Research is defined as the systematic collection, analysis and interpretation of data to answer a certain question or to solve a problem

The aim of any piece of research is to find and answer to a certain question

:This question might be
Academic: which add to the core of scientific knowledge Practical or applied: aims at describing , analyzing, evaluating and upgrading medical practice

:To solve the patient’s problem
The physician will formulate hypothesis based on the complaints of the patient Will collect the patient’s data Interpret these data

:Research protocol
Selection of the area Selection of topic Crude research question (from literature review if the answer was found so there will be no need for study) If the answer is not found so you must put a research question Research hypothesis

Study design Population and sampling Variables Research tools Pilot study Workplan Collection of data Data management Interpretation of data Reporting

:Research area
Researcher’s - specialty - interest - scientific background - experience Actual need for research area Available resources

Research topic
Priority of research topic will depend on: - characteristic of the problem:  impact on health ( magnitudeprevalence- incidence) seriousness (mortality morbidity- disability) preventability and curability  Available interventions and solutions

Characteristics of the proposed study:
Feasibility Cost effectiveness Applicability of results

Prioritize the disease in the table for research on control in developing country
disease Respiratory infection Diarreal disease Ascaris Schistosoma Polio Diphteria amebiasis meningitis prevalence +++ +++ ++ +++ +++ + +++ ++ mortality +++ +++ + + ++ + + +++ morbidity ++ +++ + +++ ++ + + ++ Control measures Not effective effective Difficult effective effective effective Difficult Difficult

:General and specific objectives
Research goal ( general objective): Describes the aims of the work in broad terms it relates more to the study area than to the research question Objectives (specific): they relate more to the research question and they are divided into: primary and secondary objectives

:Primary objectives
These are the objectives that the investigator is bound to achieve by the end of the study. They are taken into consideration during selection of the study design and the sample size

:Secondary objectives
They could be achieved by the way during the study without use of extra resources they are not included or estimated during the estimation of the sample size

:The research objectives should be
Closely related to the research questions Covering all the aspects of the problem Very specific Ordered in a logical sequence Stated in verbs that could be evaluated ( to describe, to identify, to measure, to compare) acheivable

Research area: cardiology Research topic: ischemic heart disease Goal: to contribute to prevention of IHD Primary objective to determine the effect of reducing (LDL) on the occurrence of MI Secondary objective: to describe the side effects of lowering (LDL) Research question: does the hypocholestrolemia agent A) decrease the risk of MI Research hypothesis: the risk of MI among patients treated with hypocholestrolemic agents A is lower than the risk among controls not treated with hypocholestrolemic agents

Review of literature
To identify valid research questions Refine research question Avoid un-needed research Avoid duplication Avoid pitfalls of previous studies To provide a scientific background Give a rational for the study

Research questions
Description: what is the prevalence or incidence of disease D Etiology: what is the cause of disease D, is exposure to E is associated to D, what are the risk factors F associated with D Diagnosis: what is the value of the test T in diagnosing the disease M, is the test T1 better than the test T2 in diagnosing the disease M, what is the validity of the questionnaire Q versus T

Research questions Research questions
Therapy: is drug A better than drug B in the treatment of disease D, what is the efficacy of drug A in the treatment of disease D, is surgery more effective than conservative treat for disease D Prognosis : what is the survival of patients with disease D, what is the value of screening program S on the prognosis of disease

Research questions
Evaluation: what is the impact of the presence of an ICU versus ward management of MI, what is the impact of water fluorination in dental caries

:Hypothesis must
Be based on plausible scientific background Be a translation of the research question Reflect the study design Use the study variables Test only one relationship or phenomena Be stated in measurable terms

:Research hypothesis
It is a statement of the research question in a measurable form Eg: a prospective cohort study was designed to answer the research question : is hypocholertrolemia (HC) a risk for coronary heart disease (CHD)

:Examine the following hypotheses
1 All subjects having HC will develop CHD (not biologicaly plausible) 2 Dietary habits affect the risk of CHD ( not related to research question) 3 Rats given high fat diets will develop CHD ( does not reflect the study design cohort and not experimental) 4 Astherosclerosis is associated with a high risk of CHD ) ( does not use the study variable)

5 Increased serum cholesterol and triglycerides and decreased HDL lead to increased risk of CHD ( examines more than one relationship) 6 CHD is high among hypercholerstimic subjects ( not stated in measurable terms) 7 subjects with HC have a higher risk of (developing CHD compared to subjects without HC (fulfills the criteria) 8 the prevelance of CHD among HC subjects is higher than that in subjects without HC ( does not reflect the study design) 9 the probability of HC in CHD patients is higher than in subjects without CHD( does not reflect the study design)

:Alternate hypothesis
The hypothesis stated by the researcher is known as the alternate hypothesis (Ha) which is the objective of the study In the above example: subjects with HC have a higher risk of developing CHD compared to subjects without HC

:Null hypothesis
The opposite of this statement is known as the null hypothesis (H0) which is the assumption that the alternate hypothesis is not true ( subjects with HC do not have a higher risk of developing CHD compared to subjects without HC

Sound hypothesis is important to apply the significance test
The significance test will let you to decide: - to reject the Null hypothesis ( if p< 0.05) and accept the alternate hypothesis - To accept the Null hypothesis (if p> 0.05) and reject the alternate hypoyhesis

State your research question State your research hypothesis making sure it fulfills all the criteria

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.