You are on page 1of 93

INTRODUCTION TO GAS TURBINE

Gas Turbine as Prime Mover


Developed during world war for aircraft propulsion Introduced in 1940s to the power generation By 1960s, established as peak power producer Initial development for mechanical drives in

Pipeline pumping station Gas compressors Transportation

Joule Brayton Cycle

BRAYTON CYCLE

FACTORS AFFECTING THE CYCLE EFFICIENCY

Pressure Ratio. Turbine Inlet Temperature. Compressor Inlet temperature. Efficiency of Compressor and Turbine.

GT-Thermodynamic Fundamentals
Higher TIT yields higher efficiency For a given TIT higher Compression Ratio yields higher efficiency. Optimum compression ratio for maximum Efficiency and maximum Specific Output are different. Optimum r for max. sp. Work Output corresponds to the value for which compressor and turbine outlet temperature are equal.

Performance
=1
1 1 P 1 P 1

Pr. Ratio

14

Factors Affecting GT Performance

Ambient Temperature Relative Humidity Inlet Pressure Loss Exhaust Pressure Loss Performance degradation Steam /Water Injection for NOx Control Type of Fuel

Effect of Ambient Temperature


TYPICAL

A 28C results in* : ~ 25 % output reduction and ~ 10 % higher heat rate.

Effect of Inlet Pressure Drop


TYPICAL

 4 inches H2O inlet drop produces : 1.50 % power output loss 0.50 % heat rate increase 1.2 F exhaust temp. Increase  4 inches h2o exhaust drop produces : 0.50 % power output loss 0.50 % heat rate increase 1.2 F exhaust temp. Increase
INDICATIVE FIGURES
015

TYPICAL

016

POWER REQD BY COMPRESSOR


Power required by Compressor is defined by:Net Output (T3 T4) (T2 T1) Work Ratio = ------------------------Turbine Work T3 T4 For Frame MW 701 D Gas Turbine: T1 = 27C T2 = 387C T3 = 1154C T4 = 512C T3-T4=642 T2-T1=360 Work Ratio = .439 Net out put=111.2 Turbine Work =253 MW Compressor Work = 253 111.2 = 142MW

STATION
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ANTA AURAIYA KAWAS DADARI

NTPC GAS POWER STATIONS


STATE INSTALLED CAPACITY(MW)
413 (3x88+1x153) 663.36 (4x111.2+2x109.3) 645 (4x106+2x110.5) 817 (4x131+2x146.5) 648 (3x131+1x255) 350 (2x115.2+129.17) 430 (2x143+1x144) Rajasthan Uttar Pradesh Gujarat Uttar Pradesh

JHANOR-GANDHAR Gujarat KAYAKULAM FARIDABAD Kerala Haryana

AURAIYA GAS POWER STATION 220 KV BUS BAR

Gen
GT-1

Gen
GT-2

Gen
ST-1
109.3 MW

Gen
ST-2
109.3 MW

Gen
GT-3

Gen
GT-4

111.19 MW 111.19 MW

111.19 MW 111.19 MW

TOTAL GENERATING CAPACITY : 663.36 MW

LOWER GANGA CANAL Narora Dam

Mangalpur Rajwaha

al nal ch Can nch Ca h Bran h Bra Etawa Etawa

A B C

Canal Water Pumps 3 x 1500 M3/Hr

RIVER GANGA

Live Water Reservoir (2,46,500M3)

(7,73,000M3)

Raw Water Reservoir

Module-2

Module-1

DRAY HCT W VK 022 I S

Filtered Air (1460 M3/Hr, 27C)

Exhaust 512.7C

Fuel
13.12 KSC 387C

12.39 KSC 1154C

Inlet Air Filter House (1008 Filter Cartridges)

Excitor

GENERATOR (11.5 KV) (11.5 KV)


COMBUSTION CHAMBER TURBINE (4 Stages) COMPRESSOR (19 Stages)

STARTING PACKAGE

VIEW OF GAS TURBINE

SPECIFICATION OF GT
Type Model Compressor Combustor Turbine Nos of stages Rated shaft speed Over speed trip Single shaft, heavy duty, industrial gas turbine MW 701D Axial flow,19 stage Cannular type,18 nos Axial flow ,reaction type 4 3000 rpm 3,300+/-30rpm(110%+/-10%)

GT Ratings at ISO Conditions


1 bar atmospheric Pressure 65 % Humidity 15 Deg C Ambient Temperature

GT Output 125MW

1 bar atmospheric Pressure 65 % Humidity

GT RATING(SITE CONDITION)

27 Deg C Ambient Temperature

GT Output 111.2MW

GAS TURBINE INSPECTION


COMBUSTOR INSPECTION-75OO EOH HOT PATH INSPECTION-15000 EOH

MAJOR OVER HAULING-30000 EOH

Combustor Basket

Transition Piece

Cross flame tube

GAS TURBINE OPENED


ne bi ur T or ss re p om C

Combustion Chamber

Hole for Fuel Nozzle

Inlet Air Duct

GAS TURBINE MODEL M701D Combustion


Chamber Compressor (19 stage) Turbine (4 stage) Exhaust Duct

COMPRESSOR CASING

GT ROTOR LIFTING

COMBUSTION CHAMBER
COMPRESSOR DISCHARGE

GAS NOZZLE

NAPHTHA ADAPTORS

COMBUSTOR

TRANSITION PIECE

GT BLADES: INTERNAL COOLING PASSAGE

GT BLADE ASSEMBLED

GT BEARING

GT BLADE CARRIERS

GT CASING

GT COMPRESSOR VANES

GAS TUR.VANES

TUR BLADE ASSLY

BLADE ASSEMBLY

GT BLADE

GT BLADES: INTERNAL COOLING PASSAGE

BLADE COOLING HOLE

OVER SPEED FLY BALL

GT INLET AIR FILTER

Rotor Cooling Air (3.7%) Combustor

1st Stage Vane

9%
Transition Piece

as ue g l Hot F Secondary Combustion


Air (16.68%)

Primary Combustion Air (66.72%) Compressor Discharge Air

Compressor Discharge Air

Hot Flue gas

Vane Cooling Air 2nd Stage : 2.7% 3rd stage : 0.8% 4th Stage : 0.4%

Type : Open Cycle, Non-regenerative Fuel : Duel fuel, Natural Gas / Diesel Compressor : 12 Stage, Axial Turbine : 2 Stage Axial Compressor Turbine & 2 Stage Axial Power Turbine Output : 2.968 MW, 6.6KV, 50Hz

EGT GENERATOR

CT

COMPRESSOR

SM

PT

6.6KV Switchgear Bus-1

CB CB

CB

6.6KV Switchgear Bus-2

HOT GAS PATH COMPONENTS COOLING SYSTEM


Turbine Air Cooler

SUPER ALLOYS
Major super alloys for MHI 701D gas turbine Moving blades: Nickel based supper alloys,U520 Stationary Vanes: Cobalt based super alloys,X45,ECY 768 Combustor baskets: Hastalloy-X

Transition piece: Tommilloy

HOT ISOSTATIC PRESSURE REPAIRE


Hot isostatic pressure (HIP) is a process that uniquely combines pressure and temperature to produce material and parts with substantial better properties than other methods. HIPping is also used for VOID defect removal in castings or old spares. The pressure medium-Inert gas, normally argon Pressure- up to 200 Kg/cm2 Temperature -2000 Deg C 90+% Turbine blades are HIPped. Blades can be rejuvenated by HIPping.

HIPping FURNACE

HIPping RESULT

DEVELOPMENT OF BLADE MATERIAL

DEVELOPMENT OF MATERIAL

STAGES OF CREEP

H-Technology
The Next generation technology Firing temperature raised to 2650 deg F Novel features Steam Cooling CCP efficiency barrier of 60% crossed Single shaft CCP configuration 480MW Reheat Combined Cycles 10% reduction in operating costs

GT AUXILIARY SYSTEMS

GT Support Systems
Off-Base Systems
Inlet System Air Filter, Air intake duct , APU Exhaust System Exhaust duct , Exhaust dampers, By-pass stack Enclosure Ventilation system Fire fighting system Water wash system Control cabinet Motor Control Centre D.C. System Oil mist eliminator

Exhaust System

Options in configuration

Exhaust duct and by-pass stack By pass damper WHRB inlet Damper Generally internally insulated Stack Size based on emission requirements

Ventilation System
Heat dissipation to maintain safe temperature

To limit hazardous area expansion Positive pressure ventilation Induced draft ventilation 3x 100% philosophy for vent fans

Oil Mist Eliminator

Recovery of oil vapour

Fan and filters used Common for entire GTG and gear box Located outside GTG

Water Washing System


On-line / Off-line Washing Washing of fouled compressor Use of detergent for cleaning Manifolds provided on base On-line washing reduces need for frequent Off line washing Self contained water washing skid provided

THERMAL BARRIER COATINGS


TBC allows the operating temperature to be increased by 100 K. Outer Ceramic Layer - Zirconia, thickness limited to 0.25 mm. Metallic bonding layer - MCrAlY Flaking - due to transient stresses between the inner and outer surface of ceramic. Peeling - Oxide growth on bonding layer.

THERMAL BARRIER COATINGS CON.

Two principal methods of application -Thermal Spraying (atmospheric plasma) & Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD). PVD yields better result but much more costlier. Stator blades - Thermal Spraying Rotor Blades - PVD

STARTING DEVICE

Multiple choice Diesel Engine Motor SFC Miscellaneous Use of torque converter and clutch

GT,MW701D (Auraiya) ISO Rating


1 bar atmospheric Pressure 65 % Humidity 15 Deg C Ambient Temperature

GT Output 125 MW

GT,MW701D (Auraiya) Design Rating


1 bar atmospheric Pressure 65 % Humidity 27 Deg C Ambient Temperature

GT Output 111.19 MW

GT Support Systems
On - Base systems

Lube Oil Liquid fuel Inlet air Control air Water Injection Starting device

Control oil Gas Fuel Control air Cooling and Sealing Steam Injection Leak Detection

WHY HEAT TREATMENT


HEAT TREAT MENT FINALLY CAN MAKE A METAL:
SOFT(WORKABLE)FOR MANUFACTURING AND HARD (STRONG) FOR USAGE

WHY HEAT TREATMENT OF CO-ALLOY(VANES)


REVERSE AGING EFFECT TO CONTROLE GRAIN SIZE STRESS RELIEVE(WELD/COLD DEFORMATION RESTORATION OF MECH. PROPERTIES COLD DEFORMATION REMOVAL OF CONTAMINATION SOLUTION OF BAD,TCP, PHASES APPLICATION OF COATING

DEGENERATION OF IGT PARTS


ENVIRONMENT: Oxidation Hot corrosion type-I (more than 800 deg C) Hot corrosion type-II (less than 800 deg C) Wet corrosion (in case of compressor) Erosion Note: Cyclic operation of compressor will cause more wet corrosion STRESS: High cycle fatigue Stress rupture (temp) Creep deflection (temp) Thermal mechanical fatigue (Temp)

CORROSION
Hot corrosion most commonly occurs under conditions where alkali sulphate salts deposit on the component surface. Sulphur is usually present as a contaminant in the fuel, while alkalies such as Na and K, may be present as contaminants in fuel or air. Hot corrosion is principally a function of operating hours under the corrosive conditions

Gas Turbine Requirements


Factors for a Gas Turbine
y y

High efficiency High specific output (output/kg of air flow)

Key Parameters affecting above:


y y

Firing temperature (Limited by metallurgy/cooling technology) Pressure Ratio

00 . 1

00 .

00 .

00 .

11 .

11 .

Co st of In sta lla tio n

1
1 .1 0 .0

O& M Co st O& M

Thermal

Comb. Cycle

00 .0 00 .0 11 .1 11 .1 11 .1

Coal fired Vs. Combined Cycle

St Fu af f el Re qu ire m en La t nd re qu ire m W en at t er Re qu ire m en Ge t sta tio n Pe rio d Pl an tE ffic en cy

11 .1

Gas Turbine Fuels

Fuel Flexibility
Types of Fuel Gaseous Fuels Natural Gas Low BTU Gas LPGs Propanes,Butanes Synthetic Gases ( High Hydrogen Content) Liquid Fuels-NAPHTHA Light Distillates Heavy Distillates Heavy Oils Residuals and Blends Mixed Fules Distillates and Gas ( 10/90 & 30/70 )

An environmental-friendly energy source


Sulfur Oxide Content (SOx) Carbon Dioxide Content (CO1 )
Coal 11 1 Oil 1 1

Nitrogen Oxide Content (NOx)

Coal 11 1 Oil 1 1

Coal 11 1 Oil 1 1

1
Natural gas

1 1
Natural gas

1- 1 11
Natural gas

no emission of sulfur oxide (SOx) or soot emits less carbon dioxide (CO1 thus helps to alleviate ), global warming emits smaller amount of nitrogen oxide (NOx)

What is Natural Gas


Oil and gas are mixtures of compounds of carbon and hydrogen, known as hydrocarbons. In its raw form natural gas it is made up of: Methane Propane Ethane Butane Hexane Other hydrocarbons hydrogen sulfide (H S) 1 Nitrogen Natural gas was considered a nuisance byproduct of oil extraction process.

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Natural gas condenses at 160 C


o

LNG contains no water, CO2, sulfur compounds, etc. Like boiling water only 260 C colder. Vapor/liquid volume ratio = 610:1. It is light specific gravity = ~ 0.45 Flammable when vaporized Open (unconfined) pool of LNG CANNOT EXPLODE Flame speed ~ 1.2 mps Colorless Odorless

NAPHTHA

LIQUID FUEL(NAPHTHA)
A petroleum product, highly inflammable 2.5-4.8(air-1) 93-260 deg C <0 deg C 20 cu ft per gal 1.1-5.9(% by volume) 288 deg C Dark Like kerosene

Vapor density Initial boiling point Flash point Vapour volume Explosive limit Auto ignition temp Colour Odor

India HBJ Infrastructure


THE GAS NETWORK - INDIA

B C

Proposed LNG terminal New Gasfields

Significant further infrastructure required to meet threefold

Supply - Demand Gap

Present Domestic Supply : 80 mmscmd Supply Demand Gap in 2006-07 : 151 mmscmd

Natural Gas Composition


MethaneCH4 72-90% EthaneC2H6 0-20% PropaneC3H8ButaneC4H10Carbon DioxideCO2 0-8% OxygenO2 0-0.2% NitrogenN2 0-5% Hydrogen sulphideH2S 0-5% Rare gases, He, Ne, Xetrace

Natural Gas Receiving Terminal


PCV Knock Out Drum Filter-2 Cold Flare FM-1 Filter-1

FM-2

Drain

GT-1

GT-2

GT-3

GT-4

Natural Gas Firing in Gas Turbine


GT-1

Comb Stop Valve Control Valve Comp Turb Gen

Drain GT-1

Air

Liquid Fuel- Naphtha


Highly

Volatile,

Highly Inflammable Low Lubricity

Liquid Fuel Process Flow


Naphtha Tanks 1500KLX2 ROAD TANKERS U/L PUMPS NTPC-AURAIYA

Naphtha Terminal

GT-1 Skid MFOP GT-2 Skid

Filter

TRANSFER PUMPS

Liquid Fuel Firing in Gas Turbine


GT-1

Comb Stop Valve Fuel Pump Gen Comp Turb

Air Control Valve