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Numerical Control ( NC) Programming

Submitted By, Group 4 Jibin Jose (1020015) Arani Ukil (1020106) R Manju Pargavi (1020147) Sherin Sunny (1020230) Dony Jose (1020311) Sandeep Pandita (1020328)

Introduction

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Numerical Control (NC) refers to the method of controlling the manufacturing operation by means of directly inserted coded numerical instructions into the machine tool. (example : cutter, milling machine) NC augmented with analog & digital computers - creating Computer Numerical Control (CNC) NC systems comprises of (1) Machine tool [milling machine, drilling machine ] and (2) Controller to control the motion of the machine Program Machine tool
Instructions Control Unit

Transformatio n Process

Power

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which includes the various passes that the wheel will make. It is one of the easiest types of CNC machines to work with as they often only contain a single grinding wheel. and hit start. . •Computer Numerical Control machines CNC Grinders A program is entered.Types of NC machines •Punched Card NC machines Used in the late 1940’s •APT (Automatically Programmed Tools) The main aim of APT language was to provide the means to the programmer by which they can communicate the machining instructions to the machine tools in easier manner using English like statements.

 CNC Lathe   CNC Vertical Spindle Milling machine It is basically a vertical milling machine that has an onboard computer to control its motion. .

Types of Control Systems  There are two types of control systems used on NC machines: point-to-point systems and continuous-path systems. A continuous-path machine can move its drive motors at varying rates of speed while positioning the machine. Each controller is manufactured with a standard set of built-in codes. Point-to-point machines move only in straight lines. Other codes are added by the machine tool builders    .

NC MOTION-CONTROL NC Program Execut ion Sy st em Dim ensio n s Com m ands Int erpolat or & Se r v o .c o n t r o l Mec hanism T r an sl at o r Cont rol Logic Po w e r Re la y Linear Mot ion So len o id .

Motion control: point to point (PTP) continuous (contouring) path 2.or pneumatic 4. Power drives: hydraulic. Hardwired NC and softwired Computer Numerical Control (CNC) . Control loops: open loop closed loop 3.NC MACHINE CLASSIFICATIONS 1. electric. Positioning systems: incremental absolute positioning 5.

table pulses motor Use stepping motor.CONTROL LOOPS Open loop .No position feedback. .

CLOSED LOOP _ Up-down counter DAC Amp Differential amplifier Shaft + DC Motor Tachometer Encoder + Reference pulses Closed-loop control mechanism .

left. and the cutting tool did all the moving--right. down--even though in fact most N/C milling machines use a stationary cutter (except for rotary and axial motion) and move the workpiece around the cutter  . up. except for rotary motion.What Moves--The Cutter or the Work piece?  The function of an N/C program is to direct the motion of a cutting tool around a work piece. N/C programs for milling machines must be written as though the work piece were stationary. in. out.

045 Y-3.045 inches along the X axis and -3.g.  G90sets the controller for positioning in terms of absolute . G70 G90 X0. ◦ This positioning information will be specified either incrementally (from the cutter's last position) or absolutely (from the origin).Where to Go ◦ To tell the controller where to send the cutter (its destination)..  the cutter will move to a point 0.980 inches along the Y axis.The Four Essential N/C Program Elements  The 1st Essential Element . ◦ E.980  G70 sets the controller to accept inch units.

.How to Get There ◦ Commands are given that will cause the cutter to move along one. The 2nd Essential Element . or three axes. two. ◦ In order to machine surfaces that are not parallel to one of the N/C machine's axes. the motion of two or more axes must be "timed" or coordinated to with other.

 The 3rd Essential Element . .” ◦ Feedrate travel  The rate of feed for N/C mills is usually stated in terms of how far the cutter moves per minute.How Fast to Get There ◦ Rapid travel  usually "wide open. can be stated in terms of how far the cutter advances per revolution of the spindle.  too fast for cutting operations. when the cutter is "cutting air.  The units are inches per revolution (IPR) or millimetres per revolution (MMPR).  used for positioning moves. usually 100 to 400 inches per minute. particularly lathes.  The feedrate on some N/C machines." as fast as the axes can go.  The units are inches per minute (IPM) and millimetres per minute (MMPM).

What to do When It Arrives ◦ Possibilities: 1. 3. . It could be told to send the cutter somewhere else--to its next destination. It could be told that the program is finished and to return the cutter to the origin or some other "home" point and to rewind the tape or memory in preparation for making the next part. The 4th Essential Element . 2. It could be told to drill a hole. It could be told to stop and wait while a clamp was being repositioned 4.

change cutting tools. Axis commands to move the cutter a certain distance in a certain direction. turn off the coolant. Feed rate commands to control cutter linear velocity.Information required by an N/C controller  Preparatory commands to establish the desired operating conditions.      . such as assigning a number to each block so the N/C operator can tell which command in a program is being executed. Identification commands. such as stop. Miscellaneous commands to take care of the odds and ends. Spindle speed commands to control cutter rotational velocity. and rewind the memory. and assigning tool identification numbers so the controller knows which cutting tool to use.

spindle speed T . and z-axes F .miscellaneous command ◦ Example: M07 = turn cutting fluid on .feed rate prefix S . y.preparatory words ◦ Example: G00 = PTP rapid traverse move X. Z .prefixes for x. Y.tool selection M .Types of Words N .sequence number prefix G .

spindle stop.0 Z010. N009 G01 Y125.0 Y-050.0. Mill vertical step above arc. cancel offset.0 M05. Circular interpolation around arc.0. turn spindle on. Mill lower horizontal edge of part. Mill vertical edge at right of part. N006 G01 Y070.0. N013 M30. End of program.0 Y100. N005 G01 X150. Bring tool to starting y-value. start cutter offset. Rapid to cutter depth. Mill vertical edge at left of part. stop machine.02. N010 G01 X0. N002 G00 Z-020.0 R030. N003 G01 G94 G42 Y0 D05 F398. N011 G01 Y0 N012 G40 G00 X-050. N007 G01 X080. Rapid move to target point. Mill horizontal edge leading to arc.0 S1989 M03. .0 Y043. Mill angled edge at 35 degrees. Mill top part edge.0.0. N004 G01 X075. Comments Define origin of axes.0 Z010. N008 G17 G02 X050.Example NC part program code N001 G21 G90 G92 X-050.0 Y-050.0.

 . Connect the CNC controller to a data storage peripheral device such as a paper tape punch/reader.Feeding the Controller Loading a program into CNC’s memory  Keying in the program directly into the controller through the controller's keyboard.  Connect the controller to a computer or a network that contains a previously written program. magnetic tape recorder or magnetic floppy disk drive through the serial port.

which gives some values of an unknown function f. suppose we have a table like this.What is interpolation?  interpolation is a method of constructing new data points within the range of a discrete set of known data points.  . For example.

8415 0.Plot of the data points as given in the table.9589 -0.7568 -0.1411 -0.9093 0. X 0 1 2 3 4 5 F(x) 0.2794 .

such as x = 2.5.  Interpolation provides a means of estimating the function at intermediate points. There are many different interpolation methods. Some of the concerns to take into account when choosing an appropriate algorithm are: How accurate is the method? How expensive is it? How smooth is the interpolant? How many data points are needed? . some of which are described below.

3. end point. center or radius. 4. Linear interpolation ◦ Straight line between two points in space Circular interpolation ◦ Circular arc defined by starting point. 2.Interpolation Methods 1. and direction Helical interpolation ◦ Circular plus linear motion Parabolic and cubic interpolation ◦ Free form curves using higher order equations .

Advantages of NC       Higher precision Machining of complex three-dimensional shapes: Better quality: Higher productivity: Multi-operational machining: Low operator qualification: .

Disadvantages Increase in electrical maintenance  High initial investment  Higher per-hour operating cost than traditional machine tools  Retraining of existing personnel  .

Cost-Benefits of NC Costs  High investment cost  High maintenance effort  Need for skilled programmers  High utilization required Benefits  Cycle time reduction  Nonproductive time reduction  Greater accuracy and repeatability  Lower scrap rates  Reduced parts inventory and floor space  Operator skill-level reduced .

laser beam machining. milling. • Sheet metal manufacture – Turret punch press. boring. • Coordinate Measuring Machines • Drafting machines • Robots • Rapid Prototyping (RP) machines . pipe bending. • Non-traditional machining – Wire-EDM. electron beam machining.Applications • Traditional machining – Turning. plasma cutting etc. water-jet cutting. flow forming etc. grinding etc.

Applications of NC .

Thank You .

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