Antibiotic Resistance Infection

Antibiotic abuse in the* .Egyptian society Allopathic versus Homeopathic* ? alternative. Truth or Myth

: Antibiotic Resistance
? What are antibiotics * Antibiotics are medicines that fight (or prevent) infections caused by bacteria but antibiotics can't fight viral . infections such as colds ? What is antibiotic resistance* Resistance is the ability of an organism to survive in the presence of concentrations of a chemical which are normally lethal to organisms of that . species

Penicillins )1

β –lactam antibiotics

:a -Natural penicillin
ex : Benzyl penicillin =R

) sensitive to acids and ß-lactamase (

:b -Semisynthetic penicillins
:Acid stable penicillin -1
=Ex:phenoxy methyl penicillin, R
=Azidocillin, R

-2β:-lactamase stable penicillin
Ex: Methicillin
Oxacillin,cloxacillin,dicloxacillin

:Extended spectrum penicillin -3
Ex :Ampicillin Amoxicillin =R =R

Penicillins active against -4 : Ps.aeruginosa Ex :Carbenicillin Ticarcillin

)2β: lactamase inhibitors
Clavulanic acid-1 Tazobactam-2 sulbactam-3

Cephalosporins )3
:First Generation*
Cephaloglycin ) parenterally (

Cephalexine ) Orally (

:Second Generation*
Cefuroxime ) Parenterally (

Cefprozil ) Orally (

:Third Generation* Cefotaxime ) Parenterally (

Cefixime ) Orally (

:Fourth Generation*
Cefpirome -

Cefepime -

Antibiotic abuse in Egyptian society
the antimicrobial agents are● used by too many people to treat the wrong kind of .infection Wrong dosage and wrong● period of time in both industrialized and developing countries, have contributed in spreading the resistant bacterial .infection

Examples of antibiotic abuse
Taking antibiotics for viral infections such .as a cold,the flu, and acute bronchitis :That may lead to many disadvantages like -1.Will not cure the infection -2 Will not keep other individuals from .catching the illness cause an unnecessary harmful side-3 . effects We can conclude that Antibiotics should * Not taken for Colds and Flu

The wrongs of some physician leading to the abuse of the antibiotic
Doctors choose antibiotics-1 randomly without finding the . exact cause of the illness Doctors under pressure from-2 patients who have the misunderstanding that expensive medicines are always better

.

.

use of new and advanced wide- -3 spectrum antibiotics

EX: description of 4 th quinolones (Moxifloxacin) although the 2nd (Ciprofloxacin) can be used effectively . against Gram negative bacteria

(moxifloxacin)

:Side effects of some antibiotics*
Antibiotics may affect intervertebral. disc health Ex : cefazolin, gentamycin, . cefamandole and vancomycin

Gentamycin

How can I avoid the antibiotic ?abusing
Do not take an antibiotic for a-1 .viral infection like a cold or the flu Do not save your antibiotic for the-2 .next time you get sick Take an antibiotic exactly as the-3 , healthcare provider tells you .Complete the course of treatment Do not take antibiotics prescribed-4 . for someone else

As the result of the antibiotic abuse the sensitivity of the antibiotic become as the :following

Homeopathy versus Allopathy
?What is homeopathy? how dose it work ●
. Homeopathy is scientific system of healing .It aims to treat person by natural remedies Homeopathy means treatment with substance ● . give the same symptoms like patient suffering Allopathy means treatment with opposite by ● substance suppress or relieve the effect and . symptoms of illness

Homeopathy
.

Comparison between homeopathy and* :Allopathy
Allopathy

medicines have similar ● medicines have different ● biological effects to the illness .biological effects from the illness acting directly upon the tissues ● .and the cells of the body Medicines are taken ● .continuously and indefinitely

acting indirectly on diseased● . cells and organs of body Medicines are taken in ● . general infrequently Medicines are free of side ● . effects and toxicity

Medicines may cause side effects ● . in some cases

Examples of homeopathic medicine
Garlic
It is natural homeopathic antibiotic. ●main active constituents: ●

:

1) allicin

obtained from allin .by enzyme allinase

Allin

Allylsulfonic acid

α-Aminoacrylic acid

Allylsulfonicacid
f

Allicin

:diallyl disulphide-2) )60% )2

Sulfonium-Ion

3) diallyl trisulphide )20%): 4) Ajoene:

Diallyldisulfid

Allylsulfinsäure

) (5S) Allylcystein

:Galic uses *
. prevent common cold and influenza due to-1 anti-microbial activity

.Ajoene ; has antimicrobial and antiviral activity-2 .Allicin and Adenosine ; have antiplatlet activity-3 .decrease cholesterol and triglyceride levels-4

Structure activity relationship of garlic constituents:

Antibacterial activity of allicin alone and in combin with beta- lac

? Homeopathy versus Allopathy myth or truth
. It can be concluded that homeopathy can be alternative to allopathy through the following comparison

Garlic
Type natural homeopathic Structure of active constituent

Vancomycin
allopathic antibiotic

avtive against MRSA-1 Advantage active against MRSA-1 . and VER . only of garlic the chance of-2 organism may develop-2 over organisms developing resistance for example vancomyci . resistance is low . VRE n .has no side effects-3 .has many side effects-3

:References
www.wikipedia.org www.hpa.org.uk www.amm.co.uk www.nhsdirect.nhs.uk .www.garlic-central.com/antibiotic

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