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Sets and Venn Diagrams

By Amber K. Wozniak

What is a Venn Diagram? A Venn diagram is a way to show the relationship between two or more sets.   The blue circle is one subset and the purple is another subset of U. . Set U is the main set and then there are subsets.  Everything inside the black outline of the rectangle is defined as the “universal set” or U.

usually using the overlapping of the circles.The Diagram (continued)  To clarify:  Each circle is a set representing its own collection of elements.  . The purpose of the Venn diagram is to show the relationship between any two or more sets.

or in both A and B. like at the right. intersection. B. it would be AUB  The section between the two sets. where elements are in A and B.How are Sets Related?  Sets are said to be in union when they are overlapping. is known as the Elements in A and B are represented by writing “A B= {…}” with the elements inside the braces.  Set A Set B Intersection To write A union B. Saying “union” includes all elements in A. .

sets can be equal if they contain all of they same elements. One set can not have any elements the other does not or they are not equal sets. That is. On the other hand.  . Sets can also be disjoint sets. they can have no common elements.

7.Example 1 Let’s say set A is all odd numbers 1 to 10  This means A= {1. 5. 9} Set A Set B 7 1 5 9 3 6 U . 3. 6. 9} Let’s say there is also a set B that is all multiples of 3 from 3 to 10  This mean B= {3.

6. 7. 6. or all the elements that you  A’= {6}  would need to add to set A to give you everything in the universal set U (everything inside the black outline). 5. or the outline of the rectangle. 3. 7}  This tells us all the elements NOT in B . 9}  U is the universal set and includes ALL elements within the universe. 9} A B= {3.  B’= {1. 9}  This tells us that the elements 3 and 9 are in both sets This tells us all the elements NOT in A  The „ means the “compliment” of A. 5. 9} B= {3. 5. 7. 3. To define the Venn diagram on the previous slide we would write:  U= {1.    A= {1.

6. 3. 4. 4. R= {5. 6. those are the elements that will go in the intersection. set R is all multiples of 5 from 5 to 10. 5. and T= {2.Example 2 GIVEN: Set U is all whole numbers to 10. 10}. 10} Look for the elements that R and T have in common. 9. 1. Set R Set T U U= {0. 8. . and Set T is all multiples of 2 from 2 to 10. 8. 10}. or R T. 2. 7.

6. 10}. 6. again. 2. 6. To write this it is: T‟ U R= {5} (this tells is that 5 is NOT and element of T. and 8 are all elements in the crescent part of T. 4. 6. 7. but they are included in T) . 8} (this tells us. 10} You can use the same reasoning to determine that 2. so: Set T R T= {10} Set R 10 That leaves 5 in the crescent of R. 9. 5. 4. but it is an element of R) U U= {0. R= {5. 10}. 1. 8. 4.They only element that R and T have in common is 10. 3. that these four elements are NOT part of R. and T= {2. R‟ U T= {2. 8. 4.

1. 10} U includes all whole numbers through 10 and there are only six elements in the Venn diagram above. 10}. Since these numbers do not belong in either R or T.Set T 6 You must notice that not all of the elements are accounted for in the universe. R= {5. 9} . they must go outside R U T. 10}. 4. 8. 6. and T= {2. 5. 7. and 9 are missing yet. 4. What elements are left and where do they go? 5 Set R 2 10 4 8 U U= {0. 1. 3. 3. 8. 6. 2. 3. 1. 9. The numbers 0. (R U T)’={0. 7. 7. To write that it is the “compliment of (R U T)” (everything outside of both R and T).

5 Set R 9 4 8 3 U To tell that one number is a included in a set. To write that 5 is included in the set R. you could say 5 E R. this would be your completed Venn Diagram with all the elements in their correct set(s). you would write: 5ET So. you write is using an epsilon (E). you would write: 5ER To write that 5 is NOT included in the set T.0 1 6 Set T 2 10 7 After all that. but 5 E T .

  If you are unsure.   Take the Sets and Venn Diagrams Quiz Answers to the Quiz . look back at the information provided here OR Visit some of the web sites available on the next slide.It’s Quiz Time  Make sure that you feel comfortable with the Venn diagram.

Links to Useful Web Sites  Venn Diagrams (Shodor.org    .org) Venn Diagrams A Survey of Venn Diagrams JOMA.