Evolution of Art

Geometric Period, ca. 950-700 B.C.E.

• Social and political context – Time of expansion, so-called colonies. – Land-based wealth – Monarch advised by few aristocrats – War conducted in hand-to-hand combat • Art and literature – Decorated pottery for elite use and for grave markers – Bronze figurines, shields and tripods – Iliad, attributed to blind poet Homer, composed as oral work around 750 B.C.: Assault by Greek leaders on Troy to recapture Helen, wife of Menelaus. War lasts nine years. Expresses values of Geometric period society – Odyssey, account of the return from Troy of the hero Odysseus composed toward the end of the 8th century or perhaps in the early decades of the seventh century

Pottery Basics
• Amphora – jug with two handles used for wine or oils • Krater — bowl for mixing wine and water.

• Hydria – water pitcher with three handles

Archaic Greece (700-490 B.C.): so-called ―Orientalizing Phase (700600 B.C.)
• Social and Political Context
– Intensified contact with the Orient – Development of Ionian natural philosophy – Importance of the individual

Art and Literature
– Introduction of fantastic and monstrous beasts – Decorative and sensuous elements: patterning and surface effects – Individual feelings, accomplishments and ideas – Architecture and sculpture to mediate relationships with the gods

Ivory youth from Samos, c. 600 B.C.E.

(RIGHT) . Achilles and Ajax Playing a Board Game.C. 540-530 B. c. Suicide of Ajax. 540-530 B.Exekias.C. (LEFT) and Exekias. c.

Women at a Fountain House 520-510 BCE • Black figure decorationcomposed of black figures against red background on Hydra • The Priam Painter added white pigment to process (faces of women often painted white) • Show interest in new motifs: everyday life .

named because it’s handles curve up like a flower. used to mix wine & water.Death of Sarpedon 515 BCE • Red-figure decorationcomposed of red figures on black background on calyx crater. calyx. to cool down wine • Euphronius well-known red-figure painter known for study of human anatomy .

C.C. ca. ca. 540 B. and Temple of Apollo at Corinth.Temple of Hera at Paestum. 560 B. .

pinned at shoulders.―maidens‖ • Votive offerings to Athena. usually wool.mantel draped diagonally from one shoulder . becomes more popular. gifts to goddess • Hide anatomy w/ peplos.linen garment.sturdy cloth. & belted • Chiton. clingy material allows artists to show off virtuosity • Himation. folded at neck.Kore/ Korai.

FROM THE Kore. ca. ACROPOLIS.PEPLOS KORE. Greece. 530 BCE. ATHENS. Athens. 520-510 GREECE. MARBLE BCE. from the Acropolis. Marble .

510 B. 530 B. . So-called Peplos Kore.Statues as mediators between men and gods Maiden from Auxerre.C. ca. 650 B. 650-626 B. ca.C.C. ca. Kore from Chios. Kore dedicated to Apollo by Nikandre at the Sanctuary on Delos.C. Ca.

‖ uniquely Greek • Believed body & mind are linked • Borrowed much from Egyptians • Naturalism.desire to represent the human body as it appears in nature • examples of Archaic style • Moved from static to contrapossto.―young man‖ • Related to Apollo • ―Cult of the body.Early Sculpture • Kouros. the S-curve .

600 B. ca. 570 B.. .C. 480 B. ca. Kouros from Tenea. Kouros from Anavysos. Kritios Boy.New York Kouros. 530 B. ca..C.C..C. ca.

C.Calf bearer.E.575-550 B. .

striving for ideal • Ideal figure not too young. liberated from all accidents of nature • Polyclitus. dignified. or fat.The Classical Period 480-323 B. serene. thin.C. Praxiteles .E. harmony. Phidias • High Classical. and Idealism • expressions of Greek values: order. old. Realism. eternally youthful. rather.Humanism. balance • Realism freed from incidental detail: human imperfections are purged in favor of flawlessness.Parthenon.

not necessarily realistic • Portrayed subjects as physically perfect. moving • Tried to re-create what they saw. without blemishes. most copies made a few hundred years later • Roman artists made many copies of greatest Greek statues • Many copies survived even after original statues destroyed . grace Roman Copies • Few original works remain.Sculpture Human Forms • Greek sculptors among finest world has ever known • Particularly adept at sculpting human form. imperfections • Greek statues almost all depict figures of great beauty. studied people at rest. active. Not Realistic • Greeks wanted statues to look lifelike. paid particular attention to muscles Lifelike.

―having a common measure‖ • Sculpture reflects mathematical order • Author of manual on proportion. we look to Vitruvius Pollio) • Embodies ideal harmony between natural world & intellectual or spiritual realm • Doryphorus (c.Polyclitus eminent sculptor in Golden Age • Concerned with symmetria. 450–440 bc. .10:1 (his manual no longer exists. defines module to measure body proportion.

allows a closer degree of perfection than is attainable in stone • Embellished w/ copper-colored lips. high degree of naturalism • Bronze material of choice.Phidias • Riace Warrior • Example of advanced contrapossto. teeth of silver . ivory/glass eyes.

. when backswing and release are in equilibrium.Classical Period • it strives (and achieves) perfection. 5th C. because it eschews movement and instead evinces harmony .depicting that point in the athlete's swing when when rotation is at its maximum and release is imminent. . creating the classical ideal: a single rhythmic pose of a movement without freezing the motion.Myron.

planned so that buildings contrast & complement each other • Sculpturesymmetry. contrapossto .proportion.Rebuilding the AcropolisPericles project • Architecture.

Callicrates. & Mnesicles .The Acropolis Chief architects: Ictinus.

The Acropolis: Architecture Parthenon as centerpiece Propylaiaentryway Erectheion Temple of Athena Nike .

represents ratio of 8:5.618:1 . wisdom & rationality • Golden Section.The Parthenon • Athena goddess of war. 0r 1.

balance Golden Section most beautiful of proportions.entasis. proportion.The Parthenon patron deity Athena. ratio of 8:5 Rectangle based on this ratio may be divided into sections (golden rectangles) Represents (perfect)Doric order Columns swell 1/3rd of way up. rationality Carefully integrates sculptural decoration. overall sense of harmony. goddess of wisdom. gives ―breath‖ to stone No true verticals or horizontals lends .

.High Classical Period: Athena Parthenos • 40 ft.Phidias.C. or maiden in standard Doric peplos made of removable gold . Statue reflects both sides of Athena in harmony: *warrior w/ spear & shield *model of Greek womanhoodparthenos. c. 493-430 B.

• Slender Ionic columns • Designed by Callicrates • Construction on the Temple of Athena at the Acropolis was begun around 427 BC during the tumultuous times of the Peloponnesian War that lasted for almost 30 years • Surrounded by parapet low wall w/ panels depicting Athena together w/ Victories Temple of Nike Athena .

temples. Its capital is Greek world. Doric Ionic Corinthian The Doric style is rather sturdy and its top (the capital). each with their own distinctive proportions and detailing. . leaves. called orders. Its capital is This style was found in very elaborate and eastern Greece and the decorated with acanthus islands. This style was used in mainland Greece and the colonies in southern Italy and Sicily. The Ionic style is The Corinthian style is thinner and more seldom used in the elegant.The Greeks developed three architectural systems. is plain. but often decorated with a scrollseen on Roman like design (a volute).

The Greek Orders .

Frieze.runs across top outer wall of cella Metopessquare panel between the beam ends under a roof & on a frieze Pedimenttriangular area over porch .

• Designed by Mnesicles Erectheion • Surrounds legendary spring • Dedicated to Erectheus.female figures serving as columns • ―Salt Sea of Erectheus‖room on west side . 1st King of Athens • Porch of Maidens faces Parthenon • Caryatids.

Lyric Poetry • Sappho. the Lesbian cult • Poetry revered in Classical world. married w/ a daughter.2 . only fragments survive • Believed in immortality through works and deeds • Reading 5. left it all to settle in Lesbos • Joined cult of Aphrodite. hailed as 10th muse • Daughter of aristocrat.

public eulogies • Pindar.Odes • Songs of praise.men can achieve immortality through ―greatness of mind/ or body‖ • Reading 5.3 .

very skilled • Reputation as womanizer • Frank celebration of the body • humanistic appreciation of humans and gods • Favored the use of marble .Sensuous Sculpture of Praxiteles • Praxiteles very wealthy.

portrays her as goddess of love • Frank celebration of body • possibly 1st fully nude woman in Greek sculpture • elevated female nudity from sign of low morals to sign of beauty. truth .Praxiteles • Aphrodite of Knidos • commissioned to portray in role as protector of sailors & merchants.

also concerned with scenes witnessed in daily life • expressionism. Altar of Zeus. Hecuba . but above all to provide a truthfulness. Laocoon. • emphasize religious and moral values • The underlying trend of this period was an attraction towards eroticism. (Realism) • High-relief • Dyong Gaul. feelings and experiences • secular viewpoint became more important. pain and suffering.the Hellenistic realism expressed temporary emotional conditions.Hellenistic Art • Hellenistic sculptures were more realistic and natural. more emotional • portrayed inner character. violence. Nike Samothrace.

represented animatedly. a man of action! • Preferred to work in bronze • Chose to represent heroes. gods . because of his aptitude for realism • Job was to embody the greatness that is Alexander! • Dramatized. athletes.Heroic Sculpture of Lyssipus • Hired for all portraits of Alexander.

shorter torso • Appears both physically & mentally unrestrained by space . longer legs. • slenderer.Lyssipus • The Scraper breaks free of formal restrictions: • invites 360degree viewing • look of detachment.

attempt to illicit emotional response in viewer • Attempt to evoke Aristotle’s catharsis .Altar of Zeus: A New Sculptural Style • Classical sought balance. order. and proportion • This aims toward expressionism.

Dying Gaul • Among earliest examples of Hellenistic expressionism • Brutal realism combined with heroism & nobility .

Nike of Samothrace .

Laocoon and His Sons .