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You are on page 1of 43

**Design, Stress Analysis and Detailing
**

Selection of diameter and thickness

Piping Shapes:

The piping under present discussion is

usually hollow circular. Hollow circular

shape has several advantages. The

components used for joining,

distributing flow, diverting flow and

supporting the piping are of several

shapes.

PIPING

Diameter and Thickness:

The diameter of the piping is usually decided

based on flow and heat transfer

considerations. In normal practice, the

outside diameter is specified for procurement.

These are based on the convenience and

convention in manufacture. After finalizing

the diameter, the thickness of the piping is

computed based on the imposed loads.

PIPING

PIPING

Diameter

Based on flow requirements

Based on economic requirements

Based on size availability

PIPING

Thickness

Based on strength requirement

Based on process allowances

Based on thickness tolerances

Based on availability

Fluids and Pressure Drop:

The piping under present discussion may carry a

single-phase fluid or two-phase fluid. The following

fluids are commonly handled by the piping:

1. Liquid

2. Gas

3. Liquid-solid slurry

4. Gas-solid mixture

5. Liquid-vapor mixture.

PIPING

Mixture of solids, liquids and gases are rarely

used. In a maze of piping, flow distribution

plays a major role in the design of piping. To

calculate the flow in various branches of

piping (in a maze of piping), the pressure

drop in various branches are to be calculated.

The following formula is commonly used to

calculate the pressure drop in a fully

developed flow in a hollow circular pipe.

PIPING

f W

2

L

AP = ----------

2gd

Where,

A P = Pressure loss in terms of head, mm of fluid column

f = Coefficient of friction

W = Velocity of fluid, mm / sec.

L = Total length of pipe, mm

g = Acceleration due to gravity = 9806.65 mm/sec

2

d = Average inside diameter of pipe, mm

PIPING

The following formula is commonly used calculate the pumping

power required:

A P p WA

HP = ---------------

75 x 10

9

Where

HP = Pumping power, HP

p = Density of fluid, gm/cc

A = Flow area = d

2

/ 4 Sq.mm

Example (Water at ambient temperature)

PIPING

Flow = 100 tonne / hr = 100 cu. m / hr = 100 / 3600 = 0.0278 cu.m / sec

d = 102.26 mm (for 4” STD pipe = 114.3 x 6.02 mm x mm)

W = 0.0278 / ( * 0.10226

2

/ 4) = 3.38 m / sec = 3.380 mm / sec

L = 100 m = 100,000 mm

f = 0.02 (approximate)

p = 1.0 gm / cc (for water at ambient temperature)

A P = 0.02 * 3380

2

* 100,000 / (2 * 9806.65 * 102.26) = 11.392 mm water

column

A P p W A (11.392 mm wc) x (1.0 gm/cc) x 3.380 mm/sec) x (8.213 sq.mm)

HP = --------------- = --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

75 x 10

9

75 x 10

9

= 4.22 HP. Considering a motor efficiency of 80%, motor rating = 4.22/08 = 5.28 HP.

Use a 6 HP Motor.

PIPING

Nominal Pipe Size (NPS):

The Nominal Pipe Size (NPS) in an ASME method of indicating

the approximate outside diameter of the connected pipe in

inches. Note that the unit (inch) is not followed after the

designation.

Class of Fittings:

The class of fittings is an ASME method of indicating the

pressure carrying capacity of the fittings.

PIPING

I. Pipe sizing and Pressure drop Calculations:

Pipe Sizing:

Before proceeding beyond a preliminary / design of piping

system, it is necessary to determine the pipe inside diameter

which allow reasonable velocities and friction losses. The

maximum allowable velocities of the fluid in pipeline is that

which corresponds to the permissible pressure drop from the

point of supply to the point of consumption or is that which does

not result in excessive pipe line erosion.

PIPING

Trade Practice – Steel pipes are designated by their OD or their

Nominal ID.

§ Due to manufacturing conditions, OD is constant.

§ Slight deviations from normal wall thickness, modify only the ID

also called clear width.

§ Why a pipe is generally not referred to by its ID.

§ Common Engineering practice to use nominal bore NB to

indicate the proper size of the individual parts employed in a pipeline

(pipes, flanges, fittings and valves).

§ Nominal bore = actual inside diameter.

PIPING

§ Selection of the diameter (flow rate anticipated pressure head

available).

§ Pressure head (provided by booster pumps, compressors,

natural head as in the case of gravity main).

§ Pressure head is necessary for transmission to overcome losses

in the flow rate due to internal friction in the moving fluid or to rough

inside surfaces of pipe.

§ Pressure drop increased through turbulence and separation of

flow of bends or in branch connections, fittings, valves and similar parts

(reduce the economy of any pipe line.

PIPING

Velocity profile in Different System:

The mean velocities of steam and water in different system

shall be as follows:

PIPING

Q = µ A W

t

A = --------- d

2

4

354025 x Qv

d = --------------------

w

Where A = Area, mm

2

PIPING

d = inside diameter, mm

Q = flow rate, Tonnes/hr.

w = Velocity, m/sec

µ = Volume of medium, Kg/m

3

Pressure drop calculation:

The pipe sizes calculated based on the above

recommended velocities do not relieve the designer to check the

adequacy of pipe size from the flow friction consideration.

PIPING

Pressure drop calculations are of prime necessity

in determining:

a) The selected inside diameter meets the available

pressure drop in the case of main steam, cold reheat,

hot reheat and auxiliary steam lines and

miscellaneous water lines.

b) The discharge pressure of the pump (boiler feed

pump and condensate extraction pump).

PIPING

For finding the frictional pressure drop in pipelines

Darcy’s Formula can be universally used for almost

all the fluids. With suitable restrictions for gases and

vapours. As long as the pressure drop is around

10% of starting point pressure (which is true in most

of the steam lines in thermal power station). Darcy’s

formula for pressure drop can be used since the

specific volume change in the line due to pressure

loss will have little effect on calculated pressure drop.

PIPING

Calculation to determine the pressure drop in the pipe is

made according to formula:

a) For straight pipe

flw

2

AP = ----------------- kg/cm

2

20000 g

c

dv

b) For bends, elbows, tees, valves, etc.

Kw

2

AP = ----------------- kg/cm

2

20000 g

c

v

PIPING

Where,

f= Friction factor found from a graph between Reynolds No. and

Relative roughness.

K= resistance coefficient for fittings there are established based on

experiments and are available in a standard table in various books.

l= length of pipe in meters

V= velocity in m/sec

g

c

= gravitational constant – 9.81 m/sec

2

d= inside diameter of pipe in meter

v= specific volume in m

3

/sec.

PIPING

a) Water (non-expansive flow) in compressible fluids.

l w

2

x ì

AP= ¸ ---- x ------------ ± h x ì

di 2g

AP= absolute pressure in lb/ft

2

l= length of pipe line in ft.

di= inside diameter of pipe in ft.

PIPING

w= velocity of flow in ft/sec

¸= specific gravity in lb/cu.ft (water = 62 lb/cu.ft)

g= acceleration due to gravity (=32.2 ft/sec

2

)

h= geodesic height in ft for lines other than horizontal

ì= friction factor number dimension

+= ascending lines

÷= descending lines

0

= for horizontal lines.

Pressure decreases in linear perspective with the length of the

line, while the velocity remains unchanged.

PIPING

Reynolds Number:

- dimension less ratio characterizing the dynamic state of fluid.

The inertia forces present in the fluid passing thro’ the pipe

*R

e

= ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

forces of viscosity

w di ì

R

e

= --------------

, x g

lb – sec * independant of Pr

,= dynamic viscosity ------------

ft

2

* influids ,+ with T|

PIPING

w= velocity, ft/sec

V x ì G

R

e

= 11 x --------- = 11 x ------------

10

4

, di 10

4

, di

V= cu.ft/hr.

G= weight of blow in lb/hr.

λ= f(R

e

) Variation of friction factors λ with relation

di

---- K = roughness of pipe interior natural wall roughness through

K formation of rust, sediment and similar influences.

PIPING

Laminar Flow: R

e

s 2300

λ depends only on R

e

without the effect of the roughness of

the pipe wall entering into its value.

Turbulence:

Transition zone between hydraulically smooth and rough

behaviour. λ varies both with Re and di/K.

Turbulence:

Hydraulically rough behaviour.. λ depends only on di/K and

is independent of R

e

.

Gases (expansion flow:

PIPING

Medium Mean velocity – M/Sec.

Superheated steam Main steam

140 bar 500 / 530°C

180 bar 530 / 550°C

250 bar 530 / 550°C

Hot Reheat

25 bar 530 / 540°C

40 bar 530 / 540°C

60 bar 530 / 540°C

Cold Reheat

25 bar 300°C

40 bar 340°C

60 bar 380°C

Nb – 150 – 200 – 400

Nb – 40 – 50 – 60

Nb – 30 – 40 – 50

Nb – 25 – 35 – 45

Nb – 300 – 500 – 800

Nb – 40 – 50 – 60

Nb – 35 – 45 – 55

Nb – 30 – 40 – 50

Nb – 300 – 500 – 800

Nb – 30 – 40 – 50

Nb – 25 – 35 – 45

Nb – 20 – 30 – 40

PIPING

Medium Mean velocity – M/Sec.

Extraction Steam

10 - 25 bar

0 - 5 bar

Saturated Steam

High pressure 80 – 100 bar

Medium pressure 12 – 20 bar

Low pressure 4 – 8 bar

Condensate

Intake of condense

(before the condensate pumps)

Intake of feed water tank

Pump discharge

Discharge of pipe (MC)25-35 bar

Discharge of pipe (FW)100-150 bar

Discharge of pipe (FW)200-400 bar

Nb – 150 – 200 – 400

Nb – 30 – 40 – 50

Nb – 35 – 45 – 55

Wetness

0.5 – 1.0

1.5 – 2.5

Nb – 100 – 200 – 400

2.5 – 2.5 – 3.0

3.0 – 3.5 – 4.0

3.0 – 4.0 – 5.0

PIPING

Kind of pipe Condition of pipe wall

Values of roughness

coefficient (K)

Drawn steel

pipe

New Pipes

New pipe, bitumen coated

Used pipes, with rust spots or moderately

encrusted

0.0008 to 0.002

0.002 to 0.006

0.006 to 0.02

Welded steel

pipe

After some years of service (main value for

cross counting gas supply lines)

Pipes with big nest spots or badly encrusted

Pipes for water supply lines with big rust spots

0.02 to 0.04

0.04 to 0.12

0.06 to 0.14

PIPING

Kind of pipe Condition of pipe wall

Values of

roughness

coefficient (K)

Riveted steel

pipe

Varying riveting conditions

New pipe, bitumen coated

New pipe, non-bitumen coated

Used pipes, with rust spots

0.04 to 0.32

0.004 to 0.006

0.01 to 0.02

0.04 to 0.06

Cast Iron pipe Pipes showing incrustations

Pipes cleaned after some years of service

0.06 to 0.12

0.06

PIPING

Schedule of Pipes:

The schedule of pipes is an ASME method of indicating the

pressure carrying capacity of the fittings.

Types of Flanges:

The following types of flanges are used:

1. Threaded

2. Socket welding

3. Blind

4. Slip-on welding

5. Lapped

6. Welding neck.

PIPING

Pressure – Temperature Rating:

Ratings are maximum allowable working gauge

pressure at a given temperature. These values are

given in ASME B16.5.

Selection of Flanges:

The flanges are selected based on the application,

pressure, temperature and size.

PIPING

Bends:

Bends are used to change the direction of flow of fluids in pipes.

Bends are usually made, using a bending machines, from

straight pipes.

Elbows (ELLs):

Elbows are made using a pressing machine or a forging

machine, from a straight pipe. Elbows are of the following

types: 45°elbow, 90° elbow and 180° elbow. Elbows of the

following types are also available : 22.5°° elbow and 11.25°

elbow.

PIPING

TEEs:

TEEs are used to distribute or collect flow. TEEs are

of the following types: formed TEEs, forged and

machined TEEs, unequal TEEs and pregnant TEEs.

Branches:

Branches are similar to TEEs. Branches are made

from straight pipes by machining and welding.

PIPING

Y – Pieces:

Y – pieces are rarely used. They are used to collect and

distribute flow. The pressure drop in a Y – piece is less than

that of a comparable TEE.

End Covers:

End covers are of the following types: flat end cover, hemi-

spherical end cover, tori-spherical end cover, semi-ellipsoidal

end cover and tori-conical end cover.

PIPING

Nozzles:

Nozzles are inlets or outlet from pipes. Nozzles are usually of

welded type. Nozzles are usually designed using area

compensation method. When series of nozzles are used in a

pipe, ligament efficiency method is used.

Safety Valve Stubs:

Safety valve stubs are used to attach safety valves to the pipes.

Safety valve stubs are designed to withstand the bending

moments imposed on them by the safety valve blowing jet

reaction, over and above the internal pressure load.

PIPING

Radiographic Plug:

Radiographic plugs are used to facilitate insertion of the

radioactive substance for doing radiographic test (RT) of the butt

weld on the pipes.

End Connections:

The following end connections are popularly used: butt welding,

flanged connection, screwed connection, screwed and flanged

connection, socket welded connection, slip-on type of

connection, thrust block connection and mechanical type of

connection.

PIPING

Valve, Flow Measuring Devices and

Instruments:

Valves, flow measuring devices and

instruments are used to stop, direct, check

measure and control flow, temperature,

pressure, level and quality of the fluid in the

piping.

PIPING

Valves and Gages:

Valves and gages are used to stop the flow, control the flow

and to measure various parameters. The following valves and

gages are commonly used.

1. Gate valve

2. Globe valve

3. Control valve

4. Non-return valve

5. Safety valve

6. Relief valve

7. Stop valve

8. Integral bypass valve

9. Plug valve

10. Ball valve

PIPING

1. Elbow-down valve

2. Check valve

3. Pressure reducing valve

4. Drain valve

5. Vent valve

6. Steam trap

7. Level control valve

8. Level gage

9. Temperature gage

10. Pressure gage.

PIPING

The valves and gages can be actuated by

any one of the following methods:

1. Manual

2. Electrical

3. Mechanical

4. Hydraulic

5. Pneumatic

PIPING

The valves and gages can have the

following types of end connection:

1. Butt welded

2. Flanged

3. Socket welded

4. Screwed

5. Flanged and screwed.

PIPING

The gages can be of the following types:

1. Local indication

2. Local control

3. Local recording

4. Remote indication

5. Remote control

6. Remote recording

7. Data acquisition

8. Feed-back control

9. Programmable

10. Event recording.

PIPING

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