Strengthening mechanism

Strengthening Mechanism
• Plastic deformation occurs when large numbers of dislocations move and multiply • As a result macroscopic deformation takes place. • To enhance a material's mechanical properties (i.e. increase the yield and tensile strength) • It is needed to introduce a mechanism which prohibits the mobility of these dislocations and render the material stronger than previously.

• The stress required to cause dislocation motion is orders of magnitude lower than the theoretical stress required to shift an entire plane of atoms, • Hence, the hardness and strength (both yield and tensile) critically depend on the ease with which dislocations move

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Solid solution strengthening Precipitation or Dispersion Strengthening (includes reinforced with strong fibers) Grain size refinement Substructure formation Strain or Work hardening Strain aging

Solid solution Strengthening
• For this strengthening mechanism, solute atoms of one element are added to another, resulting in either substitutional or interstitial point defects in the crystal (see Figure 1). • The solute atoms cause lattice distortions that impede dislocation motion, increasing the yield stress of the material.

Solid Solution Strengthening

Elastic Interaction/Cottrell locking
• The interaction of the stress field around dislocation and solute atoms can occur • This results in lowering the energy of the system/dislocations • The strain energy of a dislocation can be relieved by repositioning of the atoms around the dislocation • Iron containing C&N shows a strong interactions

Solid solution strengthening
• Elastic Interaction • When both the dislocation and solute atoms are present in the lattice • Interaction of both the stress fields result in lowering the strain energy of the system. • Lattice parameter of the upper region can be reduced and lower region increased

• Solute atoms have stress fields around them which can interact with those of dislocations. • The presence of solute atoms impart compressive or tensile stresses to the lattice, depending on solute size, • Which interfere with nearby dislocations, causing the solute atoms to act as, • Potential barriers to dislocation propagation and/or multiplication

Chemical Interaction
• When a perfect dislocation dissociate into two partials • A ribbon of stacking fault formed which changes the stacking sequence or crystal structure locally • In FCC structure the faulted region is CPH structure and vice versa • Alloy chemistry and thermodynamics suggest that the concentration of solute atoms in the faulted region is different from the surrounding

• Since stacking fault energy varies with alloy composition • After redistribution of alloying element in the faulted region • The width may be expected to alter • This heterogeneous distribution of solute atoms around a dislocation may be regarded as chemical interaction

• This effect is often referred as suzuki effect • Experimental verification of this effect is difficult • However, it is suggested that locking force is estimated to be 1/10th of that due to cotterel locking

• Electrical interaction • Two solute atoms which dissolve in a solvent crystal with same degrees of misfit • May still harden the solid solution to different extent if their valences are not the same.

Geometrical interaction
• • • • • • Geometrical interaction; Ordered solid solution (Two types) Long range ordered solid solution Short range ordered solid solution In an ordered solid solution any given atom prefers to have unlike atoms as its neighbors • Consequently a process of slip require a very high stress in ordered solid solution. •

Geometrical interaction
• Dislocation moves in pairs (Super lattice dislocation) in order solid solution • In long range ordered super lattice dislocation reduced the strength in comparison to short range ordered • Because first dislocation produce disorder and the second dislocation produced order. • In short range order solid solution strength increases because the single dislocation pass through the crystal and produced disorder.

Precipitation or Dispersion Strengthening
• Dispersion Hardening: particles are introduced mechanically by dispersing them in the melt.e.g sintered alumina powder (SAP),TD in Ni or Co alloy • Precipitation Hardening: Thermal treatment, decomposition of supersaturated solid solution---Zones--intermediate precipitate---equilibrium precipitate.

• Zones: solid rich clusters within matrix lattice, fully coherent • Intermediate precipitate: may be partially coherent • Equilibrium precipitate: Normally non coherent

• Strengthening occurs when a moving dislocation impinges on the particles. • Depending on strength dislocation may be able to cut or forced to loop around them. • Limitation of service temperature for precipitation hardening.

Grain boundaries
• • • • High angle grain boundaries Low angle grain boundaries Act as a barriers to dislocation movement Yield stress and grain size have been found to be related by the Hall-Patch relationship for a wide range of metals and alloys

Low angle Grain Boundaries

• Work hardening, strain hardening, or cold work is the strengthening of a material by increasing the material's dislocation density. • In metallic crystals, irreversible deformation is usually carried out on a microscopic scale by defects called dislocations, • which are created by fluctuations in local stress fields within the material culminating in a lattice rearrangement as the dislocations propagate through the lattice.

• At normal temperatures the dislocations are not annihilated by annealing. • Instead, the dislocations interact with one another, and serve as pinning points or obstacles (Lommer cotteral barrier) that significantly impede their motion. • This leads to an increase in the yield strength of the material.

Strain Aging
• Annealed specimen of mild steel is deformed then unload. • Heat the specimen at 200oc for at least one hour or • Holding for several hours at room temperature. Resulted in • The increase in yield stress and drop in yield stress can reappear.

Creep curve

• Transient or primary stage of creep: creep rate decreases with time. • Second stage creep: creep rates remains constant during this stage. • Tertiary creep: creep rates accelerates during this . • Fracture finally takes place at the rupture strain and time.

• The presence of any of the stage of creep is a function of • Stress, temperature and material structure • For full understanding of creep a relationship between strain and ti me including the effect of stress, stress state, temperature, microstructure, composition and environment.

• To establish such a relationship the matter is quite complex. • It is therefore proposed that mechanism of deformation during creep stages are discussed. • Mechanism of creep deformation in literature is vast one. • A few important of them will be discussed.

Major mechanism
• • • • • Dislocation glide Diffusion creep Grain boundary sliding Irradiation creep Thermal cycling creep

• Chemical interaction • The ribbon of stacking fault changes the crystal structure locally. (alloy chemistry and thermodynamics also changes) • The solute atoms concentration in the faulted layer will be different from that in the surrounding matrix. • Since stacking fault energy varies with alloy composition ,after redistribution the fault width may be expected to alter.