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Job Control Language

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JOB CONTROL LANGUAGE For IBM Mainframe System 390

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Pre-requisites
lProgramming Fundamentals. lMVS Operating system and its subsystem TSO. lNavigating through ISPF.

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Evaluation Scheme
l Quiz : 20 Marks ( Conducted after 2 sessions of Input ) l OLE : 80 Marks

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References
#
1. 2. 3.

Title
MVS JCL

Authors
Doug Lowe

Publishers
Mike Murarch and Associates

System 370/390 JCL GD Brown IBM Manuals

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l

Objectives of the Course To acquaint participants to the specific nature of Job
Control Language.

l To illustrate the syntax of JCL. l To demonstrate the JCL programs, procedures, Various Data set allocation mechanisms, IBM Utilities l To acquaint the participants regarding the importance of VSAM, GDGs, and concepts of SMS.
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Objectives of the Session
l To learn about JES as a Sub system and its functions. l About JCL syntax in general l About Job statement. l Some sample examples.

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JOB AND A JCL
A JOB is the execution of one or more related programs in sequence. Each Program to be executed by a Job is Called a Step. Ex: The first program sorts customer names in a sequence The second program generates a report .

Job Control Language is a set of control statements that
Provides specifications necessary to process a Job.

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J

C

L

JOB

CONTROL

LANGUAGE
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Determine the job

Create the JCL

Submit the JOB

JES interprets JCL and passes it to MVS

System Messages

MVS does the work

User Views and Interprets output ER/CORP/CRS/OS02/003-1

JES collects the output and information about the JOB
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WHY JCL ???
• MVS operating system is designed to work in the batch processing mode • JCL is a powerful and flexible language that helps to customize the use of local and remote resources available to one or more computers
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Difference between batch & interactive processing
Batch processing • Jobs submitted are executed at later time • User can not interact • Performance measure is throughput • Snapshot of output is used for debugging Interactive processing • Jobs submitted are executed immediately • User can interact • Performance measure is response time • Interactive debugging

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Various stages of JCL execution
• • • • • • Input Conversion Execution Output Hard copy Purge

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Various stages of JCL execution
• Input • Conversion • Initiator • Output • Purge JES gives a unique job number Check syntax error & Place it in JES spool Taking the job from the spool and sending it for execution sends the output to printer After job is processed,it is purged
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•Stages of Job Processing - INPUT

Job entry or input is how jobs are entered into the system.
Several methods are :
• • • •

Local and remote card readers Via a started procedure Internal reader From another system via network job entry
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Stages of Job Processing - INPUT
MVS  JES INPUT
SPOOL

JCL SYSIN

During input processing , the job is placed out on spool. t this point in time, a job consists of :

JOB Control Language Any JOB Entry Control Language (JECL) in the Input Stream Any data SYSIN in the Input Stream
An entry is initialized in the Jobqueue and the job is assigned a 10/15/08 JES Job Number as part of Input Processing 16
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• Any

Stages of Job Processing -CONVERSION
MVS  JES
SPOOL

JCL SYSIN

PROCLIB PROC • Input

to the conversion process consists of the Original JCL and any cataloged procedure referenced by it Syntax checking of the JCL is done at this time

• Full

• During conversion the JCL for a job is converted to its internal form, known as Converter/Interpreter text. All of the jobs that were marked awaiting conversion in the job Queue are converted
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Stages of Job Processing -CONVERSION
JOB INTERPRETER - JES2
 PAY JCL
INTERPRETER

• JES2

gives job to idle initiator

• Initiator
PAY CONTROL BLOCKS

attaches the interpreter to build control blocks

• Control

blocks used to start job in initiator

JES2 ADDRESS SPACE

INITIATOR ADDRESS SPACE
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Stages of Job Processing -CONVERSION
JOB INTERPRETER - JES3
 PAY JCL
INTERPRETER

• JES

Attaches the interpreter

• Interpreter

builds the control blocks in the JES address space passes the CONTROL blocks to an idle initiator to start execution.

PAY CONTROL BLOCKS

• JES

JES3 ADDRESS SPACE

INITIATOR ADDRESS SPACE

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Stages of Job Processing - EXECUTION
1. Initiator Invokes a program called Interpreter which goes thru the Job Input and creates a series of Control blocks in Scheduler Work Area , a part of Address space Private Area. 2. 3.

It then invokes Allocation routines that decides on what resources the Job step needs in terms of Units , Volumes and Data sets.

Initiator then builds a User region where the User’s program is loaded , control is transferred to Program and the program gets executed.

12. When the Program execution is over Initiator invokes deallocation routines to release all the resources that are used.
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Stages of Job Processing - EXECUTION
• INITIATOR is responsible for the EXECUTION step of the Job Initiator
1 2 3 4 5 6

Eligible Job classes
A B,C,D,H,L,T B,C,D,H,L,T B,C B,C C
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Stages of Job Processing - EXECUTION
• JES

selects a job for execution , based upon job CLASS and job selection PRTY ex. //PAY JOB PRTY=8,CLASS=A

• Allocation

( of data sets and devices necessary for execution ) is performed. the program reads any ‘ SYSIN’ data, a copy will be read from Spool and presented to the program.

• If

• If

the program creates any ‘SYSOUT’ data, it will be ‘Spooled’, rather than sent directly to an output device.
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Stages of Job Processing - OUTPUT

After the job has terminated, the output created is analysed and grouped according to SYSOUT class and output characteristics Entries are then created in the Job Output Table (JOT) to reflect these various groupings

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Stages of Job Processing - HARDCOPY
During this phase, job output characteristics and the output is sent to the physical devices.

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Stages of Job Processing - PURGE
• During

Purge processing, all of the resources allocated to the job in earlier phases can be freed for re-use. These include :
– – –

Spool Space Jobqueue space JES job number
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JCL PROCESSING
INPUT STREAM JES2 / JES3 SPOOL JCL SYSIN SYSOUT

PRINTER

JES2 / JES3

INITIATOR1

INITIATOR2

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JCL execution
JCL INITIATION

STEP INITIATION

JCL SYSIN SYSOUT
ALLOCATION

PROGRAM EXECUTION

STEP TERMINATION
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QUESTIONS ???
• JCL is used to write an application program ? Yes/No • What are the different stages of JCL processing ?

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JCL statements
   JOB EXEC DD Job identification Instruction for execution Source of data to operate

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TYPE OF STATEMENTS
• JOB CONTROL STATEMENTS • UTILITY CONTROL STATEMENTS

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Basic Format of a JCL :
• JCL statements are coded in 80 byte records – Only 72 of the 80 chars available to code JCL • last eight columns of each record reserved for an optional sequence number

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Basic Format of a JCL :
JCL FIELD NAMES 3. 4. 5. 6. Identifier field NAME field OPERATION field PARAMETER field – Positional – Keyword 7. COMMENT field
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JCL STATEMENT FORMAT

//P123 JOB 1234,AMLAN,CLASS=E JOBSTATEMENT
Name Parameters

Operation Identifier
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Comment
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Basic Format of a JCL : ...
Identifier [Name] [Operation] [Parameters] [Comments] • Identifier
• Two slashes ( // ) starting in col 1.
– Exceptions • 1) For a delimiter statement, /* starting in col 1 • 2) For a comment statement , //* starting at col 1

• Name
• One to eight alphanumeric , starting with a letter char. Starts from col 3. Valid chars A-Z,0-9 or national characters ( # , @ , $ )
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Basic Format of a JCL : ...
– Operation
• A valid operation code, such as JOB, EXEC or DD. Must be preceded and followed by a space.

– Parameters
• One or more parameters depending on the operation. Individual parameters are separated from one another by commas, no intervening spaces.

– Comments
• comments may follow parameters, preceded by one space and not extending beyond col 71
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JCL parameters :
• JCL parameters : – 1) Positional parameters • Must occur at a specific position within the parameters field • account for a missing parameter by a comma

– 2) Keyword parameters • UNIT=SYSDA ( no spaces )
– UNIT is a keyword parameter of value SYSDA

• Keyword parameters to come only after all positional parameters have been coded, order of keyword parameters immaterial
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JCL subparameters :
• DCB=(DSORG=PO,LRECL=80, BLKSIZE=6160) • DCB=(DSORG=PO) DCB=DSORG=PO • DISP=(,DELETE)

Comma place holders are required only for missing positional subparameters.
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Continuing JCL statements: ...
• Break the parameter field with the comma that follows a parameter or sub-parameter • Slashes in column 1 & 2 of following line • Next parameter or sub parameter starting anywhere between columns 4 - 16
//SYSUT2 DD DSNAME=...,DISP=..., // UNIT=SYSDA,VOL=SER=MPS800, // SPACE=(CYL,(10,5,2)), // DCB=DSORG=PO ( X ) Avoid continuing comments from line to line.
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Guidelines :
• JCL cryptic : – Code just one or two parameters per line – align the operation and parameters fields of each statement – begin job with a group of comment statements that document a job thoroughly
• Name, date of coding, what each job step does, any special processing requirements • Don’t forget to update comments !
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JCL statements
   JOB EXEC DD Job identification Instruction for execution Source of data to operate

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JOB STATEMENT
ACCT NAME MSGLEVEL MSGCLASS COND USER PASSWORD TIME CLASS NOTIFY TYPRUN PRTY RESTART REGION PERFORM

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IMPORTANT JOB PARAMETERS positional parameters ( a/c inf ),name
ex. //INFOSYSA JOB (A123),AMLAN

All these parameters are optional as far as JCL is concerned, they are probably required by your installation.

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IMPORTANT JOB PARAMETERS keyword parameters ( CLASS )
ex. //INFOSYSA JOB CLASS=A

CLASS specifies the job class that is the nature of the job. Installation will specify which of the 36 possible classes to use which is from A to Z and 0 to 9 .

• Installation establishes a default class that is in effect if CLASS is omitted.
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IMPORTANT JOB PARAMETERS keyword parameters ( MSGCLASS )
ex. //INFOSYSA JOB MSGCLASS=A

MSGCLASS specifies the job scheduler message output class.

• Job scheduler messages include all messages not printed by the job steps being executed but the JCL messages and system messages • Installation establishes a default class that is in effect if CLASS is omitted.
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IMPORTANT JOB PARAMETERS keyword parameters ( MSGLEVEL )
ex. //INFOSYSA JOB MSGLEVEL=(1,1)

MSGLEVEL(jcl,allocations) specifies the printing of JCL statements and allocation messages.

• ex. MSGLEVEL(0,1) will print only JOB statement, and all the allocation,JES,SMS and operator messages • By default it is MSGLEVEL(1,1)
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keyword parameters ( MSGLEVEL )
MSGLEVEL=(X,Y) Where X is 0 thru 2 , Y is 0 thru 1 X = 0 , Lists Job statements only. X = 1 , Lists all User JCL + All catalogued procedures. X = 2 , Lists all User JCL but no catalogued procedures. Y = 0 , No Initiator/terminator messages to be listed. Y = 1 , All initiator/terminator messages to be listed.
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IMPORTANT JOB PARAMETERS keyword parameters ( NOTIFY )
ex. //INFOSYSA JOB NOTIFY=INFOSYS

NOTIFY notifies you at a time-sharing terminal when the job is completed.

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IMPORTANT JOB PARAMETERS keyword parameters ( TYPRUN )
ex. //INFOSYSA JOB TYPRUN=SCAN • TYPRUN checks the JCL and holds the job in the input queue.
• TYPRUN = SCAN checks the JCL for syntax errors and suppresses execution of the job • TYPRUN = HOLD holds the JCL in the input queue for later execution.It is held until the operator releases it. • TYPRUN = JCLHOLD(JES2 only) similar to HOLD but the difference is it is checked while it is not with the HOLD option. • TYPRUN = COPY(JES2 only) lists or duplicates the lines placed in the JOB statement to the class assigned in the MSGCLASS parameter and suppresses execution. 10/15/08
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SOME OTHER keyword JOB PARAMETERS
• PRTY=priority : is related to the CLASS parameter. It assigns priority to jobs which belong to the same class.priority numbers range from (0-14) or (0-15) depending on installations. • TIME=(min,sec) : signifies how much time the JOB must take to run.

• RESTART=STEP3 :Forces the JOB execution to start from STEP3.
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SOME OTHER keyword JOB PARAMETERS
• ADDRSPC=REAL : It is used to specify whether the program is to use REAL or VIRTual ADDRess SPaCe. Default is Virtual. If Real is coded then the REGION parameter is also to be coded.

• REGION=96K :To override the default amount of workspace assigned for the job.

• COND=(4,LT) :Permits the execution of a steps to depend on the return code from the previous steps.Will be dealt in detail in Day2.
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Errors
• JCL syntax errors. JOB will not be executed • JCL allocation errors. JES2-subsequent steps will not get executed. JES3-detects errors in the beginning.
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Abend Failures
An ABEND failure occurs under the following conditions: A program while executing, attempts to perform an instruction or operation which the system recognizes as being impossible or unacceptable.
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Causes of Abend Failures
•Logic error •JCL error •Resource unavailability •Exceeding limits (Time or Space on DASD) •Hardware Malfunction •User ABENDS •Operator intervention •Operating System failure
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That’s all for DAY 1
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