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Human Digestion

 Includes activities which
organisms obtain and
process nutrients
needed for energy,
growth, repair, and
Food includes:
 Nutrients:
 Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, minerals,
vitamins, and water

 Roughage
 Fiber or cellulose found in vegetables that
cannot be digested.
 Why do we eat roughage?
 If we can’t digest it, it goes through our body
scraping the inside of our intestines, cleaning
them out.
 Roughage is necessary for egestion:
elimination of undigested waste.
 Egestion has been discovered to prevent
some diseases of the GI Tract.
Human Digestive System
 Continuous “one way” tract called the gastro-
intestinal tract or GI Tract, along with the
organs which function in conjunction.
 Nutrients and roughage are moved through
the system by peristalsis
 A wave of contractions
that pushes the food
along the GI tract.

 Can you eat Upside

Physical Digestion
 Ingestion: The inserting of nutrients into the body
The First attack
 Teeth
 Increase the surface
area of food for quicker
and easier digestion
 Salivary Glands
 Secrete saliva which
contains amylase
 Amylase breaks

down starch into

 Carbohydrates should constitute 50% of a
balanced diet.
 Primary source of energy for the body.
 Found in fresh fruits and vegetables as well as
whole grains.
Where does it go next???
 After food is chewed, it
is then swallowed and
travels through the
esophagus into the
The Stomach
 Muscular organ where food is temporarily stored
 Food is liquefied into chyme
 Protein digestion begins
Stomach continued
 The lining of the stomach contains Gastric
 Secretes enzymes and Hydrochloric Acid
 HCl provides optimum pH for breakdown of
gastric protease
 Proteins digested into polypeptides and
And onto the Small Intestine
The Small Intestine
 Major portion of the
food is digested here as
well as most of the
nutrient absorption
 It is called the small
intestine because it has
a small diameter, but it
is extremely long. This
increases it’s surface
Structures that help the
Small Intestine
 Gallbladder
 Secretes Bile
 Bile is produced in the liver and then stored in the gall

 Bile emulsifies fat which increase the surface area of

the fat.
The Gallbladder
Structures that help the
Small Intestine
 The Pancreas
 Secretes pancreatic protease, lipase, and amylase
The Small Intestine
 Lining of the small
intestine is covered in
 Increases the surface
area for absorption
 Lacteals
 Small lymphatic

vessels and
capillaries found on
the villi
Fats Digestion
 Fats are broken down by hydrolysis

Lipids + Water  3 Fatty Acids + Glycerol


 Saturated Fats
 Solid at room temperature
 Cause of cardiovascular disease
 All single bonds
 Polyunsaturated Fats
 Oils
 Liquid at room temperature
 Not linked to cardiovascular disease
 Contains at least one or more double or triple bond
Carbohydrate Digestion
 Broken down into simple sugars (mono saccharides)
 Absorbed through the villi
 Temporarily stored in the liver
 Glucose is stored as the polysaccharide glycogen
 In presence of hormones, glycogen is broken down in
to glucose
 Maltose + water  Glucose + Glucose
Protein Digestion
 Proteins are broken down into amino acids

Proteins + water  Amino Acids


 Amino acids absorbed through villi and enter

 There are 20 amino acids necessary to produce the
needed proteins
 All but 8 can be synthesized, these must be consumed
and are called the eight essential amino acids.
The remains move to the
Large Intestine
 Excess water is
 During egestion, strong
peristaltic action forces
feces out the anus.
Digestive Malfunctions
 Ulcer: erosion of the alimentary canal (GI
 Constipation: too much water is reabsorbed in
the large intestine and feces becomes very
 Diarrhea: decreased water absorption in the
large intestine leads to watery waste.
 Appendicitis: inflammation of the appendix
 Gallstones: accumulation of hardened
cholesterol and or calcium deposits.