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Structured analysis

Problem Analysis and Fact Collection
• Objectives
– determine the organizational structure and its purpose, the problem areas, the environment around the organisation and identify the boundaries of the problem – establish a detailed specification of the problem – validate the gathered information

• Techniques for Fact Collection
– documentation review, interviewing, questioning, observation, measuring

• Preliminary Fact Documentation
– Matrices, Flowcharts, etc.
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Traditional approach
 Traditional approach of organize and convert the data through system flowcharts.  Flowchart only represent a physical rather than logical systems. it makes difficult to distinguish between what happens and how it happens  pros & cons of traditional approach 1. No accurate comm. with user. They have no language in common. 2. No tools avail to structure and control the details(business and technical)

” [Kendall 1996] . pencil and paper. Analysts work primarily with their wits.Definition of Structured analysis • “Structured analysis is a set of techniques and graphical tools that allow the analyst to develop a new kind of system specification that are easily understandable to the user.

Goals of Structured Analysis • Improve Quality and reduce the risk of system failure • Establish concrete requirements specifications and complete requirements documentation. . Flexibility. and Maintainability of system • Use graphics to communicate better to user. • Focus on Reliability.

Characteristics of a Good Analysis Method • Graphical with supporting text. • Allow system to be viewed in a top-down and partitioned fashion. • Reader should be able to predict system behaviour. • Easy to understand by user. . • Minimum redundancies.

-that will become programs in system design – DFD describe what data flow (logical)rather than how they are processed so it does not depend on hardware software. data structure or file organization .Tools of structured analysis DFD (data flow diagram) – Also known as bubble chart – Clarify system requirement & identify major transformations.

An open rectangle is a data store-data at rest or temporary repository of data. 8 .DFD SYMBOLS • A square defines a source or destination of system data: • An arrow identifies data flow-data in motion: it is a pipeline through which info. Flow • A circle or a bubble represents process that transform incoming data flow (s) in to outgoing data flow(s).

• Their main purpose is to communicate with the user. Process should be named and numbered for easy reference 2. The direction of flow from top to bottom and from left to right 3. When a process is exploded into lower level details.the data they contain.all documents involved.destinations. The names of data stores . • The logical view .2 4.1 and 5.Why do we use DFDs? • It is a way of taking the physical view and converting it into a logical view.they are numbered ex:process 5 is exploded in to subprocesses 5.are written in capital letters 5.sources. the analyst’s understanding of the scope of the required system Constructing DFD: 1. Process and data flow names have the first letter of each word capital . • The physical view .

indicate passage of data from output of one entitie to input of another represent a data group or data element a place where data is held for later use Data stores are passive: no transformations are performed on the data External entity – – – An activity outside the target system Acts as source or destination for dataflows that cross the system boundary External entities cannot interact directly with data stores A cluster of data represented as a single dataflow Consists of lower level data groups. or individual elements a basic unit of data Data flow – – – – Data group – – Data store Data element – .Central Concepts Process (data transformation) – – activities that transform data related by dataflows to other processes. and external entities. data store.

use a noun Sources source/ . or another system which exists outside the system you are studying.(external entities) • Any class of people. an organization. • Form the boundaries of the system. titles preferred to names of individuals . • The system and external entities exchange data in the form of data flows. • Must be named.

a signal with only one byte .Data Flows • data in motion • marks movement of data through the system . external entities and data stores • Unidirectional • originate OR end at a process (or both) • name as specifically as possible reflect the composition of the data . • HINT: if you can't name it: either it's control flow.a pipeline to carry data • connects the processes.a noun • do not show control flow! Control flow is easy to identify.(on/off). doesn't exist or you need to get more information! .

examples: create_exception_report validate_input_characters calculate_discount process .Processes • transform incoming data flows into outgoing data flows • represent with a bubble or rounded square • name with a strong VERB/OBJECT combination.

For instance. processes add or retrieve data from these stores • name using a noun (do not use „file‟) • only processes are connected to data stores • show net flow of data between data store and process. show only the result flow. not the request Data Stores . when access a DBMS.• data at rest • represents holding areas for collection of data.

Data flows that are UNASSOCIATED with a PROCESS 7. Leave things UNLABELED (corollary: labels should have meaning) 5. BLACK HOLES 2. Data stores that are “SOURCES” 6. Expect your diagram to be “perfect” the first time! .Data Flow Diagram Don‟ts 1. MIRACLES 4.

„Black Hole‟ process stuff process stuff 2.Data Flow Diagram Don‟ts 1. „It‟s a Miracle‟ .

Data Flow Diagram Don‟ts 4. Leave Things Unlabeled Corollary: Labels Should Have Meaning .

Miracle data source data store 5. Black hole data source .Data Flow Diagram Don‟ts data store 5.

Data Flow Diagram Don‟ts 6. Data Flows Unassociated With a Process data store to entity or reverse entity to entity data store to data store .

Diagramming A System • multiple DFDs are required to represent a system • DFDs are created at increasing levels of detail • Advantages of DFD • Represents data flows • Provides good system documentation. • Process bubbles can be hierarchically decomposed into sub-DFDs. the inputs and outputs must match at all levels of decomposition. • Major problem is large number of iterations that are require for complete solution. • Disadvantages • Weak in its display of input and output details. so the design has validation. • Easily understand after a brief orientation. .

3. confirmation itinerary data track timestamps booking confirmation confirmation booking confirmation customer . collate confirm system 3.3.2.1 issue tickets seating prefs request 3. system 3.1 booking booking Proposed reser. form of check schedule travel schedule proposed itinerary proposed 3.request booking request system 3. confirmbooked log3. issue tickets tickets fares check schedule Level 2: subprocesses Level n: subprocesses Level n: subprocesses 3.2. reserve seats booking request itinerary Fare tables booked itinerary 4. Request id. travel Timetables determine request 2. Request id. booking 3.Hierarchies of DFDs Level 0: Context Diagram ticket system booking confirmation booking system booking request customer query Level 1: Whole System customer customer query customer tickets 1. booking Request id. Req system Request id. seat booking booking log timestamps track booking ations 3. request res.3. booking request booking request request preferences Req id.id.1 preferences itinerary vations res.2. booking 3.

Data dictionary
• It is a structured repository of data about data. Although we give descriptive names to the data flows, process and data stores in a DFD, it does not give the details. Hence to keep the details of the contents of data flows, process and data stores we also require a Data Dictionary.It clearly documents the list of contents of all data flows, processes and data stores.

• The three classes to be defined in data dictionary are: • Data Elements: - this is the smallest unit of data. Further decomposition is not possible. • Data Structure: - this is a group of Data Elements which together form as a unit in a data structure. For ex “BOOK DETAIL” is a data structure consisting of data elements –author name , title , publisher name ,quantity etc. • Data flows and Data stores: - data flows are data structures in motion. • Data Stores are data structures at rest or in store . (Data structures in a data store - a data store is a location where data structures are temporarily located.)

Logical data description hierarchy
Smallest unit of data

Group of data element

Groups of data structures

description & an alias(synonym) Ex. 3.AUTHOR NAME: -first -middle -last -alias 2.• The description of data elements should include the Name . description should be summary of data element We may include whether or not the data element has:. A different name or alias for ex:purchase order may exist as P.O or PUR.ORDER. Describing data elements .

Usage characterstics .such as range of value .or access authorization.Describing data elements..users. value is a code that represent a meaning • Here 2 types of data elements:a)Those that take a value within a range ex:-a check amount between rs.110(personnel)etc. .Control information such as the source . date of origin. b)Those tat have a specific value:-for ex-department in a firm may be coded 100(accounting). • In data dictionary it is describe as follows: – 100 means”Accounting department” 101 means “accounts receivable section”……… In either type values are coded that represent a meaning. 5.1 and 10..000rs is called continuous value.) 4.(cont.

• Some elements are mandatory where else some are optional. .Describing data structure • Data structure are group of data element ex“BOOK DETAIL” • We describe data structure by specifying the name of each data structure and the elements it represents.

• illustrate it with example “BOOK DETAILS” mandatory optional Data structure Data elements BOOK-DETAILS AUTHOR NAME TITLE OF BOOK X X EDITION ISBN(international standard book number) PUBLISHER NAME QUANTITY ORDERED X X X X .

showing accounts receivable routine of book ordering system .Complete DFD .

• EX- Describing data flows and data stores • BOOK DETAILS expresses the content of the data flow that leads to process 4 • Additionally we may specify source of data flow .• The contents of a data flow may be described by the name of the data structures that passes along it(label name of data flow is the name of content it carry with it). the destination and the volume. .

• Using BOOK ORDER example data flow may be describe as follows:Data flow BOOK-DETAILS AUTHOR-NAME TITLE OF BOOK EDITION Recent edition required comments From new comb hall book store(SOURCE) QUANTITY Minimum 40 copies .

Data store • Data store may be describe by the data structures found in it and the data flows that feed it or are extracted from it. For example: the data store BOOKSTORE-ORDER is described by the following contents: Comments ORDER ORDER-NUMBER CUSTOMER-DETAILS BOOK-DETAIL Data flow/data structure feeding data store Content of data store Data flow/data structure extracted from data store .

• in figure process EDIT-ORDER can be described as shown:1.no balance remainder Customer payment file . Verify and decide whether customer credit is OK for authorising shipment logic Look up customer payment record If new bookstore .Name of process 2.input ORDER Edit order is O. • We want to specify input and output for the process and summarize the logic of the system.Short description 3.K.Describing processes • Describing process is a logical description.clear credit rating Output Credit OK.

Decision Tree – What is it? • A structure that can be used to divide up a large collection of records into successively smaller sets of records by applying a sequence of simple decision rules • A decision tree model consists of a set of rules for dividing a large heterogeneous population into smaller. more homogeneous groups with respect to a particular target variable • Decision tree has many branches as there are logical alternatives .

..Grades Yes Grade = A Percent >= 90%? Yes Yes Grade = B Grade = C No 89% >= Percent >= 80%? No 79% >= Percent >= 70%? No Etc..Example .

Decision Tree Template • Drawn top-to-bottom or leftto-right • Top (or left-most) node = Root Node Child Root Child Leaf • Descendent node(s) = Child Node(s) • Bottom (or right-most) node(s) = Leaf Node(s) • Unique path from root to each leaf = Rule Child Leaf Leaf .

construct and update 2. Make no prior assumptions about the data 5. Map nicely to a set of business rules 3.Decision Tree Advantages 1. Easy to understand. Able to process both numerical and categorical data . Applied to real problems 4.

. Output attribute must be categorical 2. Trees created from numeric datasets can be complex 4. Lack of information in its format to tell us what other combination of condition to test. Limited to one output attribute 3.Decision Tree Disadvantages 1.

Decision tree -Example Type of customer Size of order discount 6 or more Book store Discount policy Libraries or individual Less that 6 25% nil 15% 10% 5% 50 or more 20-49 6-19 Less than 6 nil .

• It uses logical construction to carryout instruction for action.• Structured English borrows heavily from structured programming .concise.the logic of the processes of the system is expressed by using the capitalized keywords • Sentence should also be clear . and precise in wording and meaning Structured English . • In this tool . • Decisions are made through IF THEN ELSE and SO statement.

Example of structured english(compute discount) • COMPUTE DISCOUNT Add up the number of copies per book title IF order is from book store and IF order is for 6 copies or more per book title THEN :Discount is 25%. Else (order is from libraries or individual customers) So-IF order is for 50 copies or more per book title discount is 15%... ELSE IF ELSE IF………. ELSE (order is for fewer than 6 copies per book title) SO:no discount is allowed. ..

• Decision table consist of two parts: stub and entry.• Decision table is a table of contingencies for defining a problem and the action to be taken • It is a single representation of the relationship between condition and actions. • The stub part is divided into an upper quadrant called the condition stub and the lower quadrant called action stub • The entry part is also divided into an upper quadrant called the condition entry and the lower quadrant called action entry Decision tables .

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.Identification of specific system objectives 3.System performance and its phase • A system required performance is defined by describing its output in a user acceptable format and at a higher level of detail.Statement of constraints 2.Description of outputs. • This involve three steps:1.

and capability and competence factors may limit system options. space.for example. • Technological .1. system constraints should not be used to artificially restrict or direct the system. Constraints may be: • Laws and regulations . The objective is to plan the best system for the problem to be solved.for example. . State.Statements of constraints • Constraints are the factors that limits the solution of the problem • Constraints are factors that lie outside . new equipment must be compatible with existing equipment. • As with objectives. or independent regulatory agencies may require specific design approaches for new systems or mandate specific changes to existing systems. Federal (central or national ).the system design effort. • However.but have a direct impact on .for example. not to fabricate and impose constraints that limit the system alternatives.for example. skill mix. staffing levels. • Operational . system constraints are critical to ensuing phases of the feasibility study. They can affect system requirements and the acceptability of alternatives. • Financial . proposed development and implementation costs must remain within a specified budget.

• In example of safe deposit billing system .the candidate system’s benefits are :a. • Specific objective are derived from initial investigation and system benefits are then translated into measurable objective. Cost reduction:-online billing require less labor and work hour. c. improved customer service:-place box rental info online.collection is improved be billing 30 days in advance of the box renewal date and one more notice is sent within 2 weeks b. rental fees and location .2. d.Identification of specific system objectives • Analyst identify the system’s specific performance objectives. Improved collection schedule:. • These information is used as a basis for preparing specific objective for candidate system:• To establish a billing system with six-five days cycles per month • To mail customer a reminder two week after the initial statement for box renewal • To examine the availability of boxes by size. Physical space reduction:-replace one computer in place of 4 desks. Provide forms online reduce waiting time.

• Specifying exactly what the output will look like leads to an estimate of computer storage requirement that form the basis for file design. frequency .Description of output • Final step in system performance definition is Describing the output required by the user • An actual format and content of report • Media used . • The analyst is now evaluate feasibility of candidate system to produce these outputs . size and number of copies required are prepared at this point.

Inc.Feasibility • A feasibility study assesses the operational. technical. and economic merits of the proposed project • There are three types of feasibility: – Technical feasibility – Economic feasibility – Operational feasibility Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall. 3-48 .

Inc. can they be upgraded to provide the level of technology necessary for the new system Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall.Technical Feasibility • Technical feasibility assesses whether the current technical resources are sufficient for the new system • If they are not available. 3-49 .

time. and features • Compatibility with existing systems .Technical Feasibility: Can We Build It? • Users’ and analysts’ familiarity with the business application area • Familiarity with technology – Have we used it before? How new is it? • Project size – Number of people.

ease of access. reliability.Can we build it? – Feasibility • Technical – Do we have the capability to develop the system? – Does the necessary tech exist? Can it be acquired? – Does the proposed equipment have the right capacity for the data? – Does the propose have the right: response time. interface. security ok? 2 . ease of use.51 . – Can the system be expanded? – Are the accuracy.

Inc. 3-52 .Economic Feasibility • Economic feasibility determines whether the time and money are available to develop the system • Includes the purchase of – New equipment – Hardware – Software Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall.

Economic Feasibility Should We Build It? • • • • Identify costs and benefits Assign values to costs and benefits Determine cash flow Assess financial viability – Net present value – Return on investment – Break even point .

54 .Should we build it? • Economic – – – – – Is there an economic payoff? include cost to conduct full systems integration cost of hardware/software/ other benefits in terms of reduced costs opportunity costs 2 .

Inc. 3-55 .Operational Feasibility • Operational feasibility determines if the human resources are available to operate the system once it has been installed • Users that do not want a new system may prevent it from becoming operationally feasible Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall.

This is known as feasibility study. The system is evaluated and measured against the expected performance. A suitable candidate is selected for the job and a final report is made and presented to the management for further evaluations. The measurement of feasibility is known as feasibility study. Firstly the project team is formed then with the help of flowcharts and other forms of documentations the characteristics of the system are identified.• Feasibility study • It is the measure and the study of how beneficial the development of the system would be to the organization. There are number of aspects which are taken into consideration while the feasibility studies. .

4 ) Identify and describe the characteristics of the candidate systems:-from the candidate system considered(number of candidate systems)the team begins to evaluate to reduce them into manageable number determine what each candidate system can or cannot do. There are large number of computers with different processing sizes. .catalog) the candidate systems:. The project team may contact vendors for information on processing capabilities of the system available. and data flow 3) Enumerate(list. detail . 2) Preparing layouts and flowcharts of the system :-charts bring up importance of input . main memory capabilities and software support .consideration of hardware that can handle the total system requirements.Steps in feasibility analysis There are number of steps in the feasibility study. output. some of them are:- 1) Forming a team for the specific project and appointing a suitable leader.

Steps in feasibility analysis(cont. Costs are easily determined when benefits of system are tangible and measurable.) 5) Determining the performance and cost effectiveness of each candidate system:-each candidate system performance is evaluated against the system performance requirements set prior to feasibility study. there has to be as close a match as practicable. Evaluation criteria Performance Response time Very good User friendly excellent Costs System good development Very good Good Very good Very good Very good Very good IBM PC HP 100 APPLE III User training excellent good good .

Assign a quantitative rating to each criterion’s qualitative rating for ex(good . but some situation are not clear cut so the next step is to weight the importance of each criterion by applying the rating figure. Sum the score column of each candidate. Then the candidate with high score is selected. The procedure for weighting candidate system is simple 1. Assign the weighting factor to each evaluating criteria based on the criteria effect on the success of the system 2.6) Reviewing the performance of the system and performing the cost data:-in some cases .fair)may be assign values (1.2.3.4.5) 3. Multiply the weight assign to each criterion by the relative rating to determine the score 4. This outcome terminate the feasibility study. Evaluation criterion performance Response time User friendly Costs Weighting factor IBM PC Rating score 8 15 HP 100 Rating 3 4 score 6 12 APPLE III Rating 4 4 score 8 12 2 3 4 5 System development User friendly 5 3 3 5 15 15 2 3 10 6 4 5 20 25 .performance and cost data for each candidate system show which system is best choice.

7) Selecting the best candidate for the system 8) preparing the final report for the management .

vocabulory. Summary • 3.general procedure. The report contain the following section:• 1.wordbook) • 5. report .cost and benefits use appendixes if necessary) Feasibility report . No standard format for preparing feasibility report. Glossary (dictionary. Discussion (the main body providing the evidence /outline the method used in present system also provide objective . Contents list (specifies various parts of report) • 4.It is a formal document for management brief enough and sufficiently non technical to be understandable. • 2. Introduction or overview (purpose and scope) • 6. output. Abstract : shows general findings .

• 8.) • 7. Recommendations (flowing naturally from the conclusions) and Conclusions (flowing naturally from the discussion) • 9. References (if necessary) • 10. Appendixes (document all data and memos and data compiled during the investigation.Feasibility report(cont. They are placed at the end for reference.. economic justification details: point by point cost comparisons and preliminary cost estimates for development and operation of candidate system.) .

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