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Research is defined as the

systematic collection, analysis
and interpretation of data to
answer a certain question or to
solve a problem
The aim of any piece of
research is to find and answer
to a certain question

:This question might be

Academic: which add to the core of
scientific knowledge
Practical or applied: aims at
describing , analyzing, evaluating and
upgrading medical practice

:To solve the patient’s problem The physician will formulate hypothesis based on the complaints of the patient Will collect the patient’s data Interpret these data .

:Research protocol Selection of the area Selection of topic Crude research question (from literature review if the answer was found so there will be no need for study) If the answer is not found so you must put a research question Research hypothesis .

Study design Population and sampling Variables Research tools Pilot study Workplan Collection of data Data management Interpretation of data Reporting .

:Research area Researcher’s .specialty .scientific background .experience Actual need for research area Available resources .interest .

Research topic Priority of research topic will depend on: .characteristic of the problem:  impact on health ( magnitude- prevalence.incidence) seriousness (mortality morbidity.disability) preventability and curability  Available interventions and solutions .

Characteristics of the proposed study: Feasibility Cost effectiveness Applicability of results .

Prioritize the disease in the table for research on control in developing country disease prevalence mortality morbidity Control measures Respiratory +++ +++ ++ Not effective infection Diarreal +++ +++ +++ effective disease Ascaris ++ + + Difficult Schistosoma +++ + +++ effective Polio +++ ++ ++ effective Diphteria + + + effective amebiasis +++ + + Difficult meningitis ++ +++ ++ Difficult .

:General and specific objectives Research goal ( general objective): Describes the aims of the work in broad terms it relates more to the study area than to the research question Objectives (specific): they relate more to the research question and they are divided into: primary and secondary objectives .

They are taken into consideration during selection of the study design and the sample size .:Primary objectives These are the objectives that the investigator is bound to achieve by the end of the study.

:Secondary objectives They could be achieved by the way during the study without use of extra resources they are not included or estimated during the estimation of the sample size .

to measure. to identify.:The research objectives should be Closely related to the research questions Covering all the aspects of the problem Very specific Ordered in a logical sequence Stated in verbs that could be evaluated ( to describe. to compare) acheivable .

:Example Research area: cardiology Research topic: ischemic heart disease Goal: to contribute to prevention of IHD Primary objective to determine the effect of reducing (LDL) on the occurrence of MI Secondary objective: to describe the side effects of lowering (LDL) Research question: does the hypocholestrolemia agent A) decrease the risk of MI Research hypothesis: the risk of MI among patients treated with hypocholestrolemic agents A is lower than the risk among controls not treated with hypocholestrolemic agents .

Review of literature To identify valid research questions Refine research question Avoid un-needed research Avoid duplication Avoid pitfalls of previous studies To provide a scientific background Give a rational for the study .

Research questions Description: what is the prevalence or incidence of disease D Etiology: what is the cause of disease D. what is the validity of the questionnaire Q versus T . what are the risk factors F associated with D Diagnosis: what is the value of the test T in diagnosing the disease M. is exposure to E is associated to D. is the test T1 better than the test T2 in diagnosing the disease M.

what is the efficacy of drug A in the treatment of disease D. is surgery more effective than conservative treat for disease D Prognosis : what is the survival of patients with disease D.Research questions Research questions Therapy: is drug A better than drug B in the treatment of disease D. what is the value of screening program S on the prognosis of disease .

what is the impact of water fluorination in dental caries .Research questions Evaluation: what is the impact of the presence of an ICU versus ward management of MI.

:Hypothesis must Be based on plausible scientific background Be a translation of the research question Reflect the study design Use the study variables Test only one relationship or phenomena Be stated in measurable terms .

:Research hypothesis It is a statement of the research question in a measurable form Eg: a prospective cohort study was designed to answer the research question : is hypocholertrolemia (HC) a risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) .

:Examine the following hypotheses 1 All subjects having HC will develop CHD (not biologicaly plausible) 2 Dietary habits affect the risk of CHD ( not related to research question) 3 Rats given high fat diets will develop CHD ( does not reflect the study design cohort and not experimental) 4 Astherosclerosis is associated with a high risk of CHD ) ( does not use the study variable) .

5 Increased serum cholesterol and triglycerides and decreased HDL lead to increased risk of CHD ( examines more than one relationship) 6 CHD is high among hypercholerstimic subjects ( not stated in measurable terms) 7 subjects with HC have a higher risk of (developing CHD compared to subjects without HC (fulfills the criteria) 8 the prevelance of CHD among HC subjects is higher than that in subjects without HC ( does not reflect the study design) 9 the probability of HC in CHD patients is higher than in subjects without CHD( does not reflect the study design) .

:Alternate hypothesis The hypothesis stated by the researcher is known as the alternate hypothesis (Ha) which is the objective of the study In the above example: subjects with HC have a higher risk of developing CHD compared to subjects without HC .

:Null hypothesis The opposite of this statement is known as the null hypothesis (H0) which is the assumption that the alternate hypothesis is not true ( subjects with HC do not have a higher risk of developing CHD compared to subjects without HC .

05) and accept the alternate hypothesis .Sound hypothesis is important to apply the significance test The significance test will let you to decide: .to reject the Null hypothesis ( if p< 0.To accept the Null hypothesis (if p> 0.05) and reject the alternate hypoyhesis .

:Task State your research question State your research hypothesis making sure it fulfills all the criteria .