You are on page 1of 27

Manufacturing Systems

Selection of Manufacturing Systems

It must be able to meet the specifications set for the final product It must be cost effective

Created by: Atanu Mandal

Manufacturing Systems
Selection of Manufacturing Systems

The product specifications can be met using the right technology, but that is always not the case. Since stricter specifications add to the cost of the product, there is always a trade off between the desired specifications and the cost to achieve such specifications.

Created by: Atanu Mandal

Manufacturing Systems
Selection of Manufacturing Systems
Factors affecting the choice of Manufacturing Systems

Effect of Volume/ Variety Capacity of the plant Flexibility Lead time Efficiency Environment

Created by: Atanu Mandal

Manufacturing Systems
Selection of Manufacturing Systems

Effect of Volume/ Variety


One of the major consideration in the process selection is the Volume Variety of the product(s).

i.e. number of products vs. variety

Created by: Atanu Mandal

Manufacturing Systems
Selection of Manufacturing Systems

Effect of Volume/ Variety


High Product Variety needs
Highly skilled labour General purpose machines Detailed and sophisticated production planning and control systems

Created by: Atanu Mandal

Manufacturing Systems
Selection of Manufacturing Systems

Effect of Volume/ Variety


Low Product Variety needs
Low skilled labour Highly automated mass production systems with special purpose machines Simple production planning and control systems

Created by: Atanu Mandal

Manufacturing Systems
Selection of Manufacturing Systems

Capacity of the Plant

The decision depends on


Projected Sales volume
This decides whether the production process should be intermittent or continuous.

Created by: Atanu Mandal

Manufacturing Systems
Selection of Manufacturing Systems

Capacity of the Plant


Fixed costs are high for continuous process and low for intermittent process while variable costs are more for the intermittent process and less for continuous process. Intermittent process therefore will be cheaper to install and operate at low volumes and continuous process will be economical to use at high volume.

Created by: Atanu Mandal

Manufacturing Systems
Selection of Manufacturing Systems

Flexibility
Flexibility implies the ability of the company to satisfy varied customers requirements. Flexibility and product variety are inter-related. If more variety is to be manufactured, the manufacturing facilities will have to be commonised (generalised) and depending upon the volume, the extent of commonalities will require to be justified.

Greater commonalities demands intermittent manufacturing which is associated with higher inventories, large manufacturing lead times and elaborate planning and control.
Created by: Atanu Mandal

Manufacturing Systems
Selection of Manufacturing Systems Lead Time

Lead times more appropriately called delivery lead times expected by the customers (i.e. how soon the demand has to be met without losing on sales) is another major influencing factor in a competitive market. As a general rule, faster deliveries are expected in a competitive market.

The product, therefore, may require to be produced to stock using principles of batch production/mass production.

Created by: Atanu Mandal

Manufacturing Systems
Selection of Manufacturing Systems Efficiency

Efficiency measures the speed and the cost of the transformation process. Efficiency is greatest when the product is mass produced. But to mass produce a product, greater sales volumes are required. Therefore, depending upon the sales volume, product variety will have to be considered and the process which will give the best efficiency in terms of machine and manpower utilization will have to be selected.

Created by: Atanu Mandal

Manufacturing Systems
Selection of Manufacturing Systems

Environment
Environment brings in new technologies and forces the adoption of new process of manufacturing.

For example, wooden furniture is gradually being replaced by metals and plastic. So a furniture manufacturing unit will have to change its technology (i.e. change from one off production to batch production) to fall in line with changing times. Similarly, as market preferences change due fashions or other reasons, the manufacturing process has to be changed accordingly.

Created by: Atanu Mandal

Manufacturing Systems
Types of Manufacturing Systems

Project Production Jobbing Production Batch Production Mass & Flow Production

Created by: Atanu Mandal

Manufacturing Systems
Types of Manufacturing Systems

Project Production
A single assignment of complex nature is undertaken for completion in a given period within the estimated expenditure.

Created by: Atanu Mandal

Manufacturing Systems
Types of Manufacturing Systems
Jobbing

Production

One or few units of a product is produced as per the customers specification in a given time and cost.

Created by: Atanu Mandal

Manufacturing Systems
Types of Manufacturing Systems
Batch

Production

Limited quantity of multiple products are produced but only one product at a time.

Created by: Atanu Mandal

Manufacturing Systems
Types of Manufacturing Systems

Mass & Flow Production


Production run is conducted on one or multiple machines, arranged in the sequence of production operation and high volumes of the product are produced at a time and stocked in warehouses, awaiting sale.

Created by: Atanu Mandal

Manufacturing Systems
Types of Manufacturing Systems
Process

Production

Production run is continued for an indefinite period.

Created by: Atanu Mandal

Manufacturing Systems
Type of Production

Intermittent Production

Continuous Production

Project Production

Jobbing Production

Batch Production

Mass & Flow Production

Process Production

Created by: Atanu Mandal

Manufacturing Systems
Project

Production

Characteristics
Definite beginning and definite end Non-uniform requirement of resources Involvement of different agencies Fixed Position Layout High cost overruns Personnel problems Scheduling and control

Created by: Atanu Mandal

Manufacturing Systems
Project

Production

Characteristics

Definite beginning and definite end

Each project has a fixed timeline for execution.

Created by: Atanu Mandal

Manufacturing Systems

Project Production
Characteristics

Non-uniform requirement of resources


Requirement for resources in a project is non-uniform. Generally at the completion of a project, the resources are redeployed elsewhere. Even during the life of the project, the resource requirement is not uniform. Generally, at the beginning of a project, the resource reqs. are low, which builds up as the project progresses and once again the requirement goes down when the project faces completion.
Created by: Atanu Mandal

Manufacturing Systems

Project Production
Characteristics

Involvement of different agencies


A project generally involves many tasks, each having a specialty and that calls for the involvement of multiple agencies. The tasks follow a strict precedence.

As a result of that, co-ordination between the agencies are of utmost importance.

Created by: Atanu Mandal

Manufacturing Systems

Project Production
Characteristics

Fixed Position Layout


Where the output of a project is a customized product, such kind of operations are complex and are generally characterised by immobility during transformation. Such types of operations are carried out in Fixed Position assembly type layout. This can be observed in production of Ship, locomotive, buildings etc.

Created by: Atanu Mandal

Manufacturing Systems

Project Production
Characteristics

High cost over runs


Often delays take place in the completion of the projects. Such delays are generally expensive due to escalation of the cost factors and also penalties.

Created by: Atanu Mandal

Manufacturing Systems

Project Production
Characteristics

Personnel Problems
Project production has various personnel related problems. When there is a fast buildup, staff is either borrowed from other departments or hired for short duration. Therefore, personnel involved in the project have limited interest in the project. Since each project ha limited duration, the staff starts getting prepared for the next project before the completion of the ongoing project. Site of the project may be in an underdeveloped region, thereby causing personnel related problems.
Created by: Atanu Mandal

Manufacturing Systems

Project Production
Characteristics

Scheduling & Control


Due to the large number of activities, involvement of different agencies and strict precedence requirements, scheduling and control assumes acute importance. Some network planning techniques like PERT and CPM proves to be quite useful for the said type of production.

Created by: Atanu Mandal