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**Association Rules in Large
**

Databases

Association rule mining

Mining single-dimensional Boolean association

rules from transactional databases

Mining multilevel association rules from

transactional databases

Mining multidimensional association rules from

transactional databases and data warehouse

From association mining to correlation analysis

Constraint-based association mining

Summary

October 16, 2008 Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques 1

What Is Association

Mining?

** Association rule mining:
**

Finding frequent patterns, associations,

**correlations, or causal structures among sets of
**

items or objects in transaction databases,

relational databases, and other information

repositories.

Applications:

Basket data analysis, cross-marketing, catalog

**design, loss-leader analysis, clustering,
**

classification, etc.

Examples.

Rule form: “Body → Ηead [support,

confidence]”.

buys(x, “Biscuits”) → buys(x, “milk”) [0.5%,

October 16, 2008 Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques 2

**Association Rule: Basic
**

Concepts

Given: (1) database of transactions, (2) each

transaction is a list of items (purchased by a

customer in a visit)

Find: all rules that correlate the presence of one set

**of items with that of another set of items
**

E.g., 98% of people who purchase tires and auto

**accessories also get automotive services done
**

Applications

** * ⇒ Maintenance Agreement (What the store
**

should do to boost Maintenance Agreement

sales)

Home Electronics ⇒ * (What other products

**should the store stocks up?)
**

Attached mailing in direct marketing

October 16, 2008 Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques 3

E.C 50%. also contains 2000 A.D A ⇒ C (50%.C Zand minimum confidence 1000 A. conditional probability that a transaction Transaction ID Items Bought Let having {X Y}support minimum 50%.B.F C ⇒ A (50%. c. probability that a transaction contains {X Y Customer Z} buys milk confidence. Rule Measures: Support and Confidence Customer buys both CustomerFind all the rules X & Y ⇒ Z buys Bisc. with minimum confidence and support support. s. 100%) . we have 4000 A. 66.6%) 5000 B.

2%. “DMBook”) → buys(x. “30.48K”) → buys(x. 60%] age(x. “42. multiple-level analysis What brands of milk are associated with what brands of Biscuit? Various extensions Correlation.. Association Rule Mining: A Road Map Boolean vs. “SQLServer”) ^ buys(x. 2008 itemsets Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques 5 . “DBMiner”) [0.. 75%] Single dimension vs. “PC”) [1%.39”) ^ income(x. causality analysis Association does not necessarily imply correlation or causality Maxpatterns and closed October 16. Above) Single level vs. quantitative associations (Based on the types of values handled) buys(x. multiple dimensional associations (see ex.

2008 Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques 6 . Chapter 6: Mining Association Rules in Large Databases Association rule mining Mining single-dimensional Boolean association rules from transactional databases Mining multilevel association rules from transactional databases Mining multidimensional association rules from transactional databases and data warehouse From association mining to correlation analysis Constraint-based association mining Summary October 16.

C 4000 A. support 50% 2000 A.C} 50% support = support({A C}) = 50% confidence = support({A C})/support({A}) = 66.C Min.B.6% The Apriori principle: Any subset of a frequent itemset must be . confidence 50% 1000 A.F {B} 50% {C} 50% For rule A ⇒ C: {A.D Frequent Itemset Support {A} 75% 5000 B. Mining Association Rules—An Example Transaction ID Items Bought Min.E.

Mining Frequent Itemsets: the Key Step Find the frequent itemsets: the sets of items that have minimum support A subset of a frequent itemset must also be a frequent itemset i. both {A} and {B} should be a frequent itemset Iteratively find frequent itemsets with cardinality from 1 to k (k-itemset) Use the frequent itemsets to generate association rules. October 16.. 2008 Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques 8 . if {AB} is a frequent itemset.e.

k++) do begin Ck+1 = candidates generated from Lk. for each transaction t in database do increment the count of all candidates in Ck+1 that are contained in t Lk+1 = candidates in Ck+1 with min_support end October 16. for (k = 1. 2008return ∪k Lk. The Apriori Algorithm Join Step: C is generated by joining L with itself k k-1 Prune Step: Any (k-1)-itemset that is not frequent cannot be a subset of a frequent k-itemset Pseudo-code: Ck: Candidate itemset of size k Lk : frequent itemset of size k L1 = {frequent items}. Lk !=∅. Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques 9 .

The Apriori Algorithm — Example Database D itemset sup. TID Items C1 {1} 2 {1} 2 100 134 {2} 3 {2} 3 200 235 Scan D {3} 3 {3} 3 300 1235 {4} 1 {5} 3 400 25 {5} 3 C2 itemset sup C2 itemset L2 itemset sup {1 2} 1 Scan D {1 2} {1 3} 2 {1 3} 2 {1 3} {2 3} 2 {1 5} 1 {1 5} {2 3} 2 {2 3} {2 5} 3 {2 5} 3 {2 5} {3 5} 2 {3 5} 2 {3 5} C3 itemset Scan D L3 itemset sup {2 3 5} {2 3 5} 2 . L1 itemset sup.

p. p.item2.itemk-1 < q. Lk-1 q where p. 2008 if (s is not inData Lk-1Mining: ) then delete Concepts c from Ck and Techniques 11 . How to Generate Candidates? Suppose the items in Lk-1 are listed in an order Step 1: self-joining Lk-1 insert into Ck select p.itemk-1 Step 2: pruning forall itemsets c in Ck do forall (k-1)-subsets s of c do October 16.itemk-2=q. p. ….itemk-2.itemk-1.item1. p. q. ….item1=q.itemk-1 from Lk-1 p.item1.

2008 Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques 12 . How to Count Supports of Candidates? Why counting supports of candidates a problem? The total number of candidates can be very huge One transaction may contain many candidates Method: Candidate itemsets are stored in a hash-tree Leaf node of hash-tree contains a list of itemsets and counts Interior node contains a hash table Subset function: finds all the candidates October 16.

ace. abd. 2008 Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques 13 . acd. Example of Generating Candidates L3={abc. bcd} Self-joining: L3*L3 abcd from abc and abd acde from acd and ace Pruning: acde is removed because ade is not in L3 C4={abcd} October 16.

2008 Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques 14 . lower support threshold + a method to determine the completeness Dynamic itemset counting: add new candidate itemsets only when all of their subsets are estimated to be October 16. Methods to Improve Apriori’s Efficiency Hash-based itemset counting: A k-itemset whose corresponding hashing bucket count is below the threshold cannot be frequent Transaction reduction: A transaction that does not contain any frequent k-itemset is useless in subsequent scans Partitioning: Any itemset that is potentially frequent in DB must be frequent in at least one of the partitions of DB Sampling: mining on a subset of given data.

a100}. a2. Multiple scans of database: October 16.. e. Is Apriori Fast Enough? — Performance Bottlenecks The core of the Apriori algorithm: Use frequent (k – 1)-itemsets to generate candidate frequent k-itemsets Use database scan and pattern matching to collect counts for the candidate itemsets The bottleneck of Apriori: candidate generation Huge candidate sets: 104 frequent 1-itemset will generate 107 candidate 2- itemsets To discover a frequent pattern of size 100. one needs to generate 2100 ≈ 1030 candidates. 2008 Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques 15 . {a1. ….g.

but complete for frequent pattern mining avoid costly database scans Develop an efficient. 2008 Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques 16 . Mining Frequent Patterns Without Candidate Generation Compress a large database into a compact. FP-tree-based frequent pattern mining method A divide-and-conquer methodology: decompose mining tasks into smaller ones Avoid candidate generation: sub-database test only! October 16. Frequent-Pattern tree (FP-tree) structure highly condensed.

5 300 {b. c. k. construct FP-tree p:2 m:1 . p} {c. a. l. b. f. Scan DB again. c. a. m} min_support = 0. j. b. m. g. a. c. a. Scan DB once. c. o} {f. m. p} {} Steps: Header Table 2. c. b} 400 {b. Construct FP-tree from a Transaction DB TID Items bought (ordered) frequent items 100 {f. s. m. l. Order frequent items in b 3 a:3 p:1 frequency descending m 3 order p 3 m:2 b:1 4. m. n} {f. f. p} 500 {a. e. d. p} 200 {a. m. c. i. c. p} {f. o} {f. b. f. find Item frequency head f:4 c:1 frequent 1-itemset f 4 (single item pattern) c 4 c:3 b:1 b:1 a 3 3. p. h.

2008 be over 100 Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques 18 . compression ratio could October 16. Benefits of the FP-tree Structure Completeness: never breaks a long pattern of any transaction preserves complete information for frequent pattern mining Compactness reduce irrelevant information—infrequent items are gone frequency descending ordering: more frequent items are more likely to be shared never be larger than the original database (if not count node-links and counts) Example: For Connect-4 DB.

or it contains only one path (single path will generate all the combinations of its sub-paths. and then its conditional FP-tree Repeat the process on each newly created conditional FP-tree Until the resulting FP-tree is empty. 2008 Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques 19 . each of which is a frequent pattern) October 16. Mining Frequent Patterns Using FP-tree General idea (divide-and-conquer) Recursively grow frequent pattern path using the FP-tree Method For each item. construct its conditional pattern- base.

simply enumerate all the patterns October 16. Major Steps to Mine FP-tree 1) Construct conditional pattern base for each node in the FP-tree 2) Construct conditional FP-tree from each conditional pattern-base 3) Recursively mine conditional FP-trees and grow frequent patterns obtained so far If the conditional FP-tree contains a single path. 2008 Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques 20 .

pattern base c 4 c:3 b:1 b:1 c f:3 a 3 b 3 a fc:3 a:3 p:1 m 3 b fca:1. cb:1 . Step 1: From FP-tree to Conditional Pattern Base Starting at the frequent header table in the FP-tree Traverse the FP-tree by following the link of each frequent item Accumulate all of transformed prefix paths of that item to form a conditional pattern base Header Table {} Conditional pattern bases Item frequency head f:4 c:1 f 4 item cond. f:1. fcab:1 p:2 m:1 p fcam:2. c:1 p 3 m:2 b:1 m fca:2.

Mining: Concepts and Techniques 22 . Properties of FP-tree for Conditional Pattern Base Construction Node-link property For any frequent item ai. only the prefix sub-path of ai in P need to be accumulated. all the possible frequent patterns that contain ai can be obtained by following ai's node-links. starting from ai's head in the FP-tree header Prefix path property To calculate the frequent patterns for a node ai in a path P. and its frequency count should Data October 16. 2008 carry the same count as node ai.

am. p 3 m:2 b:1 c:3 fcam p:2 m:1 a:3 m-conditional FP-tree . b 3 a:3 p:1 f:3 fm. fcab:1 f 4 All frequent patterns c 4 c:3 b:1 b:1 {} concerning m a 3 m. cam. cm. m 3 fcm. Step 2: Construct Conditional FP- tree For each pattern-base Accumulate the count for each item in the base Construct the FP-tree for the frequent items of the pattern base {} m-conditional pattern Header Table base: Item frequency head f:4 c:1 fca:2. fam.

(f:1). Mining Frequent Patterns by Creating Conditional Pattern- Bases Item Conditional pattern-base Conditional FP-tree p {(fcam:2). (fcab:1)} {(f:3. c:3. c:3)}|a c {(f:3)} {(f:3)}|c f Empty Empty . (cb:1)} {(c:3)}|p m {(fca:2). a:3)}|m b {(fca:1). (c:1)} Empty a {(fc:3)} {(f:3.

pattern base of “cam”: (f:3) f:3 cam-conditional FP-tree . pattern base of “am”: (fc:3) f:3 c:3 f:3 am-conditional FP-tree c:3 {} Cond. Step 3: Recursively mine the conditional FP-tree {} {} Cond. pattern base of “cm”: (f:3) a:3 f:3 m-conditional FP-tree cm-conditional FP-tree {} Cond.

cm. am. c:3 fm. fam. Single FP-tree Path Generation Suppose an FP-tree T has a single path P The complete set of frequent pattern of T can be generated by enumeration of all the combinations of the sub-paths of P {} All frequent patterns concerning m f:3 m. cam. fcm. a:3 fcam m-conditional FP-tree .

if and only if “abcde ” is a frequent pattern. 2008 Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques 27 . and “f ” is frequent in the set of transactions containing “abcde ” October 16. “abcdef ” is a frequent pattern. Principles of Frequent Pattern Growth Pattern growth property Let α be a frequent itemset in DB. B be α's conditional pattern base. and β be an itemset in B. Then α ∪ β is a frequent itemset in DB iff β is frequent in B.

Why Is Frequent Pattern Growth Fast? Our performance study shows FP-growth is an order of magnitude faster than Apriori. 2008 Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques 28 . no candidate test Use compact data structure Eliminate repeated database scan Basic operation is counting and FP-tree October 16. and is also faster than tree- projection Reasoning No candidate generation.

5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 Support threshold(%) .) 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 0. FP-growth vs. Apriori: Scalability With the Support Threshold 100 Data set T25I20D10K 90 D1 FP-grow th runtime D1 Apriori runtime 80 Run time(sec.

Tree-Projection: Scalability with Support Threshold Data set T25I20D100K 140 D2 FP-growth 120 D2 TreeProjection 100 Runtime (sec.) 80 60 40 20 0 0 0.5 2 Support threshold (%) . FP-growth vs.5 1 1.

Presentation of Association Rules (Table Form ) .

2008 Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques 32 .Visualization of Association Rule Using Plane Graph October 16.

2008 Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques 33 .Visualization of Association Rule Using Rule Graph October 16.

Iceberg Queries Icerberg query: Compute aggregates over one or a set of attributes only for those whose aggregate values is above certain threshold Example: select P.itemID having sum(P.custID.qty) >= 10 Compute iceberg queries efficiently by Apriori: First compute lower dimensions Then compute higher dimensions only when all the lower ones are above the threshold October 16.itemID. P.qty) from purchase P group by P. 2008 Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques 34 .custID. sum(P. P.

2008 Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques 35 . Chapter 6: Mining Association Rules in Large Databases Association rule mining Mining single-dimensional Boolean association rules from transactional databases Mining multilevel association rules from transactional databases Mining multidimensional association rules from transactional databases and data warehouse From association mining to correlation analysis Constraint-based association mining Summary October 16.

411} be encoded based on dimensions and levels T4 {111. 222. 211. 122. Rules regarding itemsets Fraser Sunset at appropriate levels could TID Items be quite useful. Multiple-Level Association Rules Food Items often form hierarchy. 122. 221} T2 {111. 121. 121} T5 {111. 211. T1 {111. milk bread Items at the lower level are expected to have skim 2% wheat white lower support. 413} We can explore shared . 323} Transaction database can T3 {112. 221. 221. 211.

Level-crossed association rules: 2% milk → Wonder wheat bread Association rules with multiple. Mining Multi-Level Associations A top_down. Then find their lower-level “weaker” rules: 2% milk → wheat bread [6%. alternative hierarchies: 2% milk → Wonder bread . 50%]. progressive deepening approach: First find high-level strong rules: milk → bread [20%. Variations at mining multiple-level association rules. 60%].

Multi-level Association: Uniform Support vs. – Lower level items do not occur as frequently. Reduced Support Uniform Support: the same minimum support for all levels + One minimum support threshold. If support threshold too high ⇒ miss low level associations too low ⇒ generate too many high level associations Reduced Support: reduced minimum support at lower levels There are 4 search strategies: Level-by-level independent Level-cross filtering by k-itemset Level-cross filtering by single item Controlled level-cross filtering by single item . No need to examine itemsets containing any item whose ancestors do not have minimum support.

Uniform Support Multi-level mining with uniform support Level 1 Milk min_sup = 5% [support = 10%] Level 2 2% Milk Skim Milk min_sup = 5% [support = 6%] [support = 4%] Back .

Reduced Support Multi-level mining with reduced support Level 1 Milk min_sup = 5% [support = 10%] Level 2 2% Milk Skim Milk min_sup = 3% [support = 6%] [support = 4%] Back .

**Multi-level Association: Redundancy
**

Filtering

** Some rules may be redundant due to “ancestor”
**

relationships between items.

Example

milk ⇒ wheat bread [support = 8%, confidence =

70%]

2% milk ⇒ wheat bread [support = 2%, confidence =

72%]

We say the first rule is an ancestor of the second

rule.

A rule is redundant if its support is close to the

“expected” value, based on the rule’s ancestor.

October 16, 2008 Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques 41

**Multi-Level Mining:
**

Progressive Deepening

A top-down, progressive deepening approach:

First mine high-level frequent items:

milk (15%), bread (10%)

Then mine their lower-level “weaker”

frequent itemsets:

2% milk (5%), wheat bread (4%)

Different min_support threshold across multi-

levels lead to different algorithms:

If adopting the same min_support across

multi-levels

then toss t if any of t’s ancestors is infrequent.

If adopting reduced min_support at lower

levels

then examine only those descendents whose

October 16, 2008 ancestor’s support

Data Mining:is frequent/non-negligible.

Concepts and Techniques 42

**Progressive Refinement of Data
**

Mining Quality

** Why progressive refinement?
**

Mining operator can be expensive or cheap, fine

or rough

Trade speed with quality: step-by-step

refinement.

Superset coverage property:

Preserve all the positive answers—allow a

positive false test but not a false negative test.

Two- or multi-step mining:

First apply rough/cheap operator (superset

coverage)

October 16, 2008 Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques 43

2008 Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques 44 . intersect. touch. Two-step mining of spatial association: Step 1: rough spatial computation (as a filter) Using MBR or R-tree for rough estimation. First search for rough relationship and then refine it. contain. Step2: Detailed spatial algorithm (as refinement) Apply only to those objects which have passed the rough spatial association test (no less than min_support) October 16. etc. Mining of Spatial Association Rules Hierarchy of spatial relationship: “g_close_to”: near_by.

2008 Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques 45 . Chapter 6: Mining Association Rules in Large Databases Association rule mining Mining single-dimensional Boolean association rules from transactional databases Mining multilevel association rules from transactional databases Mining multidimensional association rules from transactional databases and data warehouse From association mining to correlation analysis Constraint-based association mining Summary October 16.

Multi-Dimensional Association: Concepts Single-dimensional rules: buys(X. “bread”) Multi-dimensional rules: 2 dimensions or predicates Inter-dimension association rules (no repeated predicates) age(X. no ordering among values October 16. “popcorn”) ⇒ buys(X.“student”) ⇒ buys(X. “milk”) ⇒ buys(X.“coke”) hybrid-dimension association rules (repeated predicates) age(X. 2008 Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques 46 .”19-25”) ∧ buys(X.”19-25”) ∧ occupation(X. “coke”) Categorical Attributes finite number of possible values.

2008 Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques 47 . Distance-based association rules October 16. Quantitative association rules Quantitative attributes are dynamically discretized into “bins”based on the distribution of the data. Using static discretization of quantitative attributes Quantitative attributes are statically discretized by using predefined concept hierarchies. Techniques for Mining MD Associations Search for frequent k-predicate set: Example: {age. buys} is a 3- predicate set. 1. occupation. Techniques can be categorized by how age are treated. 3. 2.

Static Discretization of Quantitative Attributes Discretized prior to mining using concept hierarchy.income. 2008 Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques 48 .buys) (income.buys) October 16. finding all frequent k- predicate sets will require k or k+1 table()scans. Data cube is well suited for mining.buys) predicate sets. (age) (income) (buys) The cells of an n-dimensional cuboid correspond to the (age. Numeric values are replaced by ranges. In relational database. Mining from data cubes (age. income) (age.

2008 Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques 49 . quan1 ∧ Aquan2 ⇒ 2-D quantitative association rules: A Acat Cluster “adjacent” association rules to form general rules using a 2-D grid.”30-34”) 48K”) ⇒ buys(X. Quantitative Association Rules Numeric attributes are dynamically discretized Such that the confidence or compactness of the rules mined is maximized. Example:∧ income(X.”high resolution TV”) October 16.”24K - age(X.

ARCS (Association Rule Clustering System) How does ARCS work? 1. Optimize October 16. Binning 2. 2008 Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques 50 . Find frequent predicateset 3. Clustering 4.

2008 Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques 51 . “Mining Quantitative Association Rules in Large Relational Tables” by R. (2D limitation) An alternative to ARCS Non-grid-based equi-depth binning clustering based on a measure of partial completeness. Srikant and R. Only 2 attributes on LHS. Limitations of ARCS Only quantitative attributes on LHS of rules. October 16. Agrawal.

50] 53 [51.60] Distance-based partitioning.7] 20 [11. more meaningful discretization considering: density/number of points in an interval “closeness” of points in an interval October 16.53] [50.30] [51.22] 22 [21.20] [22.10] [7. Mining Distance-based Association Rules Binning methods do not capture the semantics of interval data Equi-width Equi-depth Distance- Price($) (width $10) (depth 2) based 7 [0.50] [20.20] [7. 2008 Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques 52 .40] 51 [41.53] 50 [31.

t2. ….g. e. tN . Clusters and Distance Measurements S[X] is a set of N tuples t1. tj[ X ]) d ( S [ X ]) = N ( N − 1) distx:distance metric. projected on the attribute set X The diameter of S[X]: ∑ ∑ N N i =1 j =1 distX (ti[ X ]. Euclidean distance or Manhattan October 16. 2008 Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques 53 .

2008 Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques 54 . where d (CX ) ≤ d 0 X CX ≥ s 0 Finding clusters and distance-based rules the density threshold. d. replaces the 0 notion of support modified version of the BIRCH clustering algorithm October 16. Clusters and Distance Measurements(Cont. assesses the density of a cluster CX .) The diameter. d .

2008 Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques 55 . Chapter 6: Mining Association Rules in Large Databases Association rule mining Mining single-dimensional Boolean association rules from transactional databases Mining multilevel association rules from transactional databases Mining multidimensional association rules from transactional databases and data warehouse From association mining to correlation analysis Constraint-based association mining Summary October 16.

KDD95) A rule (pattern) is interesting if ❶ it is unexpected (surprising to the user). Interestingness Measurements Objective measures Two popular measurements: ❶ support. and ❷ confidence Subjective measures (Silberschatz & Tuzhilin. and/or ❷ actionable (the user can do something with it) October 16. 2008 Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques 56 .

although with lower support and confidence basketball not basketball sum(row) cereal 2000 1750 3750 not cereal 1000 250 1250 sum(col. 2008 Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques 57 .) 3000 2000 5000 October 16. Criticism to Support and Confidence Example 1: (Aggarwal & Yu.3%] is far more accurate.7%. 66. play basketball ⇒ not eat cereal [20%. 33.7%] is misleading because the overall percentage of students eating cereal is 75% which is higher than 66. PODS98) Among 5000 students 3000 play basketball 3750 eat cereal 2000 both play basket ball and eat cereal play basketball ⇒ eat cereal [40%.

) Example 2: X and Y: positively X 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 correlated. Y 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 X and Z. Criticism to Support and Confidence (Cont. negatively related Z 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 support and confidence of X=>Z dominates We need a measure of Rule Support Confidence dependent or A∪ B) P (correlated X=>Y 25% 50% corr eventsA. B = P ( A) P ( B ) X=>Z 37. 2008 Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques 58 .50% 75% October 16.

50% 0.Y 25% 2 Y 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 X.Z 37. if A and B are independent events A and B negatively correlated.Other Interestingness Measures: Interest Interest (correlation.57 October 16. 2008 Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques 59 .Z 12.9 Z 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Y. if the value is less than 1. otherwise A and B positively correlated Itemset Support Interest X 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 X.50% 0. lift) P( A ∧ B) P( A) P( B ) taking both P(A) and P(B) in consideration P(A^B)=P(B)*P(A).

2008 Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques 60 . Chapter 6: Mining Association Rules in Large Databases Association rule mining Mining single-dimensional Boolean association rules from transactional databases Mining multilevel association rules from transactional databases Mining multidimensional association rules from transactional databases and data warehouse From association mining to correlation analysis Constraint-based association mining Summary October 16.

2008 constraints: Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques 61 . association. Data constraint: SQL-like queries Find product pairs sold together in Vancouver in Dec. Dimension/level constraints: in relevance to region. Constraint-Based Mining Interactive. Interestingness October 16. brand.’98. etc. Rule constraints small sales (price < $10) triggers big sales (sum > $200). customer category. exploratory mining giga-bytes of data? Could it be real? — Making good use of constraints! What kinds of constraints can be used in mining? Knowledge type constraint: classification. price.

. SIGMOD’99): 1-var: A constraint confining only one side (L/R) of the rule. Rule (content) constraint: constraint-based query optimization (Ng. “database systems”). SIGMOD’98). et al. sum(LHS) < 100 ^ min(LHS) > 20 ^ count(LHS) > 3 ^ sum(RHS) > 1000 1-variable vs. sum(LHS) October 16.. 2-variable constraints (Lakshmanan. w) → takes(x. y) ^ Q(x. 2-var: A constraint confining both sides (L and R). 2008 < min(RHS) ^ max(RHS) Data Mining: < 5* sum(LHS) Concepts and Techniques 62 . et al. P(x. Rule Constraints in Association Mining Two kind of rule constraints: Rule form constraints: meta-rule guided mining. e. as shown above.g.

(2) itemInfo (Item. S2 )|C }.g. ≥ }.Price) < 100 Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques 63 . ≤.g.g. Price) A constrained asso.Type) October 16. S. ≠. ⊂. ≤. θ ∈ { ⊆. where agg is in {min. ≥ }.Type Vθ S. >.g. count. count(S1. 2008 = 1 . {snacks. S2 including frequency constraint A classification of (single-variable) constraints: Class constraint: S ⊂ A. ≠. e. e. query (CAQ) is in the form of {(S1. e. avg(S2. where C is a set of constraints on S1.g. avg}. θ ∈ { =. or Sθ V. ⊄. <. e. <. ≠ } e. sodas } ⊆ S. Itemset ). and θ ∈ { =. sum. θ is ∈ or ∉. S ⊂ Item Domain constraint: Sθ v. >. Type.Type Aggregation constraint: agg(S) θ v.Price < 100 vθ S. Constrain-Based Association Query Database: (1) trans (TID. max. snacks ∉ S. =.

and then to test them for constraint satisfaction one by one. Constrained Association Query Optimization Problem Given a CAQ = { (S1. S2) | C }. the algorithm should be : sound: It only finds frequent sets that satisfy the given constraints C complete: All frequent sets satisfy the given constraints C are found A naïve solution: Apply Apriori for finding all frequent sets. 2008 the frequent set computation. Our approach: Comprehensive analysis of the properties of constraints and try to push them as deeply as possible inside October 16. Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques 64 .

2008 Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques 65 . every super- pattern of S also satisfies it October 16. none of the super-patterns of S can satisfy Ca A constraint Cm is monotone iff. Anti-monotone and Monotone Constraints A constraint Ca is anti-monotone iff. for any pattern S satisfying Cm. for any pattern S not satisfying Ca.

set if it can be expressed as σp(I) for some selection predicate p. Ik using union and minus A constraint C is succinct provided October 16. set if there is a fixed number of succinct set I1. 2008 s Mining: Concepts and Techniques Data 66 . s. Succinct Constraint A subset of item Is is a succinct set. where σ is a selection operator SP⊆2I is a succinct power set. Ik ⊆I. SP can be expressed in terms of the strict power sets of I1.t. …. ….

2008 Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques 67 . R also satisfies C A constraint C is convertible monotone iff a pattern S satisfying the constraint implies that each pattern of which S is a suffix w. Convertible Constraint Suppose all items in patterns are listed in a total order R A constraint C is convertible anti- monotone iff a pattern S satisfying the constraint implies that each suffix of S w.r.r. R also satisfies C October 16.t.t.

2008 Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques 68 . Relationships Among Categories of Constraints Succinctness Anti-monotonicity Monotonicity Convertible constraints Inconvertible constraints October 16.

Examples: sum(S. October 16.Price) ≥ v is not anti-monotone sum(S. 2008 Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques 69 .Price) ≤ v is anti-monotone sum(S. Property of Constraints: Anti-Monotone Anti-monotonicity: If a set S violates the constraint.price) ≤ 1000” deeply into iterative frequent set computation.Price) = v is partly anti-monotone Application: Push “sum(S. any superset of S violates the constraint.

θ ∈ { =. ≥ } yes v∈ S no S⊇ V no S⊆ V yes S= V partly min(S) ≤ v no min(S) ≥ v yes min(S) = v partly max(S) ≤ v yes max(S) ≥ v no max(S) = v partly count(S) ≤ v yes count(S) ≥ v no count(S) = v partly sum(S) ≤ v yes sum(S) ≥ v no sum(S) = v partly avg(S) θ v. 2008 Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques 70 . θ ∈ { =. ≤. ≥ } convertible (frequent constraint) (yes) October 16. ≤. Characterization of Anti-Monotonicity Constraints S θ v.

R If S is a suffix of S . I={9.g. avg(S ) ≥ avg(S) 1 1 {8. 3} avg({9. 3} is a suffix of {9. 4. 3})=6 ≥ avg({8. 4. 2008 does {9. 4. 6. 1} Avg(S) ≥ v is convertible monotone w. 3})=5 If S satisfies avg(S) ≥v. 4.t. 8. 4. 3} Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques 71 . 4. 8. Example of Convertible Constraints: Avg(S) θ V Let R be the value descending order over the set of items E. 3. 4. 3} satisfies constraint avg(S) ≥ 4. so does S1 {8. 8. so October 16. 8.r.

Property of Constraints: Succinctness Succinctness: For any set S1 and S2 satisfying C. i.Price ) ≤ v is succinct Optimization: If C is succinct.e. S1 ∪ S2 satisfies C Given A1 is the sets of size 1 satisfying C.Price ) ≥ v is not succinct min(S. 2008 by theData iterative support Mining: Concepts counting. then any set S satisfying C are based on A1 . and Techniques 72 . Example : sum(S. it contains a subset belongs to A1 . then C is pre-counting prunable. The satisfaction of the constraint alone is not affected October 16..

≤. θ ∈ { =. 2008 Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques 73 . ≥ } Yes v∈ S yes S ⊇V yes S⊆ V yes S= V yes min(S) ≤ v yes min(S) ≥ v yes min(S) = v yes max(S) ≤ v yes max(S) ≥ v yes max(S) = v yes count(S) ≤ v weakly count(S) ≥ v weakly count(S) = v weakly sum(S) ≤ v no sum(S) ≥ v no sum(S) = v no avg(S) θ v. ≤. Characterization of Constraints by Succinctness S θ v. ≥ } no (frequent constraint) (no) October 16. θ ∈ { =.

2008 Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques 74 . Chapter 6: Mining Association Rules in Large Databases Association rule mining Mining single-dimensional Boolean association rules from transactional databases Mining multilevel association rules from transactional databases Mining multidimensional association rules from transactional databases and data warehouse From association mining to correlation analysis Constraint-based association mining Summary October 16.

. et al. From association analysis to classification and clustering analysis E. Why Is the Big Pie Still There? More on constraint-based mining of associations Boolean vs. 2008 Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques 75 . quantitative associations Association on discrete vs. Association does not necessarily imply correlation or causal relationships From intra-trasanction association to inter- transaction associations E. break the barriers of transactions (Lu. continuous data From association to correlation and causal structure analysis.g.g. clustering association rules October 16. TOIS’99).

Chapter 6: Mining Association Rules in Large Databases Association rule mining Mining single-dimensional Boolean association rules from transactional databases Mining multilevel association rules from transactional databases Mining multidimensional association rules from transactional databases and data warehouse From association mining to correlation analysis Constraint-based association mining Summary October 16. 2008 Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques 76 .

2008 Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques 77 . time series data. multimedia data. etc. October 16. Summary Association rule mining probably the most significant contribution from the database community in KDD A large number of papers have been published Many interesting issues have been explored An interesting research direction Association analysis in other types of data: spatial data.

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