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GSM RF Planning Basics

Dilshad SDE RTTC TVM

Planning Objective
Coverage Capacity Quality Competition Economy/Financial etc.

GSM PLANNING: THE BASIC PROCESS

1. CAPACITY PLANNING 2. COVERAGE PLANNING 3. PARAMETER PLANNING 4. EQUIPMENT PLANNING 5. OPTIMIZATION

General Planning Process


Mobility and traffic models for the considered area

Dimensioning (Erlang, QoS)

Equipment quantity (BTS, BSC, MSC, links, ...)

Sites positioning (radio planning) BTSs and BSCs interconnection

BTS layout and characteristics


BSS design (site positions and interconnection network)

Frequency allocation

Frequency plan
NSS, IN design (equipment positions and interconnection network)

BSCs and MSCs interconnection

Interconnection with other networks

Global network design

Scope of Radio Network Planning


OSS
B T S B T S B T S

HLR

PSTN ISDN Data Networks

B SC BSC

MSC VLR

Air interface

MSC VLR

Steps in Radio network planning process


Network requirements Pre-Planning. Site survey & site selection

Frequency Planning

Parameter planning

Radio n/w planning

Network requirements

The coverage area. Expected traffic capacity requirements. QoS.

Cell coverage shapes.

Artificial

Ideal

Practical

Concept of frequency reuse Frequency reuse-refers to the use of radio channels on the channels same carrier frequency to cover different areas,which are
physically separated from each other sufficiently to ensure that co-channel interference is not objectionable. Cell splitting-when the demand for service exceeds the number of channels allocated to a particular cell, cell splitting is used to handle the additional growth in traffic in within the particular cell. Cell splitting involves a revision of cell boundaries, so that the local area formerly regarded as a single cell can now contain a number of smaller cells. These cells are called micro cells. The transmitted power and antenna height of these base stations are correspondingly reduced and the same set of frequencies are reused.

Radio network pre-planning

Coverage planning:

number of BTS required for coverage. Minimum power requirement in each region. No of mobile customers in a BTS area. No of transceivers in a BTS.

Capacity planning:

Frequency band to be used. Frequency re-use.

Business Plan No. of Subscribers Traffic per subscribers Subscriber distribution GOS Spectrum availability Frequency Reuse Types of coverage RF parameters Field strength studies Available sites Acquisition Site survey of Sites

Planning Process
Capacity Studies Initial Design and redesign Coverage & C/I study; Search Areas Plan Verification Quality Check Update documentation ** Plan Implementa tion Network Optimisatio n ** Capacity Studies Coverage Plan and Coverage Studies Frequency plans and Interference Studies Antenna Systems& Orientation Studies BSS parameter planning Database and documentation of approved sites Expansion plans Monitor Network

Challenge - serve the greatest number of customers

CELLULAR MOBILE RADIO SYSTEM DESIGN

1.How many customers can we serve in a busy hour ? 2.How many customers can we take into our system? 3.How many frequency channels do we need?

GSM Cell Planning Requirement


Provision of required Capacity Optimum use of the available frequency spectrum Minimum number of cell sites Provision of adequate Coverage of the given area, for a minimum specified level of interference Provision of easy and smooth expansion of the network in future

Site survey and site selection.


End report Beginning report

Reject Acquire
Action Steps

Search Area Selection

Site Planning

Site Physical Qualification & joint inspection

Test Transmission

Band Clearance

Coverage Prediction

Good site?

Does not have high obstacles around it. Has clear view for the main beam. Avoid site at high locations.

SELECTING A PROPER CELLSITE


When a cell site is selected Determine whether an UHF TV station is nearby and whether any new ongoing construction would affect the coverage Check the local noise level and no spurious signals fall in the freq.band Existing multi-antenna tower can be used with proper earthing and shielding

Cell Planning
Antenna Parameters etc. Height Tilts Omni/Sector Azimuth Gain Polarization

Cell Parameters Power Settings Neighbour Planning Handover Parameters

Cell Planning How many sites are required for this area ?
What is the area to be covered ?

(cell radius of 1km means an approximate coverage area of 3 Sq.kms). Do we need so many sites? Can some sites be bigger?

Decide number of sites based on capacity and coverage requirements. Divide city into clutter types such as: > > > > Urban Suburban Quasi Open Water.

Identify search areas covering all clutter types. Customer selects a few sample sites.

Survey sites with reference to > > > > >

Cell Planning

Contd

Clutter heights Vegetation levels Obstructions Sector orientation Building strength and other Civil requirements

Prepare Power budgets Conduct Propagation tests Calculate coverage probabilities Verify against predictions and modify planning tool parameters Prepare final coverage map

Classification of Cells

Macro Cells

Few km to 35 Km Suburban & rural area

Micro Cells.

Few hundred meters to few Kms Urban & suburban area.

Pico Cells

Indoor coverage.

NETWORK PLANNING PROCESS- I

Traffic demand estimation


-Population distribution -Car usage distribution -Income level distribution -Land usage distribution -Telephone usage distribution.

NETWORK PLANNING PROCESS-II

Estimation of Cell Radius

Service Area

Terrain conditions Density of foliage Man made structures

Signal level at an unit distance from base station Signal strength decay per decade of distance.

NETWORK PLANNING PROCESSIII MOBILE RADIO NETWORK PLANNING


SOFTWARE TOOLS Propagation Predictions based upon various propagation models Interference analysis Automatic frequency planning Coverage analysis by contour plots Comparison with actual radio field measurements

Efficient tool to load,analyze and display system performance evaluation

Location Area Planning


HLR MSC/VLR MSC/VLR

1 location area = several cells

Coverage Model

Indoor Coverage:

Commercial areas, airports, etc Residential areas, industrial areas, roads, all national/state highways, by-passes and important rail routes, etc. Remaining areas of the coverage area.

In-car coverage

Outdoor coverage

Morphological Categories
Water Bushes Wet

Farm land Dense Residential Area Heavy Urban Trees Dry Farm Land Light Residential Area Light Urban Heavy Urban

Coverage Model
TRAFFIC DENSITY
COVERAGE INDOOR INCAR OUTDOOR HIGH TRAFFIC CITIES 40% 40% 20% OTHER CITIES 25% 40% 35%

SIGNAL LEVEL FOR THE COVERAGE


COVERAGE INDOOR INCAR OUTDOOR SIGNAL LEVEL MEASURED AT STREET SHOULD BE BETTER THAN -75 dBm SHOULD BE BETTER THAN -85 dBm SHOULD BE BETTER THAN -95 dBm IN 90% OF TOTAL COVERAGE AREA

Coverage Planning

Involves designing two aspects of Radio:


Link Budget Power Balance

LINK BUDGET brings out whether the uplink or the downlink is the limiting factor for coverage. POWER BALANCE ensures that the coverage of DL is equal to that of UL

power budget is the totaling of all the gains and losses incurred in operating a communication link.It provides a detailed accounting of three broadly defined items: 1.Apportionment of the resources available to the transmitter and the receiver 2.Sources responsible for the loss of signal power 3.Sources of noise

RADIO LINK ANALYSIS Link budget or link

Radio wave propagation.

Free space loss.

P inversely proportional to d

Reflections & Multi-path. Diffraction. Building & vehicle penetration. Water: Reflection & propagation. Propagation through vegetation.

Multi-path Effect in Mobile Environment

Reflection R Diffraction D Scattering S

Reflections & Multi-path.

B T S

Multi-path Effect

Fading of the signal

Fast fading ( Rayleigh fading): due to multipath & non-line of site communication. Slow fading: Change in received power to form slow trend

Frequency Planning
q q q q

GSM uses concept of cells One cell covers small part of network Network has many cells Frequency used in one cell can be used in another cells This is known as Frequency Re-use

F= 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10

Clusters
F=2 F=7 F=1 F=6,10 F=2 F=7 F=1 F=3 F=7 F=4,8 F=5,9 F=6,10 F=5,9 F=1 F=4,8 F=5,9 F=2 F=3 F=4,8 F=3

F=6,10

Co-Channel ( Re-use ) Cells

Frequency Planning Aspects


A1 B1 C1 D1 A2 B2 C2 D2 A3 B3 C3 D3

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36
A1 A2 D1 D2 D3 C1 C2 C3 B3 A3 B1 B2

Interference
Interference in GSM systems are classified into three major categories .
5 5 5

Co-Channel Interference Adjacent Channel Interference External Interference

Co - Channel interference
5 5

caused by another cell/mobile using the same frequency channel. C/Ic is the measure of co-channel interference

Ic

Causes
q q q

tight frequency re-use patterns. errors in frequency planning. Multi-path from Distant cells( strong reflector, Water).

Adjacent Channel Interference


Interference caused when wanted and unwanted adjacent RF channels co-exist.

Ia C

External Interference
q

Interference coming on a GSM signal from an undesired source, i.e neither a co/adj channel cell or MS.

Sources
q q q

Malfunctioning Transmitters

Base station & MS malfunction. Strong signals in adjacent channels

Inter-modulation Products Harmonics from Other Bands

Parameter planning
Quality of the n/w is depends on parameter settings. These are implemented during the rollout of the networks.

Radio resource management. Mobility management &Hand over. Signaling. Power control

Cell & n/w coverage planning


propagation model Okumara-Hata: Macro cell propagation model.

Walfisch Ikegami: Micro cell propagation model

Okumara-Hata Model

The Okumara tests are valid for : 150-1000 Mhz & 1500 - 2000 Mhz 1-100 Kms BTS heights of 30 -100 meters MS antenna height , typically 1.5 m (1-10m)

Walfisch Ikegami

Walfisch Ikegami: Micro cell propagation model 800 2000 Mhz range. Height of tower 50 mtr Distance 5 km.

Traffic Capacity of Sectors


No. of TRX 1 2 3 4 5 6 * GOS AT 2% Control CCH 1 2 2 3 3 3 No. of TCH 7 14 22 29 37 45 TFC CAP IN ERLANG* 2.94 8.20 14.9 21 28.3 35.6 25mE SUBS SUPPORTED 118 328 596 840 1132 1424 40mE SUBS SUPPORTED 74 205 373 525 708 890

Traffic Capacity of BTS


BTS CONFGN 1-1-1 1-1-2 1-2-2 2-2-2 2-2-3 2-3-3 3-3-3 3-3-4 * GOS AT 2% No. of TRX 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 No. of CELLS 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 No. of A-bis TS reqd. 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25mE SUBS SUPPORTED 354 564 774 984 1252 1520 1788 2032 40mE SUBS SUPPORTED 221 353 484 615 783 950 1118 1270

Traffic Capacity of BTS ..contd..


BTS CONFGN 3-4-4 4-4-4 4-4-5 4-5-5 5-5-5 5-5-6 5-6-6 6-6-6 * GOS AT 2% No. of TRX 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 No. of CELLS 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 No. of A-bis TS reqd. 25 27 30 33 36 38 40 42 25mE SUBS SUPPORTED 2276 2520 2812 3104 3396 3688 3980 4272 40mE SUBS SUPPORTED 1423 1575 1758 1940 2123 2305 2488 2670

A-bis Connectivity Types

BSC BSC

Multi-drop configuration
MSC

MSC

Star configuration

Ring configuration

BSC MSC

MSC BSC

Urban star configuration

Drive Testing
1. 2. 3.

mobile equipment (usually three mobiles) drive testing software (in a laptop) GPS (global positioning system) unit.

Drive Test Analysis

Drive test gathers accurate propagation data for candidate site for evaluation and approval.

Uses both Omni-directional and sector antenna. Radiation center and modeling. Measurement integration performed to improve modeling efficiency.

Based on drive data and prediction, the optimum antenna radiation center and sector orientation determined.

Questions ???

Thank you