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# 27 April 2012

## Shallow Foundations, P3, Tarek Nageeb

1
SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS
PART 3

27 April 2012
Shallow Foundations, P3, Tarek Nageeb
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DESIGN OF STRAP BEAM

27 April 2012
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Shallow Foundations, P3, Tarek Nageeb
FOUNDATION ENGINEERING
1- Site Investigation
2- Design of Shallow Foundations:
a- Design of Isolated Footings.
b- Design of Isolated Footings under
c- Design of Combined Footings.
d- Design of Strap Beam.
e- Design of Raft Foundations
27 April 2012
Shallow Foundations, P3, Tarek Nageeb
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Strap Beam

C
2
C
1
Strap Beam

Property
Line

P
c2
Strap Beam
P
c1
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Shallow Foundations, P3, Tarek Nageeb
DESIGN OF STRAP BEAM

Strap beam connects neighbor footing (at the
property line) with the adjacent inner footing.
( )
.
Resultant, R = P
c1
+ P
c2
P
total
= 1.10*(P
c1
+ P
c2
)

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c2 c1
1
c2
1
1 c
P P
L
2
a
* P
2
a
* P
y
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
=
To determine the resultant (R) point of application from the
property line, take moments at point (O)
(O)

P
c2
Strap Beam
Property
Line

P
c1
R

L

y

2*y

O

a
1
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Shallow Foundations, P3, Tarek Nageeb
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Dimensions of Plain Concrete Footings:
Assume the thickness of the plain concrete footings, t
p.c.

Assume the lengths of footings F
1
to be (L
p.c.1
) and F
2
to
be (L
p.c.2
), such that the resultant would approximately
lie at the middle of the outer plain concrete edges.

(F
1
, F
2
)

Determine the reactions under the footings, R
1
and R
2
(R
1
& R
2
)
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Shallow Foundations, P3, Tarek Nageeb
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Dimensions of Plain Concrete Footings:
To determine R
1
, take moments about Point (2):

(R
1
) ( 2 :)
L * 10 . 1 * P
2
L
2
a
L * R
c1
1 . c . p
1
1
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
P
c2
Strap Beam
Property
Line

P
c1
O

L

R
1
R
2
2

L
p.c.1
L
p.c.2
a
1
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Shallow Foundations, P3, Tarek Nageeb
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Dimensions of Plain Concrete Footings:
|
.
|

\
|

=
2
a
L L
L * 10 . 1 * P
R
1
1 . c . p
c1
1
soil all
1
1 . c . p
q
R
A =
1 . c . p
1 . c . p
1 . c . p
L
A
B =
(B
p.c.1
) (L
p.c.1
)
R
2
= P
total
R
1
soil all
2
2 . c . p
q
R
A =
2 . c . p
2 . c . p
2 . c . p
L
A
B =
- Assume t
p.c.
, and x = t
p.c.
- Reinforced Concrete Dimensions:
L
R.C.1
= L
p.c.1
x, B
R.C.1
= B
R.C.1
2 x
L
R.C.2
= L
p.c.2
2 x, B
R.C.2
= B
R.C.2
2 x
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Shallow Foundations, P3, Tarek Nageeb
P
uc1
= 1.4 * (P
c1
+W
st.b./2
) Dead + 1.6 * P
c1
Live

P
uc2
= 1.4 * (P
c1
+W
st.b./2
) Dead + 1.6 * P
c2
Live

Strap beam weight:
W
st.b.
= b
st.b.
* t
st.b.
*L*
c

|
.
|

\
|
+
=
2
L
2
a
L
L * P
R
1 . C . R 1
uc1
1 u
R
u2
= P
uc1
+ P
uc2
R
u1
1 . C . R
u1
1 un
L
R
/m' f =
2 . C . R
u2
2 un
L
R
/m' f =
To get R
u1
take
moments at point 2*

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Shallow Foundations, P3, Tarek Nageeb
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Contact Pressure between P.C. and R.C. Footings
P
c1 P
c2
f
un1
/m'

f
un2
/m'

P
c2
Strap Beam
Property
Line

P
c1
L

R
u1
R
u2
L
R.c.1
L
R.c.2
a
1
2*

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Shallow Foundations, P3, Tarek Nageeb
Shear Force Diagram of the Strap Beam
P
c1 P
c2
f
un1
/m'

f
un2
/m'

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Shallow Foundations, P3, Tarek Nageeb
Bending Moment Diagram:
P
c1 P
c2
f
un1
f
un2
M
max1
M
max2
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Shallow Foundations, P3, Tarek Nageeb
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Design of Strap beam for Flexure
P
c2
Strap Beam
Property
Line

P
c1
L

L
R.c.1
L
R.c.2
a
1
M
max2
M
1
M
2
M
max1
Two sections are designed for M
max1

and the larger of M
1
and M
2
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Design of Strap
Beam for Shear
P
c2
Strap Beam
Property
Line

P
c1
L

L
R.c.1
L
R.c.2
a
1
Maximum shear took place
at the strap beam free span.

Q
max1
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Design of Strap
Beam Footings
P
c2
Strap Beam
Property
Line

P
c1
L

L
R.c.1
L
R.c.2
a
1
Critical section for moment at the strap beam face

F
1
C
2
C
1
Strap Beam
F
2
d/2

Critical Section
for Shear

Critical Section
for Moment

Critical section for shear at d/2 from the strap beam face
d/2
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Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb
Longitudinal Reinforcements for the Strap Beam

Strap Beam Reinforcement
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Reinforcement of Strap Beam Footings
F
1
C
2
C
1
Strap Beam
F
2

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Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb
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Example (5): Design of Strap Beam
Book Ghonaim Mashour From Dr.
Design a strap beam to connect the two footings
shown in figure knowing that:
Allowable soil pressure = 150 kN/m
2

Concrete, f
cu
= 25 N/mm
2
; Steel, f
y
= 360 N/mm
2

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Shallow Foundations, P3, Tarek Nageeb
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Shallow Foundations, P3, Tarek Nageeb
DESIGN OF STRAP BEAM
Resultant, R = P
c1
+ P
c2

P
c1
= 380 + 305 = 685.0 kN = 68.50 ton
P
c2
= 820 + 450 = 1270.0 kN = 127.00 ton
R = 68.50 + 127.00 = 195.50 ton
c2 c1
1
c2
1
1 c
P P
L
2
a
* P
2
a
* P
y
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
=
m 3.43
127.0 68.50
90 . 4 25 . 0 * 127.0 0.25 * 68.50
y =
+
+ +
=
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22
Choose the footings such that:
L
p.c.2
= 2*[6.85 (4.90 + 0.25)]
3.40 m, to be taken 3.35 m
L
p.c.1
assumed to be taken 2.20 m
P
c2
=127 t

Strap Beam
Property
Line

P
c1
=68.50 t

O

R

4.90

3.43

2*y 6.85 m

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Shallow Foundations, P3, Tarek Nageeb
23
Design of Plain Concrete Footings:
To determine R
1
, take moments about Point (2):

(R
1
) ( 2 :)
127.0 t

Strap Beam
Property
Line

68.50 t

O

4.90 m

R
1
R
2
2

2.20 m

3.35 m

a
1
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
2
L
2
a
L
L * 10 . 1 * P
R
1 . c . p
1
c1
1 ton 91.16
2
20 . 2
2
50 . 0
90 . 4
90 . 4 * 10 . 1 * 50 . 68
R
1
=
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
27 April 2012
Shallow Foundations, P3, Tarek Nageeb
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Design of Plain Concrete Footings:

(B
p.c.1
) (L
p.c.1
)
R
2
= P
total
R
1
= 215.05 - 91.16 = 123.89 ton

P
total
= 1.10 *(P
c1
+ P
c2
)
= 1.10*(68.50+127.0) = 215.05 ton

2
soil all
2
2 . c . p
m 8.26
0 . 15
89 . 123
q
R
A = = =
m 2.60 2.47
35 . 3
26 . 8
L
A
B
2 . c . p
2 . c . p
2 . c . p
~ = = =
2
soil all
1
1 . c . p
m 6.08
0 . 15
16 . 91
q
R
A = = =
m 2.80 2.76
20 . 2
08 . 6
L
A
B
1 . c . p
1 . c . p
1 . c . p
~ = = =
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Design of Reinforced Concrete Footings:
- Assume t
p.c.
= 40 cm, and x = t
p.c.
= 40 cm

- Reinforced Concrete Dimensions:
L
R.C.1
= L
p.c.1
x = 2.20 0.40 = 1.80 m
B
R.C.1
= B
R.C.1
2 x = 2.80 0.80 = 2.00 m
L
R.C.2
= L
p.c.2
2 x = 3.35 0.80 = 2.55 m
B
R.C.2
= B
R.C.2
2 x = 2.60 0.80 = 1.80 m
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Shallow Foundations, P3, Tarek Nageeb
P
uc1
= 1.4 * 41.15 + 1.6 * 30.50 = 106.41 ton

Strap beam weight:
W
st.b.
= b
st.b.
* t
st.b.
*L*
c
= 2.5*0.4*1.3*4.9 ~ 6.3 t

P
c1DL
= 38.0 + 6.3/2 = 41.15 ton

P
c2DL
= 82.0 + 6.3/2 = 85.15 ton

P
uc2
= 1.4 * 85.15 + 1.6 * 45.0 = 191.21 ton

ton 122.67
2
80 . 1
25 . 0 90 . 4
90 . 4 * 40 . 106
2
L
2
a
L
L * P
R
1 . C . R 1
uc1
1 u
=
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
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Shallow Foundations, P3, Tarek Nageeb
Calculation of Ultimate Contact Pressure
t/m' 68.15
80 . 1
67 . 122
L
R
/m' f
1 . C . R
u1
1 un
= = =
t/m' 68.61
55 . 2
95 . 174
L
R
/m' f
2 . C . R
u2
2 un
= = =
R
u2
= P
uc1
+ P
uc2
R
u1

= 106.41 + 191.21 122.67 = 174.95 ton

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Shallow Foundations, P3, Tarek Nageeb
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Shallow Foundations, P3, Tarek Nageeb
Design of Strap Section for Maximum Moment:
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Shallow Foundations, P3, Tarek Nageeb
d = t 7 cm = 130.0 7.0 = 123.0 cm
M
max
= 56.46 t.m
2
s cu
u
d * b * f
M
R=
0.037
123 * 40 * 250
10 * 46 . 56
R
2
5
= =
Assume the strap beam has the following dimensions:
t
st.b.
= 130 cm b
st.b.
= 40 cm
d
st.b.
= 130.0 7.0 = 123.0 cm
From the R-e chart, R = 0.037, then e = 0.045
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Shallow Foundations, P3, Tarek Nageeb
d * b *
f
f
* A
s
y
cu
s
e =
2
s
mm 1537.0 1230 * 400 *
360
25
* 0.045 A = =
For such large concrete section and to make sure
that the failure will not be brittle, the Egyptian
Code states that the minimum area of steel will be:

=
s
y
cu
min s
A 3 . 1
d b
f
f 0.225
of smaller A
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Shallow Foundations, P3, Tarek Nageeb

## steel) grade (high d b

100
0.15
steel) (mild d b
100
0.25
than larger be hould s A
min s

= =
= =
=
2
s
2
y
cu
min s
mm 1998 1537.0 * 1.30 A 3 . 1
mm 1536 1230 * 400 *
360
25 225 . 0
d b
f
f 0.225
of smaller A
2
min s
mm 738 1230 * 400 *
100
0.15
d b
100
0.15
A = = >
A
s
= 15.36 cm
2
, use 8u
16
= 16.08 cm
2
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Shallow Foundations, P3, Tarek Nageeb
Design of Strap Sec. 2: for M = 233.3 kN.m

From the R-e chart, R = 0.0154, then e = 0.019
0.0154
123 * 40 * 250
10 * 3.33 2
R
2
5
= =
2
s
mm 649.0 1230 * 400 *
360
25
* 0.019 A = =

~ =
= =
=
2
s
2
y
cu
min s
mm 844.0 649.0 * 1.30 A 3 . 1
mm 1536 1230 * 400 *
360
25 225 . 0
d b
f
f 0.225
of smaller A
2
min s
mm 738 1230 * 400 *
100
0.15
d b
100
0.15
A = = >
A
s
= 8.44 cm
2
, use 4-u
18
= 10.18 cm
2
Design of Strap Beam for Shear:

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Shallow Foundations, P3, Tarek Nageeb
Q
u
= 16.27 ton

2
3
u
u
kg/cm 3.31
123 * 40
10 * 27 . 16

d * b
Q
q = = =
2 2
cu
cu
kg/cm 9.80 N/mm 0.98
1.5
25
0.24
1.5
f
0.24 q = = = =
2
y
min st
mm 33 . 133 200 * 400 *
240
0.4
s * b *
f
0.4
A = = =
Use four branches stirrups 5|
8
/m'

A
st
= 4 * 50 = 200 mm
2
> A
st

min
Assume that the footing
thickness t = 50 cm, and the
depth d = 43 cm
For a 1.00 m strip at Sec. (1-1):
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Shallow Foundations, P3, Tarek Nageeb
2
R.C.1
u1
1 u
t/m 34.08
1.80 * 2.0
67 . 122

A
R
f = = =
( )
t.m 10.91
8
4 . 0 0 . 2 * 08 . 34

8
b - B * f
M
2
2
strap 1 . C . R u1
1
=

=
=
Design of Footings: Design for Moment
Footing F
1
, Exterior (neighbor) Footing
R
u1
= 122.67 ton
f
u1
= 34.08 t/m
2
2.00

0.80
0.80
0.40
1
1
R = 0.024, w = 0.0284
A
s
= 8.48 cm
2

A
s
= 5|
16
/m'
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Shallow Foundations, P3, Tarek Nageeb
Design of Footings: Design for Moment
Footing F
2
, Interior Footing
2
R.C.2
u2
2 u
t/m 38.12
1.80 * 2.55
95 . 174

A
R
f = = =
( )
t.m 9.34
8
4 . 0 80 . 1 * 12 . 38

8
b - B * f
M
2
2
strap 2 . C . R u2
2
=

=
=
f
u2
= 38.12 t/m
2
1.80
0.70
0.70
0.40
1
1
For a 1.00 m strip at Sec. (1-1):
R
u2
= 174.95 ton
R = 0.02, w = 0.0235
A
s
= 7.16 cm
2

A
s
= 5|
16
/m'
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37
Design of Footings: Design for Shear

Critical section for shear at d/2 from the strap beam face
d/2
C
2
C
1
Strap Beam
F
2
d/2 = 0.215 m

Critical Section for Shear

2.55
1
.
8
0

1.80
F
1
2
.
0
0

0
.
5
8
5

0
.
4
8
5

0
.
7
0

0
.
8
0

m 0.585
2
0.43
-
2
0.40 2.0 -

2
d
-
2
b - B
x
strap R.C.1
2
= = =
For Footing F
1
For Footing F
2
m 0.485
2
0.43
-
2
0.40 - 1.8

2
d
-
2
b - B
x
strap R.C.2
2
= = =
Design of Footings: Design for Shear

The shear is safe, then check the shear for the
second footing

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Shallow Foundations, P3, Tarek Nageeb
Q
u1
= f
u1
*x
2
*B
R.C.1
= 34.08*0.585*1.80 = 35.89 ton

For Footing F
1
2
3
R.C.1
u1
1 u
kg/cm 4.64
43 * 180
10 * 89 . 35

d * B
Q
q = = =
2 2
cu
cu
kg/cm 6.50 N/mm 0.65
1.5
25
0.16
1.5
f
0.16 q = = = =
q
u1
(4.64 kg/cm
2
) < q
cu
(6.50 kg/cm
2
) O.K.

Design of Footings: Design for Shear

The shear is safe

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Shallow Foundations, P3, Tarek Nageeb
Q
u2
= f
u2
*x
2
*B
R.C.2
= 38.12*0.485*2.55 = 47.14 ton

For Footing F
2
2
3
R.C.2
u2
uu
kg/cm 4.87
43 * 225
10 * 14 . 47

d * B
Q
q = = =
q
u1
(4.87 kg/cm
2
) < q
cu
(6.50 kg/cm
2
) O.K.

Reinforcement Details of the Strap Beam

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Shallow Foundations, P3, Tarek Nageeb
Reinforcement Details of the Strap Beam

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Shallow Foundations, P3, Tarek Nageeb
Reinforcement Details of the Footings

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Shallow Foundations, P3, Tarek Nageeb