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# PIPING

Design, Stress Analysis and Detailing

Selection of diameter and thickness
Piping Shapes:
The piping under present discussion is
usually hollow circular. Hollow circular
components used for joining,
distributing flow, diverting flow and
supporting the piping are of several
shapes.

PIPING
Diameter and Thickness:
The diameter of the piping is usually decided
based on flow and heat transfer
considerations. In normal practice, the
outside diameter is specified for procurement.
These are based on the convenience and
convention in manufacture. After finalizing
the diameter, the thickness of the piping is
computed based on the imposed loads.

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PIPING
Diameter
 Based on flow requirements
 Based on economic requirements
 Based on size availability
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Thickness
 Based on strength requirement
 Based on process allowances
 Based on thickness tolerances
 Based on availability
Fluids and Pressure Drop:
The piping under present discussion may carry a
single-phase fluid or two-phase fluid. The following
fluids are commonly handled by the piping:

1. Liquid
2. Gas
3. Liquid-solid slurry
4. Gas-solid mixture
5. Liquid-vapor mixture.

PIPING
Mixture of solids, liquids and gases are rarely
used. In a maze of piping, flow distribution
plays a major role in the design of piping. To
calculate the flow in various branches of
piping (in a maze of piping), the pressure
drop in various branches are to be calculated.
The following formula is commonly used to
calculate the pressure drop in a fully
developed flow in a hollow circular pipe.

PIPING
f W
2
L
AP = ----------
2gd
Where,
A P = Pressure loss in terms of head, mm of fluid column
f = Coefficient of friction
W = Velocity of fluid, mm / sec.
L = Total length of pipe, mm
g = Acceleration due to gravity = 9806.65 mm/sec
2

d = Average inside diameter of pipe, mm

PIPING
The following formula is commonly used calculate the pumping
power required:

A P p WA
HP = ---------------
75 x 10
9

Where
HP = Pumping power, HP
p = Density of fluid, gm/cc
A = Flow area =  d
2
/ 4 Sq.mm

Example (Water at ambient temperature)

PIPING
Flow = 100 tonne / hr = 100 cu. m / hr = 100 / 3600 = 0.0278 cu.m / sec
d = 102.26 mm (for 4” STD pipe =  114.3 x 6.02 mm x mm)
W = 0.0278 / ( * 0.10226
2
/ 4) = 3.38 m / sec = 3.380 mm / sec
L = 100 m = 100,000 mm
f = 0.02 (approximate)
p = 1.0 gm / cc (for water at ambient temperature)
A P = 0.02 * 3380
2
* 100,000 / (2 * 9806.65 * 102.26) = 11.392 mm water
column

A P p W A (11.392 mm wc) x (1.0 gm/cc) x 3.380 mm/sec) x (8.213 sq.mm)
HP = --------------- = --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
75 x 10
9
75 x 10
9

= 4.22 HP. Considering a motor efficiency of 80%, motor rating = 4.22/08 = 5.28 HP.

Use a 6 HP Motor.

PIPING
Nominal Pipe Size (NPS):

The Nominal Pipe Size (NPS) in an ASME method of indicating
the approximate outside diameter of the connected pipe in
inches. Note that the unit (inch) is not followed after the
designation.

Class of Fittings:

The class of fittings is an ASME method of indicating the
pressure carrying capacity of the fittings.

PIPING
I. Pipe sizing and Pressure drop Calculations:

Pipe Sizing:

Before proceeding beyond a preliminary / design of piping
system, it is necessary to determine the pipe inside diameter
which allow reasonable velocities and friction losses. The
maximum allowable velocities of the fluid in pipeline is that
which corresponds to the permissible pressure drop from the
point of supply to the point of consumption or is that which does
not result in excessive pipe line erosion.

PIPING
Trade Practice – Steel pipes are designated by their OD or their
Nominal ID.

§ Due to manufacturing conditions, OD is constant.

§ Slight deviations from normal wall thickness, modify only the ID
also called clear width.

§ Why a pipe is generally not referred to by its ID.

§ Common Engineering practice to use nominal bore NB to
indicate the proper size of the individual parts employed in a pipeline
(pipes, flanges, fittings and valves).

§ Nominal bore = actual inside diameter.

PIPING
§ Selection of the diameter (flow rate anticipated pressure head
available).

§ Pressure head (provided by booster pumps, compressors,
natural head as in the case of gravity main).

§ Pressure head is necessary for transmission to overcome losses
in the flow rate due to internal friction in the moving fluid or to rough
inside surfaces of pipe.

§ Pressure drop increased through turbulence and separation of
flow of bends or in branch connections, fittings, valves and similar parts
(reduce the economy of any pipe line.

PIPING
Velocity profile in Different System:

The mean velocities of steam and water in different system
shall be as follows:

PIPING

Q = µ A W

t
A = --------- d
2

4

354025 x Qv
d = --------------------
w

Where A = Area, mm
2

PIPING
d = inside diameter, mm

Q = flow rate, Tonnes/hr.

w = Velocity, m/sec

µ = Volume of medium, Kg/m
3

Pressure drop calculation:

The pipe sizes calculated based on the above
recommended velocities do not relieve the designer to check the
adequacy of pipe size from the flow friction consideration.

PIPING
Pressure drop calculations are of prime necessity
in determining:

a) The selected inside diameter meets the available
pressure drop in the case of main steam, cold reheat,
hot reheat and auxiliary steam lines and
miscellaneous water lines.

b) The discharge pressure of the pump (boiler feed
pump and condensate extraction pump).

PIPING
For finding the frictional pressure drop in pipelines
Darcy’s Formula can be universally used for almost
all the fluids. With suitable restrictions for gases and
vapours. As long as the pressure drop is around
10% of starting point pressure (which is true in most
of the steam lines in thermal power station). Darcy’s
formula for pressure drop can be used since the
specific volume change in the line due to pressure
loss will have little effect on calculated pressure drop.

PIPING
Calculation to determine the pressure drop in the pipe is

a) For straight pipe

flw
2

AP = ----------------- kg/cm
2

20000 g
c
dv

b) For bends, elbows, tees, valves, etc.
Kw
2

AP = ----------------- kg/cm
2

20000 g
c
v

PIPING
Where,

f= Friction factor found from a graph between Reynolds No. and
Relative roughness.
K= resistance coefficient for fittings there are established based on
experiments and are available in a standard table in various books.
l= length of pipe in meters
V= velocity in m/sec
g
c
= gravitational constant – 9.81 m/sec
2

d= inside diameter of pipe in meter
v= specific volume in m
3
/sec.

PIPING
a) Water (non-expansive flow) in compressible fluids.

l w
2
x ì
AP= ¸ ---- x ------------ ± h x ì
di 2g

AP= absolute pressure in lb/ft
2

l= length of pipe line in ft.

di= inside diameter of pipe in ft.

PIPING
w= velocity of flow in ft/sec
¸= specific gravity in lb/cu.ft (water = 62 lb/cu.ft)
g= acceleration due to gravity (=32.2 ft/sec
2
)
h= geodesic height in ft for lines other than horizontal
ì= friction factor number dimension
+= ascending lines
÷= descending lines
0
= for horizontal lines.

Pressure decreases in linear perspective with the length of the
line, while the velocity remains unchanged.

PIPING
Reynolds Number:

- dimension less ratio characterizing the dynamic state of fluid.

The inertia forces present in the fluid passing thro’ the pipe
*R
e
= ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
forces of viscosity

w di ì
R
e
= --------------
, x g
lb – sec * independant of Pr
,= dynamic viscosity ------------
ft
2
* influids ,+ with T|

PIPING
w= velocity, ft/sec

V x ì G
R
e
= 11 x --------- = 11 x ------------
10
4
, di 10
4
, di

V= cu.ft/hr.

G= weight of blow in lb/hr.

 λ= f(R
e
) Variation of friction factors λ with relation
di
---- K = roughness of pipe interior natural wall roughness through
K formation of rust, sediment and similar influences.

PIPING
Laminar Flow: R
e
s 2300
λ depends only on R
e
without the effect of the roughness of
the pipe wall entering into its value.

Turbulence:
Transition zone between hydraulically smooth and rough
behaviour. λ varies both with Re and di/K.

Turbulence:
Hydraulically rough behaviour.. λ depends only on di/K and
is independent of R
e
.

Gases (expansion flow:

PIPING

Medium Mean velocity – M/Sec.
Superheated steam Main steam
140 bar 500 / 530°C
180 bar 530 / 550°C
250 bar 530 / 550°C

Hot Reheat
25 bar 530 / 540°C
40 bar 530 / 540°C
60 bar 530 / 540°C

Cold Reheat
25 bar 300°C
40 bar 340°C
60 bar 380°C
Nb – 150 – 200 – 400
Nb – 40 – 50 – 60
Nb – 30 – 40 – 50
Nb – 25 – 35 – 45

Nb – 300 – 500 – 800
Nb – 40 – 50 – 60
Nb – 35 – 45 – 55
Nb – 30 – 40 – 50

Nb – 300 – 500 – 800
Nb – 30 – 40 – 50
Nb – 25 – 35 – 45
Nb – 20 – 30 – 40
PIPING
Medium Mean velocity – M/Sec.

Extraction Steam
10 - 25 bar
0 - 5 bar

Saturated Steam
High pressure 80 – 100 bar
Medium pressure 12 – 20 bar
Low pressure 4 – 8 bar

Condensate
Intake of condense
(before the condensate pumps)
Intake of feed water tank

Pump discharge
Discharge of pipe (MC)25-35 bar
Discharge of pipe (FW)100-150 bar
Discharge of pipe (FW)200-400 bar

Nb – 150 – 200 – 400
Nb – 30 – 40 – 50
Nb – 35 – 45 – 55

Wetness

0.5 – 1.0
1.5 – 2.5

Nb – 100 – 200 – 400
2.5 – 2.5 – 3.0
3.0 – 3.5 – 4.0
3.0 – 4.0 – 5.0

PIPING
Kind of pipe Condition of pipe wall
Values of roughness
coefficient (K)
Drawn steel
pipe
New Pipes

New pipe, bitumen coated

Used pipes, with rust spots or moderately
encrusted
0.0008 to 0.002

0.002 to 0.006

0.006 to 0.02

Welded steel
pipe
After some years of service (main value for
cross counting gas supply lines)

Pipes with big nest spots or badly encrusted

Pipes for water supply lines with big rust spots
0.02 to 0.04

0.04 to 0.12

0.06 to 0.14
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Kind of pipe Condition of pipe wall
Values of
roughness
coefficient (K)
Riveted steel
pipe
Varying riveting conditions

New pipe, bitumen coated

New pipe, non-bitumen coated

Used pipes, with rust spots

0.04 to 0.32

0.004 to 0.006

0.01 to 0.02

0.04 to 0.06
Cast Iron pipe Pipes showing incrustations

Pipes cleaned after some years of service

0.06 to 0.12

0.06

PIPING
Schedule of Pipes:
The schedule of pipes is an ASME method of indicating the
pressure carrying capacity of the fittings.
Types of Flanges:
The following types of flanges are used:

2. Socket welding
3. Blind
4. Slip-on welding
5. Lapped
6. Welding neck.

PIPING
Pressure – Temperature Rating:

Ratings are maximum allowable working gauge
pressure at a given temperature. These values are
given in ASME B16.5.

Selection of Flanges:

The flanges are selected based on the application,
pressure, temperature and size.

PIPING
Bends:

Bends are used to change the direction of flow of fluids in pipes.
Bends are usually made, using a bending machines, from
straight pipes.

Elbows (ELLs):

Elbows are made using a pressing machine or a forging
machine, from a straight pipe. Elbows are of the following
types: 45°elbow, 90° elbow and 180° elbow. Elbows of the
following types are also available : 22.5°° elbow and 11.25°
elbow.

PIPING
TEEs:

TEEs are used to distribute or collect flow. TEEs are
of the following types: formed TEEs, forged and
machined TEEs, unequal TEEs and pregnant TEEs.

Branches:

Branches are similar to TEEs. Branches are made
from straight pipes by machining and welding.

PIPING
Y – Pieces:

Y – pieces are rarely used. They are used to collect and
distribute flow. The pressure drop in a Y – piece is less than
that of a comparable TEE.

End Covers:

End covers are of the following types: flat end cover, hemi-
spherical end cover, tori-spherical end cover, semi-ellipsoidal
end cover and tori-conical end cover.

PIPING
Nozzles:

Nozzles are inlets or outlet from pipes. Nozzles are usually of
welded type. Nozzles are usually designed using area
compensation method. When series of nozzles are used in a
pipe, ligament efficiency method is used.

Safety Valve Stubs:

Safety valve stubs are used to attach safety valves to the pipes.
Safety valve stubs are designed to withstand the bending
moments imposed on them by the safety valve blowing jet
reaction, over and above the internal pressure load.

PIPING

Radiographic plugs are used to facilitate insertion of the
weld on the pipes.

End Connections:

The following end connections are popularly used: butt welding,
flanged connection, screwed connection, screwed and flanged
connection, socket welded connection, slip-on type of
connection, thrust block connection and mechanical type of
connection.

PIPING
Valve, Flow Measuring Devices and
Instruments:

Valves, flow measuring devices and
instruments are used to stop, direct, check
measure and control flow, temperature,
pressure, level and quality of the fluid in the
piping.

PIPING
Valves and Gages:
Valves and gages are used to stop the flow, control the flow
and to measure various parameters. The following valves and
gages are commonly used.
1. Gate valve
2. Globe valve
3. Control valve
4. Non-return valve
5. Safety valve
6. Relief valve
7. Stop valve
8. Integral bypass valve
9. Plug valve
10. Ball valve
PIPING
1. Elbow-down valve
2. Check valve
3. Pressure reducing valve
4. Drain valve
5. Vent valve
6. Steam trap
7. Level control valve
8. Level gage
9. Temperature gage
10. Pressure gage.

PIPING
The valves and gages can be actuated by
any one of the following methods:

1. Manual
2. Electrical
3. Mechanical
4. Hydraulic
5. Pneumatic

PIPING
The valves and gages can have the
following types of end connection:

1. Butt welded
2. Flanged
3. Socket welded
4. Screwed
5. Flanged and screwed.

PIPING
The gages can be of the following types:

1. Local indication
2. Local control
3. Local recording
4. Remote indication
5. Remote control
6. Remote recording
7. Data acquisition
8. Feed-back control
9. Programmable
10. Event recording.

PIPING