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According to sociologist David Popenoe, there are five main components of culture: language, symbols, values, norms and

sanctions. Languages vary across cultures, of course, but you may be less aware that each culture has its own symbols. Symbols are items that stand for something. For example, to many Americans, the flag is an obvious symbol and it stands for honour, duty, patriotism, service, and freedom. Most people recognize the swastika as the symbol of Nazi Germany. However, this widely used symbol represented good luck and prosperity to many ancient cultures of India, Pakistan, and South and Central America. Some common symbols may appear in more than one culture. For instance, purple signifies royalty in some cultures, and an octagon sign indicates Stop! in several countries. Another important aspect of culture is values and beliefs, which are typically based on family traditions and religion. What is unacceptable in one culture may be acceptable in another. Most young people in the United States would be unwilling to allow their parents to choose their future husband or wife, yet in many countries this practice is still common. Some people in religious congregations, or groups, practices religion in a joyful way, often singing, hand clapping, and music, while others practices in a more serious way with prayer and meditation. Funeral practices also differentiate cultures. In Vietnam, for example, family members place items like food and clothing on the grave to assist the dead person after death. Many people in the Philippines believe that no one should clean house when a deceased persons spirit should not be disturbed. Like so much else, what people believe and value depends on the culture. In addition, every culture has norms and sanctions. Norms are the rules for how a culture or society expects people to act, and sanctions are the ways in which society enforces its norms. In China, for example, a woman is expected to remain indoors for one month after giving birth, and she is harshly criticized by friends and family members if she does not do so. When a society adopts a set of norms that are considered as valuable, it typically seeks a way to enforce these norms through formal laws. In every society there are people who do not follow the rules. A community service, sent to jail, and in some states, put to death, depending on the crime. The punishment for stealing in some Middle Eastern cultures may be public or private flogging. Norms and sanctions vary widely from culture to culture. People are born into a culture, and many of the beliefs and values that they have are passed down from one generation to another. Learning about cultures can help people understand and appreciate their own culture as well as gain valuable from other culture.

What is the Thesis (sentence that introduces the essay).

What is the topic of each supporting paragraph? Complete a mind map for the essay.

Course work for Semester 4

1: 300 word essay. General Topic (Assigned before midtest)

2: 600 800 word essay including photographic support.

3: Presentation based on coursework number 2.
Each piece of course work counts for 10% of final grade Coursework 1: Coursework 2/3: Completed individually Completed in pairs.

Coursework 2 & 3
This piece of coursework is a research project. It will require you to look at an aspect of Indonesia and write an essay giving an analysis of that aspect and the conclusions you reach about it. A strong thesis statement is vital for the project to be effective. The essay will be supported by photographic evidence. A minimum of 8 photographs (6 original, 2 can be copied) will be required. Any research sources you have used must be cited correctly. The essay will be accompanied not only by photographs but also a presentation that will be given in the last two lessons of the semester. This presentation will visually present a basic summary that should defend your essay. (Essay will be 4-5 minutes long) This coursework will be completed in pairs and not individually. The essay will count for 10% of your final grade and the presentation a further 10 %.

Topics for coursework 2 & 3

***Holland and Indonesia Past/Present/future (Language/Architecture/trade)***
Importance of dance to traditional Indonesia culture(animism/education) Contrast of class structure in Jakarta (differences/integration/diet) Influence of English language on Indonesian Culture (advertising/gado gado language/gaul) Influence of western advertising on Indonesia (Development from family to individualistic based society) Development of urban culture in Jakarta (graffiti/fashion/hobbies/sports/external influence) International influence on Indonesia fashion (Middle eastern/Indian/Korean/Japanese/western) Contrast of traditional family structure to modern international family structure in Indonesia.

All students are given the opportunity to enter an international competition. The prize will be free flights to Holland. The requirements of the competition are similar to the coursework requirements. Students must work in pairs to produce a 1200 word essay supported by 8 photographs (6 Original, 2 can be taken from other sources). The essay must refer to 5 sources of research and be cited correctly. This project is not a simple task and will involve pairs to be highly motivated and very creative and critical in their methods. Extra sessions will be given to groups choosing to enter the competition to help them understand some of the more advanced essay techniques required to complete the task. Groups must use the following statement to focus their essay on:

***Holland and Indonesia Past/Present/future (Language/Architecture/trade)***

Please see your lecturer is you are interested in entering. The deadline for the essay is June 2011