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CARBOHYDRATE STRUCTURE A carbohydrate is an organic compound with the empirical formula Cm(H2O)n (where m could be different from n); that

is, consists only of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, with a hydrogen:oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in \water). Carbohydrates can be viewed as hydrates of carbon, hence their name. Structurally however, it is

more accurate to view them as polyhydroxy aldehydes and ketones. The term is most common in biochemistry. the monosaccharides and disaccharides. where it is a synonym of saccharide. and polysaccharides. The carbohydrates (saccharides) are divided into four chemical groupings: monosaccharides. oligosaccharides. In general. disaccharides. .

the names of the monosaccharides and disaccharides very often end in the suffix -ose. blood sugar is the monosaccharide glucose. For example.which are smaller (lower molecular weight) carbohydrates. are commonly referred to as sugars. The word saccharide comes from the greek word (sákkharon). table sugar is the disaccharide sucrose. meaning “sugar". While the scientific nomenclature of carbohydrates is complex. and milk sugar is the disaccharide lactose . .

Saccharides and their derivatives include many other important . and as structural components (e.ATP. starch and glycogen). The 5-carbon monosaccharide ribose is an important component of coenzymes (e....g.g.Carbohydrates perform numerous roles in living things. FAD.g. The related deoxyribose is a component of DNA. and NAD) and the backbone of the genetic molecule known as RNA. Polysaccharides serve for the storage of energy (e. cellulose in plants and chitin in arthropods).

and pasta) or simple carbohydrates. blood clotting. jams. preventing pathogenesis. and development. and desserts). fertilization. such as sugar (found in candy. the term carbohydrate often means any food that is particularly rich in the complex carbohydrate starch(such as cereals. In food science and in many informal contexts. .biomolecules that play key roles in the immune system. bread.


It has a formula of C12H22O11. some chemists considered formaldehyde CH2O to be the simplest carbohydrate. It consists of a molecule of Dgallactose and a molecule of D-glucose bonded by beta-1-4 glycosidic linkage. Formerly the name "carbohydrate" was used in Chemistry for any compound with the formula Cm(H2O)n. while others claimed that title for glycolaldehyde. Today the term is .Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. Following this definition.

usually one on each carbon atom that is not part of the . an aldehyde or ketone with many hydroxyl groups added.generally understood in the biochemistry sense. A typical monosaccharide has the structure H-(CHOH)x(C=O)-(CHOH)y-H. Natural saccharides are generally built of simple carbohydrates called monosaccharide with general formula (CH2O)n where n is three or more. that is. which excludes compounds with only one or two carbons.

and glyceraldehyde. and there are many chemicals that do conform to this formula but are not considered to be monosaccharides (e. formaldehyde CH2O and inositol (CH2O)6)...g. Examples of monosaccharides are glucose. However. some biological substances commonly called "monosaccharides" do not conform to this formula (e.aldehyde or ketone functional group.g. fructose. uronic acid and deoxy-sugars such as fucose). .

Many carbohydrates contain one or more . Monosaccharides can be linked together into what are called polysaccharides (or oligosaccharides) in a large variety of ways.The open-chain form of a monosaccharide often coexists with a closed ring form where the aldehyde/ketone carbonyl group carbon (C=O) and hydroxyl group (-OH) react forming a hemiacetal with a new C-O-C bridge.

a few monosaccharides covalently linked. a component of DNA. chitin is composed of repeating units ofN-acetylglucosamine.modified monosaccharide units that have had one or more groups replaced or removed. For example. is a modified version of ribose. deoxyribose. Oligosaccharides . a nitogen-containing form of glucose. .

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