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B- Non-membranous organelles

1- Ribosomes
They are found in both prokaryotic and
eukaryotic cells but they are larger in
They are synthesized in the nucleolus then
pass through the nuclear pores to the
Each ribosome is composed of 2 subunits, a
small subunit and a large subunit. Between
them there is a small cleft in which a central
growing polypeptide chain is present.

Chemically, they are consisted of * ribosomal

RNA (rRNA) (65%) and * proteins (35%) i.e.
Ribosomes are found in 3 different places or cases in cells which are:
1. Free floating in cytoplasm as individual subunits or dimers.
2. Membrane bound on outer surface of rough ER.
3. Attached to mRNA molecule in a polysome (polyribosome).
Function of ribosomes:

Ribosomes are the site of cellular protein synthesis.

They receive amino acids (the building units of protein), grouping
them into peptide chains by interaction between transfer RNA (tRNA)
which carries the amino acids and messenger RNA (mRNA) which
carries the specific genetic code from DNA in the nucleus.

The formed protein molecules by ribosomes penetrate the cavity of

rough ER where they accumulated in vesicles. These vesicles migrate
to the Golgi apparatus to be exported outside the cell.
Proteins for use in the nucleus were found to be formed by free
floating ribosomes where their products float inwards till they reach
the nucleus.
2- Microtubules

The microtubule is a long cylindrical

structure with a cavity. It is elastic
and capable to bend without breaking.

Chemically, it is made of dimmers of

alpha and beta tubulin (type of
Functions of microtubules:
1- Microtubules form centrioles, cilia, flagella and microvilli.
2- They facilitate the transport of various particles inside the
3- They share in the formation of cytoskeleton of the cell.

Note: The
determines the shape
and provides
mechanical support to
the cell.
It is formed from:
1) Microfilaments,
2) Intermediate
filaments and
3) Microtubules.
3- Centrioles
Centrioles are short hollow cylindrical
tubules that found near the nucleus.
There are two centrioles at right angles to
each other.
Each centriole consists of 8 peripheral
sets of microtubules arranged in a pin-
wheel, 3 microtubules (triplet) in each
Thus, each centriole consists of 27 (3x9)
microtubules in the configuration of
Functions of centrioles:
1- They play an important role in the
process of cell division where they form
spindle fibers.
2- They are able to replicate giving identical
structures that migrate towards the plasma
membrane to form basal bodies from which
cilia or flagella.
3- They are involved in the cytoplasmic movement.
Basal bodies:
So, the basal bodies and centrioles are
homologous structures with the same
configuration (9+0). Each cilium or
flagellum has a basal body located at
the base.
Flagella and cilia:
Cilia and flagella are hair-like
structures projecting from the basal
bodies (that found in the cytoplasm)
and enclosed (covered) by the plasma
Eukaryotes have 9 doublets (pairs) of
microtubules arranged in a circle around 2
central microtubules
i.e. (9 + 2).
Cilia are being much shorter than cilia.
Many unicellular organisms such as
Paramecium move by cilia.
Many unicellular organisms such as Euglena
move by flagella. The 9+2 arrangement of microtubules in
a flagellum or cilium.
The upper respiratory tract have cilia while sperms use flagella to

They are formed from microtubules covered by cell membrane.

They are finger like structures projecting from the surfaces of some
cells of intestine or kidney.

They increase the surface area for absorption.

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