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Computer Animation

cgvr.korea.ac.kr

Computer Animation

CGVR

What is Animation?

What is Simulation?

cgvr.korea.ac.kr

Outline

CGVR

cgvr.korea.ac.kr

CGVR

Squash and Stretch Slow In and Out Anticipation Exaggeration Follow Through and Overlapping Action Timing Staging Straight Ahead Action and Pose-to-Pose Action Arcs Secondary Action Appeal

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CGVR

Stretch Squash

cgvr.korea.ac.kr

CGVR

cgvr.korea.ac.kr

Anticipation

CGVR

cgvr.korea.ac.kr

Computer Animation

CGVR

Animation Pipeline

3D modeling Motion specification Motion simulation Shading, lighting, & rendering Postprocessing

cgvr.korea.ac.kr

Outline

CGVR

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Keyframe Animation

CGVR

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Keyframe Animation

CGVR

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Inbetweening

CGVR

Linear Interpolation

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Inbetweening

CGVR

Spline Interpolation

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Inbetweening

CGVR

Spline Interpolation

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Inbetweening

CGVR

Spline Interpolation

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Inbetweening

CGVR

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Outline

CGVR

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Articulated Figures

CGVR

Base Arm Hand Scene Graph

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Articulated Figures

CGVR

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Articulated Figures

CGVR

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Inbetweening

CGVR

Right

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Wrong

Graphics Lab @ Korea

CGVR

Articulated Figure:

Hip Upper Leg Knee Lower Leg Ankle Foot Upper Leg (Hip Rotate) Hip Rotate Lower Leg (Knee Rotate) Hip Rotate + Knee Rotate Foot (Ankle Rotate)

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CGVR

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CGVR

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CGVR

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Challenge of Animation

CGVR

Temporal Aliasing

Motion blur

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Temporal Ailasing

CGVR

Strobing Flickering

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Temporal Ailasing

CGVR

Strobing Flickering

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Temporal Ailasing

CGVR

Strobing Flickering

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Temporal Ailasing

CGVR

Strobing Flickering

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Motion Blur

CGVR

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Summary

CGVR

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Graphics

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Overview

CGVR

Kinematics

Dynamics

Consider underlying forces Compute motion from initial conditions and physics

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CGVR

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Forward Kinematics

CGVR

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Forward Kinematics

CGVR

X=(x, y) (0, 0)

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Forward Kinematics

CGVR

X=(x, y) (0, 0)

1 ( 0 ) = 60 2 ( 0 ) = 250 d1 = 1.2 dt

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d 2 = 0.1 dt

Graphics Lab @ Korea

CGVR

End-Effector X=(x, y) (0, 0)

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Inverse Kinematics

CGVR

X=(x, y) (0, 0)

2 x 2 + y 2 l12 l2 2 = cos 2l1l2 ( l2 sin 2 ) x + ( l1 + l2 cos 2 ) y 1 = ( l2 sin 2 ) y + ( l1 + l2 cos 2 ) x 1

Graphics Lab @ Korea

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Inverse Kinematics

CGVR

X=(x, y) (0, 0)

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Inverse Kinematics

CGVR

(0, 0)

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Inverse Kinematics

CGVR

Find best solution (e.g., minimize energy in motion) Non-linear optimization X=(x, y)

(0, 0)

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Summary

CGVR

Forward Kinematics

Inverse Kinematics

Goal-directed motion Specify goal positions of end effectors Compute conditions required to achieve goals Inverse kinematics provides easier Inverse kinematics provides easier specification for many animation tasks, specification for many animation tasks, but it is computationally more difficult but it is computationally more difficult

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Overview

CGVR

Kinematics

Dynamics

Consider underlying forces Compute motion from initial conditions and physics

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Dynamics

CGVR

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CGVR

e.g., articulated figure e.g., jump from here to there within time t e.g., floor to push off and land e.g., minimize energy

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CGVR

Satisfying constraints x(t) is position of particle at time t f(t) is force of jet propulsion at time t Particles equation of motion is:

mx f mg = 0

t1 2 t0

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CGVR

xi xi 1 x = h x 2 xi + xi 1 = i +1 x h2 xi +1 2 xi + xi 1 m x = f i mg = 0 2 h Minimize h f i subject to x0 = a and x1 = b

2 i

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CGVR

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CGVR

Advantages

Free animator from having to specify details of physically realistic motion with spline curves Easy to vary motions due to new parameters and/or new constraints

Challenges

Specifying constraints and objective functions Avoiding local minima during optimization

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CGVR

Adapting Motion

Original Jump

Heavier Base

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CGVR

Adapting Motion

Hurdle

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CGVR

Adapting Motion

Ski Jump

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CGVR

Editing Motion

Original

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Adapted

Graphics Lab @ Korea

CGVR

Morphing Motion

The female character morphs into a smaller character during her spine

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CGVR

Advantages

Free animator from having to specify details of physically realistic motion with spline curves Easy to vary motions due to new parameters and/or new constraints

Challenges

Specifying constraints and objective functions Avoiding local minima during optimization

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Dynamics

CGVR

Cloth

Hot Gases

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Summary

CGVR

Kinematics

Forward kinematics

Animator specifies joints (hard) Compute end-effectors (easy) Animator specifies end-effectors (easier) Solve for joints (harder)

Inverse kinematics

Dynamics

Space-time constraints

Animator specifies structures & constraints (easiest) Solve for motion (hardest)

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cgvr.korea.ac.kr

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