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March 17, 2007

Class agenda
 Effective ways of learning
 Effective strategies for teaching reading
 Integrating reading and writing
 Taxonomy of cognitive objectives
 Evaluating reading/writing development
 Group discussions/suggestions on effective
reading instruction
 Group work on planning a reading lesson from a
given text.
 Pair work: Designing reading questions from
given texts
 Presentation on the group project progress

L2 Learning
 Collier (1989) reviewed recent
studies of achievement test scores in
order to find out how long it takes L2
learners to achieve native speaker
norms in content areas. She reached
five general conclusions.

L2 Learning (continued) 1. . However. and simple grammar) after about two years of schooling in the target language country. it takes from five to ten years (depending on the students’ academic background and the instructional program) to reach national norms in content areas. Students are able to achieve grammatical proficiency in a second language (as measured by a “language arts” test of spelling. pronunciation.

. L2 Learning (continued) 2. Students in such programs require from four to seven years to reach national norms on tests of reading. social studies. The students who achieved the greatest academic success were enrolled in bilingual programs that provided solid cognitive academic instruction in both the first and the second language. and science.

. L2 Learning (continued) 3. These students may require from seven to ten years of schooling in the second language (L2) before they reach native speaker norms. The students who take the longest time to reach national norms in content areas are those who arrive at a young age with little or no academic preparation in their first language and who receive no bilingual instruction.

L2 Learning (continued) 4. There is evidence of transfer of mathematical knowledge from L1 to L2. but as little as two years in mathematics and language arts. Immigrants who arrive at ages eight to twelve with at least two years of schooling in their first language (L1) and who have no bilingual instruction require from five to seven years to reach national norms in content areas. .

. This is true for those for those whose schooling has been interrupted. L2 Learning (continued) 5. Adolescents who have had no L2 exposure in their home countries and who are not able to continue academic work in their L1 do not have enough time left in school to achieve national norms in content areas.

L2 Learning: Conclusions  The most important of Collier’s conclusions is that bilingual education is the most effective way to prepare ESL students for mainstream courses. .

Learning Strategies: How much do we actually remember?  Lecture  Reading  Audio-Visual  Demonstration  Discussion Group  Practice by Doing  Teach Others .

What is the most effective way of learning?  Lecture 5%  Reading 10%  Audio-Visual 20%  Demonstration 30%  Discussion Group 50%  Practice by Doing 80%  Teach Others 90% .

Taxonomy of cognitive objectives  Level of Bloom’s Taxonomy .

Level of Bloom’s Taxonomy  Knowledge  Comprehension  Application  Analysis  Synthesis  Evaluation .

(Define pressure) . Knowledge: recall of specific information.

Comprehension:  Lowest level of comprehension. (Describe the relationship between pressure and volume) .

Application:  Application of a rule or principle (If you have fully inflated basketball and add more air. what is the effect on pressure inside the ball?) .

Analysis:  Breaks an idea into component parts and describes the relationships.) . (Explain why an automobile’ s tire will not appear under-inflated after being driven several miles at a high speed.

what is the effect of volume?) . Synthesis:  Puts the parts together to form a new whole. (If you double the absolute temperature of a gas and double the pressure of the gas.

Evaluation:  Makes judgments about materials and methods (Before you is a container of water vapor with a temperature of 150 degrees C and a container of oxygen at 150 degrees C. Which gas is more likely to behave in accordance with the gas laws?) .

Promoting Critical Thinking  To get the gist of what I am reading  To Predict-Verify-Decide  To Visualize-Verify-Decide  To summarize  To solve problems when I don’t understand (Adapted from Bergman. 1992) .

To get the gist of what I am reading:       What is the problem?       What is the solution?       What do I need to know more about? .

To Predict-Verify-Decide:      --  What’s going to happen next? (Is my prediction still a good one? Do I need to change my prediction?) -. What makes me think so? .

To Visualize-Verify-Decide:       What does this (person. place. or thing) look like?       Is the picture in my mind still good? Do I need to change the picture?       What makes me think so? .

To summarize:        What’s happened so far?        Who did what?        What makes me think so? .

To solve problems when I don’t understand        Shall I stop and review?        Shall I reread and look back?        Shall I ignore and read on?        Why? .

Questions to Promote Evaluative Reading  What is the purpose of this selection?  What is the author’s point of view?  What words and phrases reveal the author’s point of view?  What is the author’s tone? .

How is the Material Organized?  most to least important  least to most important  cause and effect  advantages and disadvantages  chronological order  spatial order  steps in a process  examples  comparison and contrast  reasons .

Effective strategies for teaching reading  KWLPlus  SQ4R  Other Useful Techniques .

 Plus.  The postreading stage: (L) = Learned. . KWLPlus  The prereading stage: (K) = Know. To indicate what students want to know more about a topic of the reading passage.  The purpose-setting stage: (W) = Want to know. To tell what they learned after reading the text. To guide their reading. To engage in a writing activity to express their learning.

captions. maps. photos. SQ4R  Survey: Look at pictures. bold print. . and headi ngs to help you form an idea of the t opic and purpose of the written text.

Question  Pretend you are interviewing the author(s) of the written text. photos. wha t questions do you want to ask th e author(s)? Write your question s next to the pictures. bold print. . ma ps. Bas ed upon what you surveyed. captions. and head ings.

Underline. . Read  Read the text. s tar. or vocabulary words or ideas that you think are important. Use a pencil or pen to mark the text (Do not use a highlight marker!).

try to find the answers to the questions you asked. Respond  As you read. as you read. . Be sure to write your ans wers in the margins. Rememb er. you might ask more questions.

Can you answer the que stions that you asked? Do you under stand everything about the written te xt? If the author(s) were sitting next to you. review the written text. what other questions would y ou ask? . Review  When you finish reading.

Discuss the main poi nts with someone. Think about what your have read. Reflect  Close the text. Do you agree or d isagree with the author(s)? What sur prised you about the written text? W hat did you find to be interesting? W hat did you find to be confusing? Wh at did you learn? .