intervals are equal but there is no absolute zero Use an ordinal scale when the intervals are not equal but classes can be ranked Use a nominal scale when classifying but not ranking 4-83 .

Validity and Reliability Reliability: Consistency in response Getting the same results if the same questionnaire was administered again under the same conditions Validity: Degree to which the question measures what the analyst intends to measure 4-84 .

Problems Associated With Poorly Constructed Scales Leniency: caused by easy raters Central tendency: respondents rate everything as average Halo effect: impression formed in one question carries into the next question 4-85 .

Questionnaire Format Allow ample white space Allow enough space for responses to be typed for open-ended questions Ask respondents to clearly mark their answers Be consistent in style 4-86 .

Order of Questions Most important questions go first Similar topics should be clustered together Controversial questions should be positioned after less controversial questions 4-87 .

and return postage Administering over the Web or via email 4-88 . instructions.Methods of Administering Questionnaires Convening All concerned respondents together at one time Personally administering the questionnaire Allowing respondents to self-administer the questionnaire Mailing questionnaires: supply deadlines.

Chapter 3 Data Flow Diagrams Systems Analysis and Design Kendall and Kendall Sixth Edition .

Readings & Major Topics Readings Chapter 7 in the textbook (p. 191) Major Topics Data flow diagram symbols Data flow diagram levels Creating data flow diagrams Physical and logical data flow diagrams Partitioning 90 .

opportunities.Data Flow Diagrams in SDLC Phase 1 Identifying problems. and objectives Phase 7 Implementing and evaluating the system Phase 2 Determining information requirements Phase 6 Testing and maintaining the system Phase 3 Analyzing systems needs Phase 5 Developing and documenting software Phase 4 Designing the recommended system 91 .

Data Flow Diagrams (DFDs) One of the main methods available for analyzing data-oriented systems DFD: a graphical representation of data movement through the organization Processes Transforming of data as it moves through a variety of processes within the enterprise Inputs/outputs Data storage 92 .

Why DFDs? Freedom from committing to the technical implementation too early Understanding of the interrelationships of systems and subsystems Communicating current system knowledge to users 93 .

Basic Symbols in DFDs A double square for an external entity--a source or destination of data An arrow for movement of data from one point to another A rectangle with rounded corners for the occurrence of transforming process An open-ended rectangle for a data store 94 .

describing that entity Customer 95 .External Entities Represent people or organizations outside of the system being studied Shows the initial source and final recipient of data and information Should be named with a noun.

External Entities (cont‟d) External entities may be A person. such as CUSTOMER or STUDENT A company or organization. such as the INVENTORY CONTROL SYSTEM 96 . such as ORDER FULFILLMENT Another system or subsystem. such as BANK or SUPPLIER Another department within the company.

an activity 1 Add New Customer 2 Customer Inquiry Subsystem Names should be in the form verbadjective-noun The exception is a process that represents an entire system or subsystem 97 .Processes Represent either: A whole system A subsystem Work being done.

D3  Include any data stored.Data Stores Name with a noun. D2. such as D1. such as: A A A A computer file or database transaction file D1 set of tables manual file of records Customer Master 98 . describing the data  Data stores are usually given a unique reference number.

or thing that moves through the system Names should be a noun that describes the data moving through the system Arrowhead indicates the flow direction Use double headed-arrows only when a process is reading data and updating the data on the same table or file 99 .New Customer Data Flow Customer Record Shows the data about a person. place.

Data Flow Diagram Levels Data flow diagrams are built in levels The top level is the Context level DFD Each process may explode to a lower level The lower level diagram number is the same as the parent process number Processes that do not create a child diagram are called primitive 100 .

Data Flow Diagram Levels (cont‟d) Different levels of DFDs One (1) Context level DFD One (1) Diagram 0 One or more Child Diagrams 101 .

the general system. representing the entire system to be designed/analyzed Highest-level diagram Overview including basic inputs. and basic outputs  The process is given the number zero (0)  Includes all external entities as well as major data flow to and from them  The diagram does not contain any data stores 102 .Context Level DFD  Contains only one process.

e..Diagram 0 Diagram 0 is the explosion of the context level diagram (i. process 0) Should include up 9 processes Any more will result in a cluttered diagram Processes are numbered with an integer The major data stores and all external entities are included in Diagram 0 103 .

Child Diagrams  Each process on diagram zero may be (if not primitive) exploded to create a child diagram  Each process on a lower-level diagram may be (if not primitive) exploded to create another child diagram  A diagram found below Diagram 0 is given the same number as its parent process  Process 3 in Diagram 0 would explode to Diagram 3 104 .

a period.7 Calculate Customer Discount 105 . the processes would be numbered 3.2 on Diagram 3.1.Child Diagrams (cont‟d)  Each process is numbered with the parent diagram number.2.2. and a unique child number  Examples are:  On Diagram 3.2 3.2.3 and so on  3.2 Edit Customer 5. a child of process 5. a child of process 3  5. 3.7 on Diagram 5. 3.2.

Child Diagrams (cont‟d) External entities are usually not shown on the child diagrams below Diagram 0 If the parent process has data flow connecting to a data store. the child diagram may include the data store as well 106 .

may be included on a child diagram  Handling of exceptions is generally ignored for the first two levels 107 . such as an error line.Child Diagrams (cont‟d)  A lower-level diagram may contain data stores not shown on the parent process. such as  A file containing a table of information (such as a tax table)  A file linking two processes on the child diagram  Minor data flow.

Child Diagrams (cont‟d) Vertical Balancing rule A child diagram cannot produce output or receive input that the parent process does not also produce or receive Must be respected while designing DFDs 108 .

Child Diagrams (cont‟d)
An interface data flow is data that are input or output from a child diagram that matches the parent diagram data flow Processes that do not create a child diagram are called primitive processes
Logic is written for these processes (will be discussed in another chapter)
109

Data Flow Diagram Errors
A process with only input data flow or only output data flow from it
1 Add New Customer 2 Add New Customer

110

Data Flow Diagram Errors (cont‟d)
 Data stores or external entities are connected directly to each other, in any combination
Customer

D1

Customer

Vendor

D2

Vendor Master

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Data Flow Diagram Errors (cont‟d)
Incorrectly labeling data flow or objects
Examples are
Labels omitted from data flow or objects Data flow labeled with a verb Processes labeled with a noun

Too many processes on a data flow diagram
Nine is the suggested maximum
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Data Flow Diagram Errors (cont‟d) Omitting data flow from the diagram Unbalanced decomposition between a parent process and a child diagram The data flow in and out of a parent process must be present on the child diagram 113 .

Guidelines for Developing DFDs  Create the context level diagram. including all external entities and the major data flow to or from them  Create Diagram 0 by analyzing the major activities within the context process Include the external entities and major data stores  Create a child diagram for each complex process on Diagram 0 114 .

Guidelines for Developing DFDs (cont‟d)  Detailed DFDs (child or Diagram 0) may be developed by  Making a list of business activities  Analyzing what happens to an input data flow from an external entity  Analyzing what is necessary to create an output data flow to an external entity  Examining the data flow to or from a data store  Unclear areas of a data flow diagram should be noted and investigated 115 .

Event Driven DFDs An input flow from an external entity is called a trigger It starts processes Events are activities that happen within the system 116 .

coming from outside the system. or  Temporal. which occur at fixed times 117 .Event Driven DFDs (cont‟d) Another approach used to create a data flow fragment  Analyze events. which are summarized in an event table Events are either  External.

Event Tables An event table is used to create a data flow diagram by analyzing each event and the data used and produced by the event Every row in an event table represents a unique activity and is used to create one process on the data flow diagram 118 .

DFD Progression The progression of creating DFDs is Create a logical DFD of the current system Next add all the data and processes not in the current system which must be present in the new system Finally derive the physical data flow diagram for the new system 119 .

Processes that would exist regardless of the type of system implemented 120 .Logical DFDs Logical data flow diagrams show how the business operates Represent features that would exist no matter what the physical means of doing business are.

Logical DFDs Advantages Better communication with users More stable systems. since the design is based on a business framework Increased understanding of the business by analysts Elimination of redundancy 121 .

Physical DFDs  Show how the system operates or how the new system will be implemented  Physical DFDs include  Clarifying which processes are manual/automatic  Describing processes in greater detail  “Sequencing processes” to rearrange the order of records  “Validation processes” for ensuring accurate data input  Intermediate data stores  Actual document and file names  Controls to ensure accuracy and completeness 122 .

Read. read. changing. or delete master file records 123 . and deleting records CRUD is an acronym for Create. Delete A CRUD matrix shows which processes add.CRUD Matrix Physical DFDs include processes for adding. reading. Update. update.

Partitioning Process of analyzing a DFD and deriving a series of manual procedures and computer programs A dashed line is drawn around a group of processes that are included in each computer program or manual procedure 124 .

Manual Procedures Performed by people Have manual input and manual output Computer processing not used with manual processes 125 .

the process is called a batch process Batch processes do not require any human intervention A job stream is several separate programs running back-to-back. usually a series of batch processes 126 .Batch Processes If the data flow into and out of a process is entirely computer information.

a data entry operation. a report. or some other means for persons to interact with a computer It occurs when the data flow links a manual and an automated process 127 .User Interface A user interface represents a screen.

Reasons for Partitioning  Different user groups should have different programs  Processes that execute at different times must be in separate programs  Processes may be separated into different programs for security  Similar tasks may be included in the same program  Several batch processes may be included in the same program for efficiency  Several processes may be included in the same program or job stream for consistency of data 128 .

and gathering feedback information from users  DFDs may be used to analyze the system to ensure that the design is complete  DFDs are used to partition the system into programs  Data flow diagrams can be used for the system documentation 129 . education.Using DFDs  Unexploded data flow diagrams are useful to identify information requirements  Exploded data flow diagrams can be used for presentation.

Chapter 4 Analyzing Systems Using Data Dictionaries Systems Analysis and Design Kendall and Kendall Sixth Edition .

245) Major Topics Data dictionary concepts Defining data flow Defining data structures Defining elements Defining data stores 131 .Readings & Major Topics Readings Chapter 8 in the textbook (p.

opportunities.Data Dictionaries in SDLC Phase 1 Identifying problems. and objectives Phase 7 Implementing and evaluating the system Phase 2 Determining information requirements Phase 6 Testing and maintaining the system Phase 3 Analyzing systems needs Phase 5 Developing and documenting software Phase 4 Designing the recommended system 132 .

coordinates.Data Dictionary Reference work of data about data (metadata) Main method for analyzing data flows and data stores Collects. and confirms what a specific data term means to different people in the organization 133 .

Reasons for Using a Data Dictionary  Some reasons  Provide documentation  Eliminate redundancy  Validate the data flow diagram  Provide a starting point for developing screens and reports  Develop the logic for DFD processes  Automated dictionaries (CASE tools)  Cross-reference data items 134 .

The Repository
A data repository is a large collection of project information It includes
Information about system data Procedural logic Screen and report design Project requirements and deliverables Project management information (e.g., delivery schedules, achievements, …)
135

Data Dictionary Contents
Data dictionaries contain data about
Data flow
Data flow description form

Data structures Data Elements
Element description form

Data stores
Data store description form
136

Data Flow Description Form
Each data flow should be defined with descriptive information and it's composite structure or elements Includes:
ID - identification number Unique name for the data flow: should appear on the DFD A general description of the data flow
137

Data Flow Description Form (cont‟d)
Includes:
The source of the data flow
This could be an external entity, a process, or a data flow coming from a data store

The destination of the data flow Type of data flow, either
 A record entering or leaving a file  Containing a report, form, or screen  Internal - used between processes
138

Data Flow Description Form (cont‟d) Includes: The name of the data structure or elements The volume per unit time This could be records per day or any other unit of time An area for further comments and notations about the data flow 139 .

140 . Source Customer External Entity Destination Process 1. fax. Add Customer Order Type Screen Data Structure Order Information Volume/Time 10/hour Comments An order record contains information for one customer order. The order may be received by mail. or by telephone.Data Flow Description Form Example Name Description Customer Order Contains customer order information and is used to update the customer master and item files and to produce an order record.

Defining Data Structures Data structures are a group of smaller structures and elements An algebraic notation is used to represent the data structure 141 .

meaning “consists of” Plus sign. meaning "and” Braces {} meaning repetitive elements.Algebraic Notation The symbols used are Equal sign. also called repeating groups or tables Brackets [] for an either/or situation The elements listed inside are mutually exclusive Parentheses () for an optional element 142 .

or array  There may be one repeating element or several within the group  The repeating group may have  A fixed number of repetitions  12 {Monthly Sales}  Upper and lower limits for the number of repetitions  5 1 {Order Line} 143 . matrix.Repeating Groups  A repeating group may be  A sub-form  A screen or form table  A program table.

Telephone  Each of these must be further defined until only elements remain  Structural records and elements used within many different systems should be given a non-systemspecific name E. such as  Customer Name. Address.: street.Structural Records  A structure may consist of elements or smaller structural records  These are a group of fields.g. city. and zip 144 .

Structural Record Example Customer Name = First Name + (Middle Initial) + Last Name Address = Street + (Apartment) + City + State + Zip + (Zip Expansion) + (Country) Area code + Local number 145 Telephone = .

Logical Data Structures Data structures may be either logical or physical Logical data structures indicate the composition of the data familiar to the user 146 .

147 .Physical Data Structures Include elements and information necessary to implement the system Additional physical elements include Key fields used to locate records Codes to indicate record status Codes to identify records when multiple record types exist on a single file Etc.

Data Structure Example Customer Order = Customer Number + Customer Name + Address + Telephone + Catalog Number + Order Date + {Order Items} + Merchandise Total + (Tax) + Shipping and Handling + Order Total + Method of Payment + (Credit Card Type) + (Credit Card Number) + (Expiration Date) 148 .

Element Description Forms Data elements should be defined with descriptive information. and default values Each element should be defined once in the data dictionary 149 . length and type of data information. validation criteria.

Element Description Forms Attributes Element ID. This is an optional entry that allows the analyst to build automated data dictionary entries The name of the element. descriptive and unique It should be what the element is commonly called in most programs or by the major user of the element 150 .

Element Description Forms – Attributes (cont‟d) Aliases. which are synonyms or other names for the element These are names used by different users within different systems Example. a Customer Number may be called a Client Number A short description of the element 151 .

Element Description Forms – Attributes (cont‟d) Whether the element is base or derived A base element is one that has been initially keyed into the system A derived element is one that is created by a process. usually as the result of a calculation or some logic 152 .

zip code. or telephone number  For other elements.Element Description Forms Attributes (cont‟d)  The length of an element  Some elements have standard lengths. such as a state abbreviation. the length may vary and the analyst and users must decide the final length  Numeric amount lengths should be determined by figuring the largest number the amount will contain and then allowing room for expansion  Totals should be large enough to accommodate the numbers accumulated into them  It is often useful to sample historical data to determine a suitable length 153 .

Element Description Forms Attributes (cont‟d) Percent of data that will Length fit within the length (US) 11 18 20 18 17 98% 95% 95% 90% 99% Element Last Name First Name Company Name Street City 154 .

mail would usually still be delivered A truncated email address or Web address is not usable 155 . the data will be truncated The analyst must decide how this will affect the system outputs If a last name is truncated.Element Description Forms Attributes (cont‟d) The length of an element (cont‟d) Data Truncation If the element is too small.

8 characters  Etc.Character  X(8) . date.Number  X . alphabetic or alphanumeric or other microcomputer formats  Input and output formats should be included.Element Description Forms Attributes (cont‟d)  The type of data  Numeric. 156 . using coding symbols:  Z – Leading Zeros or spaces  9 .

meaning they have fixed values Discrete elements are verified by checking the values within a program They may search a table of codes Continuous. with a smooth range of values Continuous elements are checked that the data is within limits or ranges 157 .Element Description Forms Attributes (cont‟d) Validation criteria Discrete.

etc.Element Description Forms Attributes (cont‟d) Default value The default value is displayed on entry screens Reduces the amount of keying Comments This might be used to indicate the format of the date. 158 . special validation that is required.

6 9(6) 9(6) Length Input Format Output Format Default Value Continuous/Discrete Continuous Type Numeric Base or Derived Derived Upper Limit <999999 Lower Limit >18 Discrete Value/Meaning Comments The customer number must pass a modulus-11 check-digit test. 159 .Data Element Example Name Alias Alias Description Customer Number Client Number Receivable Account Number Uniquely identifies a customer that has made any business transaction within the last five years.

place. each different person. that is. or thing being stored  Since a data flow may only show part of the collective data. you may have to examine many different data flow structures to arrive at a complete data store description 160 .Data Store Description Form  Data stores contain a minimal of all base elements as well as some derived elements  Data stores are created for each different data entity. called the user view.

the file format designates whether the file is a database file or the format of a traditional flat file 161 .Data Store Description Form Attributes  The Data Store ID  The Data Store Name: descriptive and unique  An Alias for the file  A short description of the data store  The file type:  Manual or computerized  If the file is computerized.

if known  In the initial design stages.Data Store Description Form – Attributes (cont‟d)  The maximum and average number of records on the file  The growth per year  Predict the amount of disk space required  The data set name specifies the table or file name. this may be left blank  The data structure should use a name found in the data dictionary 162 .

which should be unique The Customer Name. Telephone.Data Store Description Form – Attributes (cont‟d)  Primary and secondary keys must be elements (or a combination of elements) found within the data structure Example: Customer Master File Customer Number is the primary key. and Zip Code are secondary keys  Comments 163 .

Data Store Example .000 6% 164 .000 42.Part 1 ID Name Alias Description File Type File Format Record Size Maximum Records Average Records Percent Growth/Year D1 Customer Master File Client Master File Contains a record for each customer Computer Database 200 45.

A customer may be retained even if he or she has not made a purchase by requesting a catalog. Zip Code Comments The Customer Master file records are copied to a history file and purged if the customer has not purchased an item within the past five years.Data Store Example .Part 2 Data Set/Table Name Customer Copy Member Custmast Data Structure Customer Record Primary Key Customer Number Secondary Keys Customer Name. Telephone. 165 .

are used on the top level of the DFD  Data structures are used on intermediate-level DFD  Elements are used on lower-level data flow diagrams  Data dictionary entries may be used to validate parent and child DFD level balancing 166 . such as the whole report or screen.Data Dictionary and Data Flow Diagram Levels  Data dictionary entries vary according to the level of the corresponding DFD  Data dictionaries are created in a top-down manner  Whole structures.

Creating Data Dictionaries 1. Each structure or group of elements is analyzed 167 . Information from interviews and JAD sessions is summarized on Input and Output Analysis Forms This provides a means of summarizing system data and how it is used 2.

Creating Data Dictionaries 3. indicate that the field is a repeating field using the { } symbols B. surround the two fields with the [ | ] symbols 168 . Is the element mutually exclusive of another element? If the answer is yes. Are there many of the field? If the answer is yes. Each element should be analyzed by asking the following questions: A.

Is the field an optional entry or optionally printed or displayed? If so. All data entered into the system must be stored Create one file or database file for each different type of data that must be stored Add a key field that is unique to each file 169 .Creating Data Dictionaries  C. surround the field with parenthesis ( ) 4.

Determining Data Store Contents Data stores may be determined by analyzing data flows Each data store should consist of elements on the data flows that are logically related. meaning they describe the same entity 170 .

Maintaining the Data Dictionary To have maximum power. the data dictionary should be tied into other programs in the system When an item is updated or deleted from the data dictionary it is automatically updated or deleted from the database 171 .

Using the Data Dictionary Data dictionaries may be used to Generate computer program source code Create reports. screens. and forms Analyze the system design for completion and to detect design flaws 172 .

or report. form. using design guidelines and common sense Repeating groups become columns Structural records are grouped together on the screen. reports. report. Screens. and forms Use the element definitions to create fields Arrange the fields in an aesthetically pleasing screen. or form 173 . Forms To create screens.Creating Reports.

Data Dictionary Analysis  The data dictionary may be used in conjunction with the data flow diagram to analyze the design. detecting flaws and areas that need clarification  Some considerations for analysis are  All base elements on an output data flow must be present on an input data flow to the process producing the output  Base elements are keyed and should never be created by a process  A derived element should be output from at least one process that it is not input into  The elements that are present on a data flow into or coming from a data store must be contained within the data store 174 .

Chapter 5 Describing Process Specifications and Structured Decisions Systems Analysis and Design Kendall and Kendall Sixth Edition .

Readings & Major Topics Readings  Chapter 9 in the textbook (page 283) Major Topics Process specifications Decision tables Other Types of Specifications Structured English Decision trees 176 .

opportunities.Process Specification in SDLC Phase 1 Identifying problems. and objectives Phase 7 Implementing and evaluating the system Phase 2 Determining information requirements Phase 6 Testing and maintaining the system Phase 3 Analyzing systems needs Phase 5 Developing and documenting software Phase 4 Designing the recommended system 177 .

Process Specifications Process specifications (minispecs) are created for primitive processes and some higher level processes on a DFD Documenting and analyzing the logic of structured decisions Structured English Decision trees Decision tables 178 .

Goals of Creating Process Specifications Reduce process ambiguity Obtain a precise description of what is accomplished Validate the system design. including data flow diagrams and the data dictionary 179 .

No Process Specifications For Physical input and/or output processes Processes that represent simple data validation Processes for which prewritten code already exists 180 .

Process Logic Process descriptions may exist on a form or within a CASE tool repository Process logic may be represented as Structured English A decision table A decision tree Any combination of the above 181 .

the same as displays within the process symbol on the DFD A brief description of what the process accomplishes 182 .Process Specification Format The process number. which must match the process ID on the data flow diagram This allows an analyst to work or review any process and easily locate the DFD containing the process The process name.

using the names found on the data flow diagram Data names used in the formulae or logic should match the data dictionary. online or manual All online processes require screen designs All manual processes should have well-defined procedures for employees performing the process tasks 183 . for consistency and good communication An indication of the type of process  Batch.Process Specification Format (cont‟d) A list of input and output data flow.

include the name of the subprogram or function A reference to further information. such as a structured English description. a decision table or tree depicting the logic List any unresolved issues These form the basis of the questions used for a follow-up interview 184 .Process Specification Format (cont‟d) If the process has prewritten code for it.

The order should be edited for correct information. Customer Master File Item Record from data store D2.Process Specification Example Part 1 Number Name 1 Add Customer Order Description Key and add the Customer Order. Item Master File 185 . Input Data Flow Customer Order Form from the Customer Customer Record from data store D1. Customer and Item master files are updated.

Process Specification Example Part 2 Output Data Flow Pending Order to data store D3. Order File Backordered Item Record to the Inventory Control Department Updated Customer and Item records Type of process Online 186 .

Decision Tables Decision tables provide a way to examine. and document decisions using a table They are used to Describe the conditions Identify possible decision alternatives Indicate actions should be performed. describe. and Describe actions 187 .

Decision Tables Decision tables help analysts ensure completeness and accuracy Four main problems that can occur in developing decision tables Incompleteness Impossible situations Contradictions Redundancy 188 .

the process becomes a control module when the computer program representing the process is written The logic of the process shows the sequence that the child diagram processes must be executed in 189 .Parent Process Specifications If a process explodes to a child diagram.

Program Process Specification All the process specifications are consolidated for a computer program and are included in the specification packet given to the computer programmer Since they are developed for one process. the logic is easier to understand 190 .

Horizontal Balancing Horizontal balancing means that all output data flow must be either on input data flow or described in the process logic It is used to verify that each process has the required data dictionary entries defined and the formulas and logic necessary to produce the output 191 .

Rules for Horizontal Balancing Rules for horizontal balancing are All base elements on an output data flow must be present on an input data flow All derived elements on an output data flow must be either Present on an input data flow. or Created by the process 192 .

Chapter 7 Designing Databases Systems Analysis and Design Kendall and Kendall Sixth Edition .

Database Design in SDLC Phase 1 Identifying problems. and objectives Phase 7 Implementing and evaluating the system Phase 2 Determining information requirements Phase 6 Testing and maintaining the system Phase 3 Analyzing systems needs Phase 5 Developing and documenting software Phase 4 Designing the recommended system 194 . opportunities.

Readings & Major Topics Readings  Chapter 13 in the textbook (page 443) Major Topics Databases ER Model Relational Model Normalization Key design 195 .

Objectives of Effective Databases
 Ensuring that data can be shared among users for a variety of applications  Maintaining data that are both accurate and consistent  Ensuring all data required for current and future applications will be readily available  Allowing the database to evolve and the needs of the users to grow  Allowing users to construct their personal view of the data without concern for the way the data are physically stored
196

Metadata
Metadata is the information that describes data in the database
Used to help users understand the form and structure of the data Also called “schema” in databases

197

Entity-Relationship (ER) Concepts
Entities are objects or events for which data is collected and stored
person, place, thing, event, unit of time, …

Relationships are associations between entities

198

Entities
A distinct collection of data for one person, place, thing, or event

Customer

199

Records. and Keys Attributes are a characteristic of an entity.Attributes. sometimes called a field Also called data item Records are a collection of data items that have something in common Instance of an entity Keys are data items in a record used to identify the record 200 .

a data item in one record that is the key of another record 201 . unique for the record Secondary key. a key which may not be unique Concatenated key.Keys Primary key. a combination of two or more data items for the key Foreign key.

Entity Subtype  An entity subtype represents data (fields) about an entity that may not be found on every instance of an entity  Preferred customers may have special fields containing discount information  Eliminates null fields Preferred Customer 202 .

especially repeating elements Attributive entities tables.Attributive Entity Attributive Entity .describes attributes. table files or database code tables Book Subject 203 .

Relationships Relationships may be One-to-one One-to-many Many-to-many A single vertical line represents one A circle represents zero or none A crows foot represents many 204 .

Relationships Many Many One O None 205 .

Ordinality The ordinality is the minimum number that can occur in a relationship If the ordinality is zero. it means that it is possible to have none of the entity Item O Order 206 .

Self-Join A self-join is when a record has a relationship with another record on the same entity Student partners with another student on a project 207 .

sometimes called a composite entity or gerund Order Item 208 .Associative Entity  Associative Entity .links two entities  An associative entity can only exist between two entities  The relationship line between a many-to-many relationship becomes an associative entity.

Associative Entity Connections Each entity end has a “one” connection The associative entity has a “many” connection on each side 209 .

Associative Entity Keys The key fields for the associative entity are The primary key for each “one” end is a foreign key on the associative entity Both foreign keys concatenated together become the primary key 210 .

the primary key of the file at the one end of the relationship should be contained as a foreign key on the file at the many end of the relationship A many-to-many relationship should be divided into two one-to-many relationships with an associative entity in the middle 211 .ER Diagram and Record Keys The ER diagram may be used to determine record keys When the relationship is one-to-many.

Databases A database is intended to be shared by many users There are three structures for storing database files: Hierarchical database structures Network database structures Relational database structures 212 .

Normalization Normalization is the transformation of complex user views and data to a set of smaller. stable. and easily maintainable data structures Normalization creates data that are stored only once on a file The exception is key fields This eliminates redundant data storage 213 .

Three Steps of Data Normalization User View Unnormalized Relationship Remove repeating groups Normalized Relations (1NF) Remove partial dependencies Second Normal Form Relations (2NF) Remove transitive dependencies Third Normal Form Relations (3NF) 214 .

Data Model Diagrams Data model diagrams are used to show relationships between attributes An oval represents an attribute A single arrow line represents one A double arrow line represents many Customer Number Salesperson Number 215 .

tables 216 . it is in the 1 NF Keys must be included to link the relations.First Normal Form (1NF) Remove any repeating groups All repeating groups are moved into a new table Foreign keys are used to link the tables When a relation contains no repeating groups.

Second Normal Form (2NF) Remove any partial dependencies A partial dependency is when the data are only dependent on a part of a key field A relation is created for the data that are only dependent on part of the key and another for data that are dependent on both parts 217 .

Third Normal Form (3NF) Remove any transitive dependencies A transitive dependency is when a relation contains data that are not part of the entity The problem with transitive dependencies is updating the data A single data item may be present on many records 218 .

read. update. and delete records 219 . nonkey data field should exist on only one master file or relation Each master file or relation should have programs to create.Guidelines for Creating Master Files or Database Relations Guidelines for creating master files or database relations are Each separate entity should have it's own master file or database relation A specific.

which governs the denature of records in a one-to-many relationship Domain integrity 220 .Integrity Constraints There are three integrity constraints that help to ensure that the database contains accurate data: Entity integrity constraints. which govern the composition of primary keys Referential integrity.

none of the fields in the key can contain a null value 221 .Entity Integrity Entity integrity constraints are rules for primary keys: The primary key cannot have a null value If the primary key is a composite key.

Referential Integrity Referential integrity governs the denature of records in a one-to-many relationship Referential integrity means that all foreign keys in one table (the child table) must have a matching record in the parent table 222 .

Referential Integrity Referential integrity includes You cannot add a record without a matching foreign key record You cannot change a primary key that has matching child table records A child table that has a foreign key for a different record You cannot delete a record that has child records 223 .

Referential Integrity A restricted database updates or deletes a key only if there are no matching child records A cascaded database will delete or update all child records when a parent record is deleted or changed The parent triggers the changes 224 .

which are defined as separate objects and may be used within a number of fields 225 .Domain Integrity Domain integrity defines rules that ensure that only valid data are stored on database records Domain integrity has two forms: Check constraints. which are defined at the table level Rules.

Retrieving and Presenting Database Data Guidelines to retrieve and present data Choose a relation from the database Join two relations together Project columns from the relation Select rows from the relation Derive new attributes Index or sort rows Calculate totals and performance measures Present data 226 .

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