Chapter 2

Protocols and the TCP/IP Suite

1 Chapter 2 Protocols and the TCP/IP Suite

Introduction
Layered protocol architecture  TCP/IP protocol suite  OSI reference model  Internetworking

2 Chapter 2 Protocols and the TCP/IP Suite

The Need for a Protocol Architecture Procedures to exchange data between devices can be complex  High degree of cooperation required between communicating systems  3 Chapter 2 Protocols and the TCP/IP Suite .

Example: File transfer Requires a data path to exist  Tasks:  – Activate data communication path – Source determines that destination is ready – File transfer app destination file management app is ready store file for user – File format conversion 4 Chapter 2 Protocols and the TCP/IP Suite .

Layered Protocol Architecture modules arranged in a vertical stack  Each layer in stack:  – Performs related functions – Relies on lower layer for more primitive functions – Provides services to next higher layer – Communicates with corresponding peer layer of neighboring system using a protocol 5 Chapter 2 Protocols and the TCP/IP Suite .

sequencing  6 Chapter 2 Protocols and the TCP/IP Suite .Key Features of a Protocol Set of rules or conventions to exchange blocks of formatted data  Syntax: data format  Semantics: control information (coordination. error handling)  Timing: speed matching.

TCP/IP Layers Physical  Network access  Internet  Transport Application  7 Chapter 2 Protocols and the TCP/IP Suite .

TCP and UDP  TCP: – connection-oriented – Reliable packet delivery in sequence  UDP: – connectionless (datagram) – Unreliable packet delivery – Packets may arrive out of sequence or duplicated 8 Chapter 2 Protocols and the TCP/IP Suite .

1 9 Chapter 2 Protocols and the TCP/IP Suite .Figure 2.

2 10 Chapter 2 Protocols and the TCP/IP Suite .Figure 2.

relaying data between hosts  TCP implemented only in end systems. assuring reliable delivery of blocks of data  Each host on subnetwork has unique IP address  Each process on each process has unique IP port number  11 Chapter 2 Protocols and the TCP/IP Suite .Operation of TCP and IP IP implemented in end systems and routers.

Figure 2-3 12 Chapter 2 Protocols and the TCP/IP Suite .

Figure 2-4 13 Chapter 2 Protocols and the TCP/IP Suite .

TCP Applications SMTP: Simple Mail Transfer Protocol  FTP: File Transfer Protocol  telnet: remote login  14 Chapter 2 Protocols and the TCP/IP Suite .

OSI Reference Model Application  Presentation  Session  Transport  Network  Data link  physical  15 Chapter 2 Protocols and the TCP/IP Suite .

Figure 2.5 16 Chapter 2 Protocols and the TCP/IP Suite .

Internetworking Terms Communication network  Internet  Intranet  Subnetwork  End system  Intermediate system  Bridge  Router  17 Chapter 2 Protocols and the TCP/IP Suite .

Routers Provide link between networks  Accommodate network differences:  – – – – Addressing schemes Maximum packet sizes Hardware and software interfaces Network reliability 18 Chapter 2 Protocols and the TCP/IP Suite .

Figure 2-7 19 Chapter 2 Protocols and the TCP/IP Suite .

Figure 2-8 20 Chapter 2 Protocols and the TCP/IP Suite .

Figure 2-9 21 Chapter 2 Protocols and the TCP/IP Suite .

Figure 2-10 22 Chapter 2 Protocols and the TCP/IP Suite .

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