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currencies. Globalization(G11N)  Globalization addresses the business issues associated with taking a product global. . technical requirements and cultural preferences as well as marketing and sales and technical support for local markets. business practices.  Organizations must account for a number of business issues if they are to succeed in international markets: Local Languages.

Internationalization (I18N)  The process of architecting a product so it can handle multiple languages and cultural conventions without the need for re-design. .

or language. . product or document in a way that makes it easily localizable for target audiences that vary in culture. Internationalization (I18N)  Internationalization(i18n). region. depicts the practice of designing & developing an application.

 I18N aims at separating Core application code from dynamic content containing Culture specific data. regions. writing systems. such as text strings on the UI. Internationalization (I18N)  Internationalization(i18n) takes place at the level of program design and engineering. In nutshell internationalization can be seen as an architectural issue.  Following i18N in software development ensures that minimal changes are required while modifying for different languages. .

anytime through any device.  Research shows that users are more likely to make purchases when the communication is in native language. . Why Internationalization  Empowering users to access information anywhere.

using language tags in Mark up etc. formatting of numbers. currencies  Culture Specific sensitive information .. styling etc.  Handling Messages. Internationalization Considerations  Character set and encoding  Specifying the language of content. Strings.  Writing Systems  Locale data such as dates.

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 It also includes the production of help and online or printed documentation in the foreign language. Localization (L10N)  Involves taking a product and making it linguistically and culturally appropriate to the target locale (country/region and language) where it will be used and sold. .

or else the UI may have to be redesigned .  Tool . Localization (L10N) Considerations  Identify ‘Translatable’ and ‘Non-translatable’ strings  Many languages can take at least 30% more space. Design should be compatible. (HI) & .customer (EN) .

Localization (L10N) Considerations  Switching between Language in UI  Bitmap / Vector fonts  Avoiding use of text or numbers in graphics. .

 The same application functions do not necessarily apply to all cultures. Abbreviations. . Localization (L10N) Considerations  Avoiding use of metaphors which may not have equivalence in other languages  Acronyms.

Layout Considerations  A Height of glyphs may vary  Word length may vary across languages .

Aspects of locale  Names & Titles  Sorting by Last Name/First Name  Surname not always in last  Different addressing modes  Dear- .

 Decimal separator ‘.’ .456)  Group separator (In English ‘.’ or none. Aspects of locale  Calendars  No abbreviations in use for month names in Hindi  Numeric  Number of digits in a group (In English it is 3 while for other languages its different 1.23. but ISO uses space.’. and some locales use ‘.’. ‘.

e.)  Addresses  Order of information cant be fixed  i.  Date separators (/ . City followed by State etc . . Aspects of locale  Date and Time formats.. .

00 (Indian currencies are written with decimal precision (e. 1000 रपये . 1000 OR Rs.or INR 1000.g. 1000/. Paper size. Aspects of locale  Currencies./ £)  Position of currency differs (in beginning or last)  Different ways of expressing Rs. र 1000. 2 digits after the decimal point for paisa) . Weights & measures  Different languages use different size to express currencies (INR/$/Rs. 1000 Rupees.

symbols and images  Colors. beliefs and feelings  Emphasizing has different meaning in different languages  Humour (No humor is internationally acceptable)  Geographical & environmental effects  Customs & traditions  Social Security Numbers . myths. Cultural Aspects  Icons.

Cultural Aspects  A image can say thousand words.  Images of people or body parts such as hands  Considered inappropriate in some cultures  What skin color to use?  localized People Images for each country .