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Solids: Conductors, Insulators and Semiconductors

• Conductors: mostly metals • Insulators: mostly nonmetal materials
– we’ll study allotropes of carbon and study their properties

• Semiconductors: metalloids

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Solids: Conductors, Insulators and Semiconductors
Conduction Band: white

No gap

Band gap

Valence Band in red
Conductor Insulator Semiconductor
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Bonding in Metals • The electron-sea model is a simple depiction of a metal as an array of positive ions surrounded by delocalized valence electrons. – Metals are good conductors of electricity because of the mobility of these delocalized valence electrons. 3 . – A metal also conducts heat well because the mobile electrons can carry additional kinetic energy.

Bonding in Metals 4 .

5 . this picture of metal bonding is called band theory. – Because the energy levels in a metal crowd together into bands.Bonding in Metals • Molecular orbital theory gives a more detailed picture of the bonding in metals.

– In a metal. 6 .Bonding in Metals • Molecular orbital theory gives a more detailed picture of the bonding in metals. this requires little energy since the unoccupied orbitals lie just above the occupied orbitals of highest energy.

Bonding In Metals: Lithium according to Molecular Orbital Theory 7 .

Magnesium 3s bonding and antibonding should be full 8 .

Magnesium Conduction band: empty No gap: conductor Valence band: full Conductor 9 .

Solids: Conductors. Insulators and Semiconductors Conduction Band: white No gap Band gap Valence Band in red Conductor Insulator Semiconductor 10 .

amazing possibilities 11 . insulator • Graphite: high thermal conductivity.Allotropes of Carbon • Diamond: high thermal conductivity. conductor – electrodes for electrolysis and batteries. essentially pencil “lead” • Fullerenes: discovered in 1986. extremely strong.

– must break carbon-carbon bonds 12 . – must break carbon-carbon bonds • Diamonds have a melting point of 3550°C. • Diamond is a covalent network solid – each carbon covalently bonded to 4 others. • Diamonds are the hardest substance known.Diamond • Diamond has a three-dimensional network structure in which each carbon is singly-bonded to four others with sp3 hybridization.

Structure of Diamond 13 .

• Why do diamonds conduct heat? – Metals conduct heat because the the mobile electrons can carry additional kinetic energy.Diamond • Diamond has a three-dimensional network structure in which each carbon is singly-bonded to four others with sp3 hybridization. – Diamonds are insulators and have no mobile electrons. – Diamonds conduct heat through high frequency (= high energy) vibrations that transmit over long distances • Diamonds conduct heat 4 times better than copper! 14 .

Graphite • Graphite has a layered structure. only graphite conducts electricity. – Of the covalent network solids. 15 . in which the carbon atoms in each layer bond to three other carbons with sp2 orbitals. – This is due to the delocalization of the resonant p electrons in graphite’s sp2 hybridization. • Graphite’s primary use is in the manufacture of electrodes for electrolysis and batteries.

Structure of Graphite 16 .

Each carbon is sp2 hybridized. – Buckminsterfullerenes show potential for applications in superconductivity and catalytic activity. C60.Fullerenes • The fullerenes are a family of molecules with a closed cage of carbon atoms arranged in pentagons and hexagons. 17 . – The most symmetrical member is buckminsterfullerene.

Buckminsterfullerene Figure 13. Richard Smalley. Rice University 18 .25: A frame model of C60. By permission of Dr.

5 eV ≈ 530 kJ/mol Conductor Insulator 19 .Solids: Conductors. Insulators and Semiconductors Graphite Diamond No gap Band gap = 5.

Solids: Conductors.1 eV 0.5 eV 1. Insulators and Semiconductors Band Gap for Semiconductors Diamond Si Ge 5.67 eV Band gap Semiconductor 20 .

• Gap between valence and conduction band is intermediate in size 21 .Semiconductors • Metalloids: semiconducting elements – low electrical conductivity at room temperature – Electrical conductivity increases with temp.

– A striking property of these elements is that their conductivities increase markedly when they are doped with small quantities of other elements.Semiconductors • Semiconducting elements form the basis of solid state electronic devices. – Metalloids (such as silicon or germanium) are semiconducting elements whose electrical conductivity increases as temperature increases. 22 .

23 . in which electric current is carried by electrons. – When silicon is doped with phosphorus.Semiconductors • Semiconducting elements form the basis of solid state electronic devices. it becomes an n-type semiconductor.

it becomes a p-type semiconductor.Semiconductors • Semiconducting elements form the basis of solid state electronic devices. in which an electrical current is carried by positively charged holes 24 . – When silicon is doped with boron.

25 .Semiconductors • Semiconducting elements form the basis of solid state electronic devices. – A rectifier is a device that allows current to flow in one direction. but not the other. which can function as a rectifier. – Joining a p-type semiconductor to an ntype semiconductor produces a p-n junction.

Figure 13.29: Effect of doping silicon. 26 .

27 .Figure 13.30: A p-n junction as a rectifier.

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