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Information Management I
Historical Development of Database Technology
1- Early Database Applications: The Hierarchical and Network Models were introduced in mid 1960’s and dominated during the seventies. A bulk of the worldwide database processing still occurs using these models. 2- Relational Model based Systems: The model that was originally introduced in 1970 by Edgar Codd, was heavily researched and experimented with in IBM and the universities. 3-Object-Oriented Applications: OODBMS were introduced in late 1980’s and early 1990’s to cater to the need of complex data processing in CAD (Computer Aid Design) and other applications. Their use has not taken off much.
Database: A collection of related data. Click to edit Master subtitle
Data: Known facts that can be recorded and have an implicit meaning. Mini-world: Some part of the real world about which data is stored in a database. For example, student grades and transcripts at a university. Database Management System (DBMS): A software package/ system to facilitate the creation and maintenance of a computerized database.
4/28/12 3 Database System: The DBMS software together with the data
A Database has the Following Implicit Properties:
1) A database represents some aspect of the real world, sometimes called the mini-world. Changes to the mini-world are reflected in the database. 2) A database is a logically coherent collection of data with some inherent meaning. A random assortment of data cannot correctly be referred to as a database. 3) A database is designed, built, and populated with data for a specific purpose. It has an intended group of users and some preconceived applications in which these users are interested.
Types of Database System
1- Traditional Database Applications, in which most of the information that is stored and accessed is either textual or numeric. 2- Multimedia Databases can now store pictures, video clips, and sound messages. 3- Geographic information systems (GIS) can store and analyze maps, weather data, and satellite images. 4-Data Warehouses and Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) Systems are used in many companies to extract and analyze useful information from very large databases for Decision Making.
4/28/12 5 5- Real-time and Active Database technology is used in
A Simplified Database System Environment
Application Programs / Queries
Software to Process Queries/Programs
Software to Access Stored Data
Stored Database Definition 4/28/12 (Meta-Data)
Typical DBMS Functionality
Define a Database in terms of data types, structures and constraints.
Construct or Load the Database on a secondary storage medium.
Manipulating the database querying, generating reports, insertions, deletions and modifications to its content.
Concurrent Processing and Sharing by a set of users and programs –yet, keeping all data valid and consistent.
Protection or Security measures to prevent unauthorized access.
Main Characteristics of the Database Approach
1-Self-describing nature of a database system: A DBMS catalog stores the description of the database: The description is called meta-data). This allows the DBMS software to work with different databases. 2- Insulation between programs and data: Called program-data independence. Allows changing data storage structures and operations without
Main Characteristics of the Database Approach [Continue..]
5- Sharing of data and multi-user transaction processing : Allowing a set of concurrent users to retrieve and to update the database. Concurrency control within the DBMS guarantees that each transaction is correctly executed or completely aborted. OLTP (Online Transaction Processing) is a major part of database applications.
Database Users [Continue……]
1–Database Administrators: Responsible for authorizing access to the database, for coordinating and monitoring its use, acquiring software, and hardware resources, controlling its use and monitoring efficiency of operations. 2–Database Designers: Responsible to define the content, the structure, the
constraints, and functions or transactions against the database. They must communicate with the end-users and understand their needs.
Database Users [Continue……]
5-Naïve or Parametric: They make up a large section of the end-user population. They use previously well-defined functions in the form of “canned transactions” against the database. Examples are bank-tellers or reservation clerks who do this activity for an entire shift of operations. 6-Sophisticated: these include business analysts, scientists, engineers, others thoroughly familiar with the system capabilities. Many use tools in the form of software packages that work closely with the stored database.
Advantages of Using the Database Approach 1-Controlling redundancy in data storage: Redundancy means store the same data multiple times leads to problems: First: need to perform a single logical update once for each file. Second: storage space is wasted when the same data is stored. Third: files that represent the same data may become
2- Restricting unauthorized access to data: Users or user groups are given account numbers protected by passwords, which they can use to gain access to the database. A DBMS should provide a security and authorization subsystem.
Advantages of Using the Database Approach [Continue…] 4-Providing Persistent Storage for Program Objects: Object-oriented database systems are compatible with
programming languages such as C++ and Java, and the DBMS software automatically performs any necessary conversions. Hence, a complex object in C++ can be stored permanently in an OODBMS. 5- Providing multiple interfaces to different classes of users: Because many types of users with varying levels of technical knowledge use a database, a DBMS should provide a variety of user interfaces. Both forms-style interfaces and menu-driven
4/28/12 13 interfaces are commonly known as graphical user interfaces
Advantages of Using the Database Approach [Continue…] 7- Providing backup and recovery services: A DBMS must provide facilities for recovering from hardware or software failures. 8- Enforcing integrity constraints on the database: DBMS should provide capabilities for defining and enforcing these constraints. The simplest type of integrity constraint involves specifying a data type for each data item. These constraints are derived from the meaning or semantics of the data and of the mini-world it represents. 9- Permitting Inferences and Actions using Rules: Some database systems provide capabilities for defining 4/28/12 14
Extending Database Capabilities for New Applications 1- Scientific Applications that store large amounts of data resulting from scientific experiments in areas such as high-energy physics or the mapping of the human genome. 2-storage and Retrieval of Images from scanned news, Pc photographs or medical images such as X-rays or MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) or video such as movies, video clips or PC camera video. 3- Data Mining Applications that analyze large amounts of data searching for the occurrences
relationships. 15 4- Spatial Applications that store spatial locations of data such
WHEN NOT TO USE A DBMS The overhead costs of using a DBMS are due to the following: 1- High initial investment in hardware, software, and training 2- The generality that a DBMS provides for defining and processing data 3- Overhead for providing security, concurrency control, recovery, and integrity functions. When a DBMS may be unnecessary It may be more desirable to use regular files under the following circumstances: 1- The database and applications are simple, well defined, and not expected to change.
MS Access Data Types
Data Type Use for Size Text or combinations of text and numbers, such asUp to 255 characters. addresses. Also numbers that do not require calculations, such as phone numbers, part numbers, or postal codes. Lengthy text and numbers, such as notes or descriptions. Numeric data to be used for mathematical calculations Dates and times. Currency values. Accurate to 15 digits to the left of the decimal point and 4 digits to the right. Unique sequential (incrementing by 1) Up to 64,000 characters.
Memo Number Date/Time Currency AutoNumber Yes/No
1, 2, 4, or 8 bytes. 16 bytes for Replication ID (GUID) only. 8 bytes. 8 bytes. 4 bytes. 16 bytes for Replication ID (GUID) only.
Fields that will contain only one of two values, such 1 bit. as Yes/No, True/False, On/Off. Objects (such as Microsoft Word documents, Up to 1 gigabyte (limited by disk space). Microsoft Excel spreadsheets, pictures, sounds, or other binary data), Field that will store hyperlinks Up to 64,000 characters.
OLE Object Hyperlink
4/28/12 17 Creates a field that allows you to choose a value The same size as the primary key field from another table or from a list of values using a that is also the Lookup field; typically17 4