Human Digestion

Nutrition
 Includes activities which

organisms obtain and process nutrients needed for energy, growth, repair, and regulation

Food includes:
 Nutrients:

Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, minerals, vitamins, and water

 Roughage

Fiber or cellulose found in vegetables that cannot be digested.

Roughage
 Why do we eat roughage?  If we can’t digest it, it goes through our body

scraping the inside of our intestines, cleaning them out.  Roughage is necessary for egestion: elimination of undigested waste.  Egestion has been discovered to prevent some diseases of the GI Tract.

Human Digestive System
 Continuous “one way” tract called the gastro-

intestinal tract or GI Tract, along with the organs which function in conjunction.  Nutrients and roughage are moved through the system by peristalsis

Peristalsis
 A wave of contractions

that pushes the food along the GI tract.
 Can you eat Upside

down?

Physical Digestion
 Ingestion: The inserting of nutrients into the body

The First attack
 Teeth  Increase the surface area of food for quicker and easier digestion  Salivary Glands

Secrete saliva which contains amylase  Amylase breaks down starch into disaccharides

Diet
 Carbohydrates should constitute 50% of a

balanced diet.
Primary source of energy for the body.  Found in fresh fruits and vegetables as well as whole grains.

Where does it go next???
 After food is chewed, it

is then swallowed and travels through the esophagus into the stomach.

The Stomach
 Muscular organ where food is temporarily stored  Food is liquefied into chyme  Protein digestion begins

Stomach continued
 The lining of the stomach contains Gastric

Glands
Secretes enzymes and Hydrochloric Acid (HCl)  HCl provides optimum pH for breakdown of gastric protease  Proteins digested into polypeptides and dipeptides

And onto the Small Intestine

The Small Intestine
 Major portion of the

food is digested here as well as most of the nutrient absorption  It is called the small intestine because it has a small diameter, but it is extremely long. This increases it’s surface area.

Structures that help the Small Intestine
 Gallbladder  Secretes Bile  Bile is produced in the liver and then stored in the gall bladder.  Bile emulsifies fat which increase the surface area of the fat.

The Gallbladder

Structures that help the Small Intestine
 The Pancreas  Secretes pancreatic protease, lipase, and amylase

The Small Intestine
 Lining of the small

intestine is covered in villi:

Increases the surface area for absorption Lacteals  Small lymphatic vessels and capillaries found on the villi

Fats Digestion
 Fats are broken down by hydrolysis
lipase

Lipids + Water  3 Fatty Acids + Glycerol
enzymes

 Saturated Fats

Solid at room temperature  Cause of cardiovascular disease  All single bonds  Polyunsaturated Fats  Oils  Liquid at room temperature  Not linked to cardiovascular disease  Contains at least one or more double or triple bond

Carbohydrate Digestion
 Broken down into simple sugars (mono saccharides)  Absorbed through the villi  Temporarily stored in the liver  Glucose is stored as the polysaccharide glycogen  In presence of hormones, glycogen is broken down in to glucose
maltase

Maltose + water  Glucose + Glucose
enzymes

Protein Digestion
 Proteins are broken down into amino acids
protease

Proteins + water  Amino Acids
enzymes

 Amino acids absorbed through villi and enter

capillaries  There are 20 amino acids necessary to produce the needed proteins

All but 8 can be synthesized, these must be consumed and are called the eight essential amino acids.

The remains move to the Large Intestine
 Excess water is

absorbed  During egestion, strong peristaltic action forces feces out the anus.

Digestive Malfunctions
 Ulcer: erosion of the alimentary canal (GI

Tract)  Constipation: too much water is reabsorbed in the large intestine and feces becomes very hard  Diarrhea: decreased water absorption in the large intestine leads to watery waste.  Appendicitis: inflammation of the appendix  Gallstones: accumulation of hardened cholesterol and or calcium deposits.