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VSAM Alternate Indexes

Department of Computer Science Northern Illinois University August 2005

Introduction to Alternate Indexes
• Alternate Indexes (AIX)
– Used in KSDS – similar to prime index but indexes on values of some field other than the prime key – can provide an additional way of retrieving the data in a KSDS

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Introduction to Alternate Indexes
• Alternate Indexes Example
– Student Information
• primary key: • alternate index: • alternate index: Student-ID Student-Name Student-Major

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Introduction to Alternate Indexes
• Records
– are maintained in logical sequence based upon the primary key values via the prime index – are also maintained in logical sequence based upon values of alternate key via additional indexes called alternate indexes

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Introduction to Alternate Indexes
• Alternate indexes are created using the DEFINE command in IDCAMS

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KSDS Base Cluster

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KSDS Alternate Index

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KSDS Alternate Index
• Alternate Index Component
– Each pointer record contains
• the primary key value • pointer into AIX data component

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Processing via KSDS Alternate Index
• Program passes alternate key value to VSAM • VSAM proceeds:
– searches the index component index to locate the appropriate CI in the alternate index data component

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Processing via KSDS Alternate Index
• VSAM proceeds:
– reads in the CI from the AIX data component and locates the record that corresponds to the supplied alternate key value
• this record contains the primary key value of the desired base cluster record

– the primary key value just obtained is used to search the primary index as normal
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Processing via KSDS Alternate Index
• VSAM proceeds:
– the CI is read from the base cluster and the desired record is extracted from it and passed to the application program

• VSAM performs 2 separate index searches to locate the desired record
– first the AIX – second the primary index
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ESDS Alternate Index
• ESDS clusters can also be referenced by alternate indexes
– Note: RRDS cannot have AIX

• Structure is similar to that of the KSDS AIX

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ESDS Alternate Index

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ESDS Alternate Index
• VSAM:
– searches the index component of the AIX to locate the appropriate CI in the AIX data component – reads in the CI and locates the particular record in the data component that corresponds to the supplied alternate key value
• this record contains a direct RBA pointer to the desired record in the data component of ESDS 14 base cluster

ESDS Alternate Index
• VSAM:
– the CI that contains the desired record is read from the data component of the ESDS is extracted from it based on the RBA value obtained from the AIX

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Paths and AIX
• Path
– combination of an AIX and the base cluster – has separate set of attributes defined separately from attributes of AIX or base cluster – use DEFINE PATH to create a path – define both base cluster and AIX first

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Paths and AIX

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Paths and AIX
• If an application program refers to base cluster itself
– AIX is not used

• If an application program refers to an AIX itself
– records are retrieved from the data component of the AIX – base cluster is not referenced
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Paths and AIX
• If an application program wants to access records from a base cluster via an AIX
– use a path

• The program supplies an AIX key value and VSAM searches the AIX to find the corresponding AIX / pointer pair • A path must be defined for each AIX
– actual DEFINE covered later
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Nonunique Alternate Key Values
• In KSDS
– primary key must have unique values – when an insertion of a duplicate key value is attempted an invalid key is issued

• AIX may be either
– unique or – nonunique
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Nonunique Alternate Key Values
• If AIX is defined as unique, VSAM does not allow duplicate AIX key values • If AIX is defined as nonunique VSAM allows records to be loaded and inserted that have the same value in the AIX field

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Nonunique Alternate Key Values
• In AIX
– there is one record in the data component for each unique AIX key value – has multiple pointer to associated records in the base cluster

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Nonunique Alternate Key Values

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Upgrade in AIX
• When updates to base cluster - AIX may need updating • VSAM can be directed to perform all AIX updates automatically • Specify UPGRADE option in DEFINE of AIX • All AIX of a cluster with upgrade option are known as the base cluster’s upgrade set 24

Upgrade in AIX
• Upgrade Set
– when base cluster is updated, the corresponding updates are applied to all AIXs in the upgrade set

• Application program has to update any AIXs not in the upgrade set

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Defining a KSDS Alternate Index
• Using IDCAMS
– DEFINE ALTERNATEINDEX
• creates a catalog entry for the alternate index • allocates space for the AIX • associate the AIX with a base cluster

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Defining a KSDS Alternate Index
DEFINE ALTERNATEINDEX (NAME (znumber.aixname) RELATE (zumber.KSDSname) VOLUMES(ACA301) RECORDSIZE(avgsize maxsize) KEYS(length displacement) TRACKS(1 1) ) -

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Calculating RECORDSIZE
• Calculating Maximum RECORDSIZE
– RecordSize = a + b + (n * c)
• where
– – – – – a=5 (the control bytes in a CI) b = alternate key length c = primary key length n= 1 OR n= estimated maximum number of primary keys associated with one AIX value

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Calculating RECORDSIZE
• Calculating Average RECORDSIZE
– RecordSize = a + b + (n * c)
• where
– – – – – a=5 (the control bytes in a CI) b = alternate key length c = primary key length n= 1 OR n= estimated average number of primary keys associated with one AIX value

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Defining a Path for an AIX
• Using IDCAMS
– DEFINE PATH
• gives name to a path • specifies the name of the alternate index it references • base cluster is not specified because the AIX definition specifies the name of the base cluster

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Defining a Path for an AIX
DEFINE PATH ( NAME (znumber.pathname) PATHENTRY(znumber.aixname) ) -

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Building an AIX
• Using IDCAMS
– BLDINDEX
• loads the alternate index • AMS
– reads the base cluster sequentially and constructs alternate key/pointer pairs for each record – sorts the alternate key/pointer pairs into ascending alternate key sequence – uses the sorted alternate key/pointer pairs to load records into the data component of the AIX
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Defining a KSDS Alternate Index
• Go over page 41 of course notes showing
– DEFINE ALTERNATEINDEX – DEFINE PATH – BLDINDEX

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Processing KSDS in COBOL Using AIX
• A KSDS with an AIX can be processed
– sequentially – randomly – dynamically

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JCL for Using AIX
• Need to specify
– KSDS data set
• //ddname DD DSN=….

– AIX date set(s)
• • • • //ddname1 DD DSN=…. //ddname2 DD DSN=…. …. //ddnamen DD DSN=….
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JCL for Using AIX
• Example JCL
//GO.MASTER DD DSN=znumber.KSDS,DISP=SHR //GO.MASTER1 DD DSN=zumber.PATH2,DISP=SHR //GO.MASTER2 DD DSN=znumber.PATH2,DISP=SHR //….

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File-Control for AIX in KSDS
• File-Control. SELECT file-name ASSIGN to DA-ddname ORGANIZATION IS INDEXED ACCESS MODE IS [SEQUENTIAL | RANDOM | DYNAMIC RECORD KEY IS recordKeyName ALTERNATE RECORD KEY IS aixKey1 [WITH DUPLICATES] ALTERNATE RECORD KEY IS aixKey2 [WITH DUPLICATES] …. ALTERNATE RECORD KEY IS aixKeyn [WITH DUPLICATES] FILE STATUS IS statusCodeField.
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File-Control for AIX in KSDS
• ALTERNATE RECORD KEY IS aixKey1 [WITH DUPLICATES] – specifies the name of an alternate key field for the KSDS file – one per AIX that will be used in the program in same order as specified in the IDCAMS (not all have to be coded all the time) – WITH DUPLICATES specifies that the AIX 38 key value is non-unique

AIX Sequential Processing
• Specify key to use in the START statement
MOVE spaces/zeros TO aixKey1. START ksdsFileName KEY NOT < aixKey1. – Where aixKey1 is the name of the alternate key as specified in ALTERNATE RECORD KEY IS aixKey1

• Subsequent READ statements retrieve the records in alternate key sequence 39

AIX Sequential Processing
• When AIX key has duplicate values the status code contains values
– 00 - last record with AIX key value has been successfully read – 02 - a record has been read successfully and there are more with this AIX key value – 23 - no record found with the specified AIX key value
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AIX Sequential Processing
• PROCEDURE DIVISION code for processing sequential reads of duplicate AIX key values
– Read page 45 in class notes

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AIX Random Processing
• Only the READ and REWRITE statements are coded differently
– READ statement change
READ ksds-fileName RECORD INTO identifier KEY IS aixKey1 INVALID KEY imperative-statement.

– To use AIX key, the KEY IS clause must be coded
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AIX Random Processing
• Only the READ and REWRITE statements are coded differently
– REWRITE statement change
• the AIX key value can be changed via the rewrite • Note: primary key value cannot be changed this way - thus the change

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