\

+ +
=
To determine the resultant (R) point of application from the
property line, take moments at point (O)
(O)
P
c2
Strap Beam
Property
Line
P
c1
R
L
y
2*y
O
a
1
27 April 2012
Shallow Foundations, P3, Tarek Nageeb
7
Dimensions of Plain Concrete Footings:
Assume the thickness of the plain concrete footings, t
p.c.
Assume the lengths of footings F
1
to be (L
p.c.1
) and F
2
to
be (L
p.c.2
), such that the resultant would approximately
lie at the middle of the outer plain concrete edges.
(F
1
, F
2
)
Determine the reactions under the footings, R
1
and R
2
(R
1
& R
2
)
27 April 2012
Shallow Foundations, P3, Tarek Nageeb
8
Dimensions of Plain Concrete Footings:
To determine R
1
, take moments about Point (2):
(R
1
) ( 2 :)
L * 10 . 1 * P
2
L
2
a
L * R
c1
1 . c . p
1
1
=


.

\

+
P
c2
Strap Beam
Property
Line
P
c1
O
L
R
1
R
2
2
L
p.c.1
L
p.c.2
a
1
27 April 2012
Shallow Foundations, P3, Tarek Nageeb
9
Dimensions of Plain Concrete Footings:

.

\

=
2
a
L L
L * 10 . 1 * P
R
1
1 . c . p
c1
1
soil all
1
1 . c . p
q
R
A =
1 . c . p
1 . c . p
1 . c . p
L
A
B =
(B
p.c.1
) (L
p.c.1
)
R
2
= P
total
R
1
soil all
2
2 . c . p
q
R
A =
2 . c . p
2 . c . p
2 . c . p
L
A
B =
 Assume t
p.c.
, and x = t
p.c.
 Reinforced Concrete Dimensions:
L
R.C.1
= L
p.c.1
x, B
R.C.1
= B
R.C.1
2 x
L
R.C.2
= L
p.c.2
2 x, B
R.C.2
= B
R.C.2
2 x
27 April 2012
10
Shallow Foundations, P3, Tarek Nageeb
Calculation of Ultimate Footing Loads
P
uc1
= 1.4 * (P
c1
+W
st.b./2
) Dead + 1.6 * P
c1
Live
P
uc2
= 1.4 * (P
c1
+W
st.b./2
) Dead + 1.6 * P
c2
Live
Strap beam weight:
W
st.b.
= b
st.b.
* t
st.b.
*L*
c

.

\

+
=
2
L
2
a
L
L * P
R
1 . C . R 1
uc1
1 u
R
u2
= P
uc1
+ P
uc2
R
u1
1 . C . R
u1
1 un
L
R
/m' f =
2 . C . R
u2
2 un
L
R
/m' f =
To get R
u1
take
moments at point 2*
27 April 2012
Shallow Foundations, P3, Tarek Nageeb
11
Contact Pressure between P.C. and R.C. Footings
P
c1 P
c2
f
un1
/m'
f
un2
/m'
P
c2
Strap Beam
Property
Line
P
c1
L
R
u1
R
u2
L
R.c.1
L
R.c.2
a
1
2*
27 April 2012
12
Shallow Foundations, P3, Tarek Nageeb
Shear Force Diagram of the Strap Beam
P
c1 P
c2
f
un1
/m'
f
un2
/m'
27 April 2012
13
Shallow Foundations, P3, Tarek Nageeb
Bending Moment Diagram:
P
c1 P
c2
f
un1
f
un2
M
max1
M
max2
27 April 2012
Shallow Foundations, P3, Tarek Nageeb
14
Design of Strap beam for Flexure
P
c2
Strap Beam
Property
Line
P
c1
L
L
R.c.1
L
R.c.2
a
1
M
max2
M
1
M
2
M
max1
Two sections are designed for M
max1
and the larger of M
1
and M
2
27 April 2012
Shallow Foundations, P3, Tarek Nageeb
15
Design of Strap
Beam for Shear
P
c2
Strap Beam
Property
Line
P
c1
L
L
R.c.1
L
R.c.2
a
1
Maximum shear took place
at the strap beam free span.
Q
max1
27 April 2012
Shallow Foundations, P3, Tarek Nageeb
16
Design of Strap
Beam Footings
P
c2
Strap Beam
Property
Line
P
c1
L
L
R.c.1
L
R.c.2
a
1
Critical section for moment at the strap beam face
F
1
C
2
C
1
Strap Beam
F
2
d/2
Critical Section
for Shear
Critical Section
for Moment
Critical section for shear at d/2 from the strap beam face
d/2
27 April 2012
17
Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb
Longitudinal Reinforcements for the Strap Beam
Strap Beam Reinforcement
27 April 2012
Shallow Foundations, P3, Tarek Nageeb
18
Reinforcement of Strap Beam Footings
F
1
C
2
C
1
Strap Beam
F
2
27 April 2012
Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb
19
Example (5): Design of Strap Beam
Book Ghonaim Mashour From Dr.
Design a strap beam to connect the two footings
shown in figure knowing that:
Allowable soil pressure = 150 kN/m
2
Concrete, f
cu
= 25 N/mm
2
; Steel, f
y
= 360 N/mm
2
27 April 2012
20
Shallow Foundations, P3, Tarek Nageeb
27 April 2012
21
Shallow Foundations, P3, Tarek Nageeb
DESIGN OF STRAP BEAM
Resultant, R = P
c1
+ P
c2
P
c1
= 380 + 305 = 685.0 kN = 68.50 ton
P
c2
= 820 + 450 = 1270.0 kN = 127.00 ton
R = 68.50 + 127.00 = 195.50 ton
c2 c1
1
c2
1
1 c
P P
L
2
a
* P
2
a
* P
y
+

.

\

+ +
=
m 3.43
127.0 68.50
90 . 4 25 . 0 * 127.0 0.25 * 68.50
y =
+
+ +
=
27 April 2012
Shallow Foundations, P3, Tarek Nageeb
22
Choose the footings such that:
L
p.c.2
= 2*[6.85 (4.90 + 0.25)]
3.40 m, to be taken 3.35 m
L
p.c.1
assumed to be taken 2.20 m
P
c2
=127 t
Strap Beam
Property
Line
P
c1
=68.50 t
O
R
4.90
3.43
2*y 6.85 m
27 April 2012
Shallow Foundations, P3, Tarek Nageeb
23
Design of Plain Concrete Footings:
To determine R
1
, take moments about Point (2):
(R
1
) ( 2 :)
127.0 t
Strap Beam
Property
Line
68.50 t
O
4.90 m
R
1
R
2
2
2.20 m
3.35 m
a
1


.

\

+
=
2
L
2
a
L
L * 10 . 1 * P
R
1 . c . p
1
c1
1 ton 91.16
2
20 . 2
2
50 . 0
90 . 4
90 . 4 * 10 . 1 * 50 . 68
R
1
=

.

\

+
=
27 April 2012
Shallow Foundations, P3, Tarek Nageeb
24
Design of Plain Concrete Footings:
(B
p.c.1
) (L
p.c.1
)
R
2
= P
total
R
1
= 215.05  91.16 = 123.89 ton
P
total
= 1.10 *(P
c1
+ P
c2
)
= 1.10*(68.50+127.0) = 215.05 ton
2
soil all
2
2 . c . p
m 8.26
0 . 15
89 . 123
q
R
A = = =
m 2.60 2.47
35 . 3
26 . 8
L
A
B
2 . c . p
2 . c . p
2 . c . p
~ = = =
2
soil all
1
1 . c . p
m 6.08
0 . 15
16 . 91
q
R
A = = =
m 2.80 2.76
20 . 2
08 . 6
L
A
B
1 . c . p
1 . c . p
1 . c . p
~ = = =
27 April 2012
Shallow Foundations, P3, Tarek Nageeb
25
Design of Reinforced Concrete Footings:
 Assume t
p.c.
= 40 cm, and x = t
p.c.
= 40 cm
 Reinforced Concrete Dimensions:
L
R.C.1
= L
p.c.1
x = 2.20 0.40 = 1.80 m
B
R.C.1
= B
R.C.1
2 x = 2.80 0.80 = 2.00 m
L
R.C.2
= L
p.c.2
2 x = 3.35 0.80 = 2.55 m
B
R.C.2
= B
R.C.2
2 x = 2.60 0.80 = 1.80 m
27 April 2012
26
Shallow Foundations, P3, Tarek Nageeb
Calculation of Ultimate Footing Loads
P
uc1
= 1.4 * 41.15 + 1.6 * 30.50 = 106.41 ton
Strap beam weight:
W
st.b.
= b
st.b.
* t
st.b.
*L*
c
= 2.5*0.4*1.3*4.9 ~ 6.3 t
P
c1DL
= 38.0 + 6.3/2 = 41.15 ton
P
c2DL
= 82.0 + 6.3/2 = 85.15 ton
P
uc2
= 1.4 * 85.15 + 1.6 * 45.0 = 191.21 ton
ton 122.67
2
80 . 1
25 . 0 90 . 4
90 . 4 * 40 . 106
2
L
2
a
L
L * P
R
1 . C . R 1
uc1
1 u
=

.

\

+
=

.

\

+
=
27 April 2012
27
Shallow Foundations, P3, Tarek Nageeb
Calculation of Ultimate Contact Pressure
t/m' 68.15
80 . 1
67 . 122
L
R
/m' f
1 . C . R
u1
1 un
= = =
t/m' 68.61
55 . 2
95 . 174
L
R
/m' f
2 . C . R
u2
2 un
= = =
R
u2
= P
uc1
+ P
uc2
R
u1
= 106.41 + 191.21 122.67 = 174.95 ton
27 April 2012
28
Shallow Foundations, P3, Tarek Nageeb
27 April 2012
29
Shallow Foundations, P3, Tarek Nageeb
Design of Strap Section for Maximum Moment:
27 April 2012
30
Shallow Foundations, P3, Tarek Nageeb
d = t 7 cm = 130.0 7.0 = 123.0 cm
M
max
= 56.46 t.m
2
s cu
u
d * b * f
M
R=
0.037
123 * 40 * 250
10 * 46 . 56
R
2
5
= =
Assume the strap beam has the following dimensions:
t
st.b.
= 130 cm b
st.b.
= 40 cm
d
st.b.
= 130.0 7.0 = 123.0 cm
From the Re chart, R = 0.037, then e = 0.045
27 April 2012
31
Shallow Foundations, P3, Tarek Nageeb
d * b *
f
f
* A
s
y
cu
s
e =
2
s
mm 1537.0 1230 * 400 *
360
25
* 0.045 A = =
For such large concrete section and to make sure
that the failure will not be brittle, the Egyptian
Code states that the minimum area of steel will be:
=
s
y
cu
min s
A 3 . 1
d b
f
f 0.225
of smaller A
27 April 2012
32
Shallow Foundations, P3, Tarek Nageeb
= =
= =
=
2
s
2
y
cu
min s
mm 1998 1537.0 * 1.30 A 3 . 1
mm 1536 1230 * 400 *
360
25 225 . 0
d b
f
f 0.225
of smaller A
2
min s
mm 738 1230 * 400 *
100
0.15
d b
100
0.15
A = = >
A
s
= 15.36 cm
2
, use 8u
16
= 16.08 cm
2
27 April 2012
33
Shallow Foundations, P3, Tarek Nageeb
Design of Strap Sec. 2: for M = 233.3 kN.m
From the Re chart, R = 0.0154, then e = 0.019
0.0154
123 * 40 * 250
10 * 3.33 2
R
2
5
= =
2
s
mm 649.0 1230 * 400 *
360
25
* 0.019 A = =
~ =
= =
=
2
s
2
y
cu
min s
mm 844.0 649.0 * 1.30 A 3 . 1
mm 1536 1230 * 400 *
360
25 225 . 0
d b
f
f 0.225
of smaller A
2
min s
mm 738 1230 * 400 *
100
0.15
d b
100
0.15
A = = >
A
s
= 8.44 cm
2
, use 4u
18
= 10.18 cm
2
Design of Strap Beam for Shear:
27 April 2012
34
Shallow Foundations, P3, Tarek Nageeb
Q
u
= 16.27 ton
2
3
u
u
kg/cm 3.31
123 * 40
10 * 27 . 16
d * b
Q
q = = =
2 2
cu
cu
kg/cm 9.80 N/mm 0.98
1.5
25
0.24
1.5
f
0.24 q = = = =
2
y
min st
mm 33 . 133 200 * 400 *
240
0.4
s * b *
f
0.4
A = = =
Use four branches stirrups 5
8
/m'
A
st
= 4 * 50 = 200 mm
2
> A
st
min
Assume that the footing
thickness t = 50 cm, and the
depth d = 43 cm
For a 1.00 m strip at Sec. (11):
27 April 2012
35
Shallow Foundations, P3, Tarek Nageeb
2
R.C.1
u1
1 u
t/m 34.08
1.80 * 2.0
67 . 122
A
R
f = = =
( )
t.m 10.91
8
4 . 0 0 . 2 * 08 . 34
8
b  B * f
M
2
2
strap 1 . C . R u1
1
=
=
=
Design of Footings: Design for Moment
Footing F
1
, Exterior (neighbor) Footing
R
u1
= 122.67 ton
f
u1
= 34.08 t/m
2
2.00
0.80
0.80
0.40
1
1
R = 0.024, w = 0.0284
A
s
= 8.48 cm
2
A
s
= 5
16
/m'
27 April 2012
36
Shallow Foundations, P3, Tarek Nageeb
Design of Footings: Design for Moment
Footing F
2
, Interior Footing
2
R.C.2
u2
2 u
t/m 38.12
1.80 * 2.55
95 . 174
A
R
f = = =
( )
t.m 9.34
8
4 . 0 80 . 1 * 12 . 38
8
b  B * f
M
2
2
strap 2 . C . R u2
2
=
=
=
f
u2
= 38.12 t/m
2
1.80
0.70
0.70
0.40
1
1
For a 1.00 m strip at Sec. (11):
R
u2
= 174.95 ton
R = 0.02, w = 0.0235
A
s
= 7.16 cm
2
A
s
= 5
16
/m'
27 April 2012
Shallow Foundations, P3, Tarek Nageeb
37
Design of Footings: Design for Shear
Critical section for shear at d/2 from the strap beam face
d/2
C
2
C
1
Strap Beam
F
2
d/2 = 0.215 m
Critical Section for Shear
2.55
1
.
8
0
1.80
F
1
2
.
0
0
0
.
5
8
5
0
.
4
8
5
0
.
7
0
0
.
8
0
m 0.585
2
0.43

2
0.40 2.0 
2
d

2
b  B
x
strap R.C.1
2
= = =
For Footing F
1
For Footing F
2
m 0.485
2
0.43

2
0.40  1.8
2
d

2
b  B
x
strap R.C.2
2
= = =
Design of Footings: Design for Shear
The shear is safe, then check the shear for the
second footing
27 April 2012
38
Shallow Foundations, P3, Tarek Nageeb
Q
u1
= f
u1
*x
2
*B
R.C.1
= 34.08*0.585*1.80 = 35.89 ton
For Footing F
1
2
3
R.C.1
u1
1 u
kg/cm 4.64
43 * 180
10 * 89 . 35
d * B
Q
q = = =
2 2
cu
cu
kg/cm 6.50 N/mm 0.65
1.5
25
0.16
1.5
f
0.16 q = = = =
q
u1
(4.64 kg/cm
2
) < q
cu
(6.50 kg/cm
2
) O.K.
Design of Footings: Design for Shear
The shear is safe
27 April 2012
39
Shallow Foundations, P3, Tarek Nageeb
Q
u2
= f
u2
*x
2
*B
R.C.2
= 38.12*0.485*2.55 = 47.14 ton
For Footing F
2
2
3
R.C.2
u2
uu
kg/cm 4.87
43 * 225
10 * 14 . 47
d * B
Q
q = = =
q
u1
(4.87 kg/cm
2
) < q
cu
(6.50 kg/cm
2
) O.K.
Reinforcement Details of the Strap Beam
27 April 2012
40
Shallow Foundations, P3, Tarek Nageeb
Reinforcement Details of the Strap Beam
27 April 2012
41
Shallow Foundations, P3, Tarek Nageeb
Reinforcement Details of the Footings
27 April 2012
42
Shallow Foundations, P3, Tarek Nageeb