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3- Endoplasmic reticulum (ER

Note: All the encircling membranes of membranous organoids has
the same structure as the plasma membrane.
ER occurs in almost all kinds of nucleated cells.
It a system of hollow network of branched and joined tubules .

Note: 1 ml (1 cm3) of
liver tissue contains
about 11 m2 of ER.

There are 2 patterns
of ER which are:

1) Rough (granular)
ER which covered by

2) Smooth (agranular)
ER which lacks

5. one type may be changed to the other depending on the need of the cell.Makes proteins due to the presence of ribosomes (rough ER). Also.Involved in the synthesis of steroids (smooth ER).Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) (continue) Note: both types may be connected in the same cell.Helps to regulate calcium levels in muscle cells smooth ER). . 3. 4. Functions of ER: 1.Helps with the break down of toxic substances in the cell (smooth ER).Helps molecules to move from one cell to another (both rough & mooth ER). 3. 2.

. nerve cells – 1898. It was found in most eukaryotic cells.A stack of flattened elongated sacs called cisternae. but tends to be more prominent where there are proteins are secreted. The Golgi apparatus is made up of: 1.Golgi apparatus (Golgi body) (Golgi complex) Camillo Golgi. 4. 1906. ii) The medial region {in the middle} and iii) The trans (mature) face {directed towards the plasma membrane. The cristernae have: i) A cis (immature) face {directed towards the ER and nucleus}.

4. c) Intermediate vesicles which are found in large number close to the periphery of sacs. .Golgi apparatus (Golgi body) (Golgi complex) {continue) 2. b) Microvesicles (incoming transport vesicles) (transfering vesicles) which are detached from rough ER.Vesicles: Which may be: a) Large rounded vesicles (outgoing transport vesicles) which are detached from the trans face of cisternae. These vesicles are filled with protein. These vesicles contain the newly synthesized protein. They move towards the cis face of cisternae.

condensed and then enclosed by membranes forming secretory granules. 4) It helps in the formation of the acrosome of the sperm which has a secretory ability to penetrate the membrane of the ovum . The formed lipoprotein granules release from trans face of Golgi apparatus. Functions of Golgi apparatus: 1) Storge: Proteins that formed by ribosomes migrate as transfering vesicles (microvesicles) to fuse with the membrane of cis face where they are collected. These granules are then move to the plasma membrane where they release their contents by exocytosis. enzymes (by exocrine glands). 2) Packing: It forms lipoproteins by bounding both lipids (which migrate from smooth ER) and proteins (which migrate from rough ER) inside a membrane. mucous (by goblet cells). 3) Secretion: Such as hormones (by endocrine glands).

Lysosomes They are saclike structure surrounded by a single membrane. ribonuclease. IT contains powerful digesting enzymes such as acid phosphatase. This digestion may be one of the following: i) Intracellular digestion: This takes place inside the cytoplasm which may be: . Functions of lysosomes: Lysosomes are responsible for digestion of biological compounds. Fasting and ageing decrease their number. 5. deoxyribonuclease … etc. The number of them is affected by different physiological and pathological changes.

These remaining residuals may be represent an index of cell ageing. The engulfed material is then digested by the enzymes into small molecules. residual bodies are formed which may be go out by exocytosis or may be remain in the cell. Resulting small molecules from autophagy or heterophagy can diffuse into the cytoplasm. b) Endogenic origin : Heterophagy Autophagy They digest some part of the cytoplasm e.g.a) Exogenic origin: They digest the taken substances by endocytosis in a process known as heterophagy. If digestion is completed. . In autophagy. The primary lysosomes fuse with endocytic vesicle to form secondary lysosome or heterophagosome. the cytoplasmic structure is digested by primary lysosomes forming secondary lysosome or autophagosome. mitochondria by a process known as autophagy.

This action is not accidental but it is regulated by signals that scientists do not fully understand. . This explains how the sperm can penetrate the protecting coat of the ovum during fertilization. When cells approach death.ii) Extracellular digestion: Some cells can discharge lysosomal enzymes outside the cell to destroy some surrounding structures. iii) Autolysis: Heterophagy Autophagy It is a process in which the cell is self-destructed. lysosomes rupture in the surrounding cytoplasm causing the digestion of the whole cell.

or slightly larger than lysosomes. Structure of peroxisomes: Plant cells have similar vesicles called gyloxisomes. They also contain the enzyme catalase. catalase ()2H2O2 O2 + 2(H2O) . 6.Peroxisomes (microbodies) They contain enzymes involved in the degradation of fatty acids and amino acids. H2O2 is very toxic because it is unstable and spontaneously degrades to produce compounds called free radicals. In doing so they produce hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Free radicals are very reactive because they have unpaired electrons and will react with a variety of cellular macromolecules and alter their structure. Fortunately peroxisomes contain the enzyme called catalase that degrades hydrogen peroxide to the less dangerous oxygen and water. They are about the same size. Peroxisome function: Peroxisomes contain enzymes that degrade fatty acids and amino acids.

‫مع أرق تياتى وأمنياتى لكم جيعا بالتوفيق والتفوق‬ ‫ا‪.‬شــــبل شــــعلن‬ .‬د‪ .