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Non-Rival Resources

Knowledge / Linux
GROUP 10 - The Mustangs
Open Knowledge beats proprietary knowledge

1 It is tried and tested more often

2 As a result, it becomes more robust

3 Example TCP/IP – Backbone of Internet, Vs

4 IPX/SPX, a networking protocol by Novell

The adage…

“We all grow richer

by sharing

This still holds true in the

Internet Era.
What is Non-Rival Resource?
Knowledge is a non-rival resource

For existing knowledge, since there

is zero opportunity cost for its use
(my use of a piece of knowledge
does not prevent you from using it)
its price should be zero

Linux is a good example of

Non-Rival resource
Rival Non-Rival

Excludable Agriculture, Roads,

minerals, water and
artifacts, sewage
labor, lines
Non- services
Sunlight, Knowledg
Excludable wind, un- e
owned land
Resources - Rivalness


Rival Resource Non Rival

- If I use a piece Resource – My
of cloth, then you use of Sunlight or
wont be able to air for breathing,
use the same does’nt prevent
piece of cloth you from using
(assuming we them.
don’t know each
other  )
Birth of Open Source Movement?

 Open Source started when programmers

began collaborating online
 Freed from hierarchy and responsibility,
ideas flowed fast and furious
 The rewards weren’t profit but the buzz of
collaboration, the intellectual challenge
and the opportunity to shake things up
 At the heart of the process was the
community’s willingness to share
programming source code

… And so the Open Source Movement was


Nobody owns it
Everybody can use it
Anybody can improve it

Public goods are non-rivalrous

It is not possible to exclude
individuals from the good's
consumption Eg. Fresh air
Mozilla’s Firefox

An Open Source community called

Mozilla created Firefox, a web
browser that at the time of writing
had been downloaded almost 21
million times
Its members are so passionate that
at the end of 2004 they funded a
double-page advert in the New York
Times announcing its launch
Open Source Databases

 The world’s most

popular open source
database, used by the
likes of Google,
Yahoo and NASA.

 The world’s most

advanced open
source database.
Used primarily in the
academic community.
World before Linux – The Gap

We had Operating systems like DOS,

UNIX, etc
Customization was NOT possible
Opportunity to tap the full potential
of a software was not possible
Less number of flavors
Open Source Beats M$


The Gap & The Need

The four freedom principles - Richard

 Freedom zero: run the program however
you wish
 Freedom one: change program as you
 Freedom two: distribute copies when
you wish
 Freedom three: distribute modified
Linux is born

In September 1991, when Linux

Torvalds, released 10,000 lines
of code on the Internet, nobody
could have believed that it would
spark off a revolution…
Linux in its growth phase

In the 15 years since then, Linux has

grown into an enormously capable
OS that contains more than 100
million lines of code
Runs on tiny embedded computers
to supercomputers and everything
This has been made possible through
the contribution of thousands of
volunteers across the world working
together over the Internet
Who uses?
Factors favoring Open source

Reliability/stability/scalability are
Correctness of design and
implementation is not readily verified
When the software is a business-
critical capital good
Common computing and
communications infrastructure
When key methods are part of
common engineering knowledge
Linux – The conqueror

Linux exemplifies the strengths of

collective action by a swarm of
volunteer programmers to create
freely available software

Surprising success in overcoming

problems of coordination,
diseconomies of scale and scope
which even large corporations could
not achieve
Strong Endorsements

Dell to use Ubuntu on Linux PCs

 Ubuntu is one of the most popular
versions of Linux
 It includes software like office programs,
e-mail, browser, instant messaging
software and media player
Power of Free content

Britannica Wikipedia
The Mustangs – Group 10