‫שנת לימודים מוצלחת‬

‫פרופ' ישראל הרשקוביץ‬ ‫המחלקה לאנטומיה ואנתרופולוגיה‬ ‫טלפון 5949046‬ ‫פקס 7828046‬ ‫דואר אלקטרוני‬ ‫‪anatom2@post.tau.ac.il‬‬ ‫שעות קבלה: לפי תאום טלפוני‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬

‫מבוא לאנטומיה‬ ‫מערכות‬ ‫אזורים‬ ‫תנוחות‬ ‫מישורים‬ ‫תנועות‬

Organ Systems (11)

1-15

Organ Systems

Organ Systems

1-16

Organ Systems

Organ Systems

1-17

‫‪Organ Systems‬‬

‫חיצונית ופנימית‬

Body Regions

1-21

Body Regions

Standard anatomical position in humans The body is considered as standing erect, feet together and toes pointed forward, arms at the sides and palms facing forward (forearms supine).

Anatomical position
The standard anatomical position is described as standing erect with the head facing forwards in a neutral position.

Anatomical position of the skull
• The Frankfurt plane (auriculoorbital), a position where the lower margins of the orbits and the upper margins of the ear canals all lie in the same horizontal plane. This is a good approximation to the position where the subject is standing upright and facing forwards.

Planes:‫מישורים‬
• Body in anatomical position • Median (midsagittal) • Sagittal: parallel to median • Coronal: right angle to median • Horizontal/Transverse: at right angles to median, sagittal and coronal

Anatomical position

Standard anatomical position in other species
• Dorsal = Horizontal • Transverse = Coronal • Sagittal = Sagittal

Planes
• Three basic reference planes are used in zoological anatomy. • A sagittal plane divides the body into left and right portions.
– The midsagittal plane is in the midline, i.e. it would pass through midline structures such as the spine and all other sagittal planes are parallel to it.

• A coronal plane divides the body into dorsal and ventral portions. • A transverse plane divides the body into cranial (cephalic) and caudal portions.

Sections
Longitudinal

Transverse

Relationship
• Anterior (ventral) • Posterior (dorsal) • Superior (cephalic) • Inferior (caudal) • Medial (e.g. little finger) • Lateral (e.g. little toe)

Terms of Relationship

Relationship
• Objects near the front are "anterior"; those near the rear are "posterior" -- these correspond to the terms “ventral", forward surface, and “dorsal" rear surface.

Relationship
• Portions of the body which are closer to the head end are "superior" (Latin "upper"); those which are farther away are "inferior" ("lower") -- "superior" corresponds to cranial ('at the skull'), or cephalic (head), and "inferior" corresponds to caudal ('at the tail').

Relationship
• Structures near the midline are called medial and those near the sides of animals are called lateral. Therefore, medial structures are closer to the midsagittal plane, lateral structures are further from the midsagittal plane.

Terms of Comparison
• • • • • • • • Proximal Distal Superficial Deep Interior Exterior Ipsilateral Contralateral

Comparison

• On the limbs or other appendages, a point closer to the main body is "proximal"; a point farther away is "distal".

Comparison
• Structures that are close to the point of attachment of the body are proximal or central, while ones more distant from the attachment point are distal or peripheral.

Comparison

Superficial and deep layer
9

Comparison
• Structures on or closer to the body's surface are superficial (or external) and those further inside are profound or deep (or internal).

Comparison
• Structures in the midline of the body are median, or medial. Ipsilateral means on the same side, contralateral means on the other side and bilateral means on both sides.

A patient with bilateral thyroid eye disease with upper lid retraction and exophthalmos. There are also bilateral periorbital oedema

Location
• When speaking of inner organs, visceral means attached to or associated with an organ, while parietal refers to a structure associated with or attached to the body wall (the chest wall or the abdominal wall).

location
• Parietal pleura in blue; visceral pleura in purple.

Views
• • • • • • • Frontal Posterior Lateral Superior Inferior Superolateral Superoposterolateral

3

Frontal view

Lateral view

No view
5

8

Posterior

7

Posterolateral

Terms of Movement
Flexion Extension, Hyperextension Abduction Adduction Opposition Reposition Protraction Retraction Elevation Depression Circumduction Rotation Eversion Inversion Plantarflexion Dorsiflexion Supination Pronation

‫תנועות הגוף‬
‫• כלל הגדרת התנועה: תנועות‬ ‫האברים מוגדרים לפי‬ ‫אופי התנועה והמישור/ים‬ ‫עליו מתבצעת התנועה‬

‫תנועות שמתבצעות‬ ‫במישור הסגיטלי‬

‫מפרק הכתף‬
‫/ ‪Flexion‬‬ ‫‪Extension‬‬

‫41‬

‫עריכה:חיותה פסח‬

Flexion

‫מהן התנועות?‬ ‫באיזה מפרק?‬ ‫מהו מישור התנועה?‬

‫81‬

‫מהן התנועות?‬ ‫באיזה מפרקים?‬ ‫מהו מישור התנועה?‬

‫91‬

‫מהן התנועות?‬ ‫באיזה מפרק?‬ ‫מהו מישור התנועה?‬

‫02‬

‫מהן התנועות?‬ ‫באיזה מפרק?‬ ‫מהו מישור התנועה?‬

‫12‬

‫תנועות המתבצעות‬ ‫במישור‬ ‫הקורונאלי/פרונטאלי‬

‫מפרק הכתף‬
Abduction /Adduction

22

MetacarpalPhalangeal Joints

Abduction /Adduction

23

‫מהן התנועות?‬

‫42‬

‫באיזה מפרקים?‬ ‫מהו מישור התנועה?‬

‫מהן התנועות?‬

‫72‬

‫באיזה מפרק?‬ ‫מהו מישור התנועה?‬

Lateral (radial) flexion Medial (ulnar) flexion

Elevation Depression
29

‫תנועות שמתבצעות‬ ‫במישור ההוריזונטלי‬

Protraction Retraction
30

31

Torsion

‫מפרק הכתף‬
Medial / lateral rotation

32

‫מהי התנועה?‬ ‫באיזה מפרק?‬ ‫מהו מישור התנועה?‬

‫43‬

‫מהן התנועות?‬

‫53‬

‫באיזה מפרק?‬ ‫מהו מישור התנועה?‬

‫תנועות שמתבצעות‬ ‫בכמה מישורים‬

‫מפרק הכתף‬
Circumduction

36

‫מהי התנועה?‬

‫73‬

‫באיזה מפרק?‬ ‫מהו מישור התנועה?‬

Supination

Pronation

38

Movements
• When the palm is directed anteriorly (or upwards when seated) is known as the supine position. Where the palm faces posteriorly (or downwards when seated), this is the prone position. Turning the hand from prone to supine is called supination; turning the hand from supine to prone is pronation.

Inversion /Eversion

40

41

‫מהי התנועה?‬

‫24‬

‫• תנועות שמשלבות מספר רב‬ ‫של מפרקים‬

Lateral flexion

43

‫מהי התנועה?‬ ‫באיזה מפרקים?‬ ‫מהו מישור התנועה?‬

‫44‬

‫אזורים בגוף שבהם‬ ‫ניתן לבצע פשיטה‬

‫64‬

‫אזורים בגוף שבהם ניתן לבצע כפיפה‬

‫74‬

‫מהן התנועות?‬ ‫באיזה מפרק?‬ ‫מהם המישורים?‬ ‫מהם השמות הנוספים לתנועות אלו?‬

‫84‬

49

‫מהן התנועות?‬ ‫באיזה מפרק?‬ ‫מהם מישורי התנועה?‬

‫05‬

‫מהן התנועות?‬ ‫באיזה מפרקים?‬ ‫מהם מישורי התנועה?‬

‫15‬

‫מהן התנועות?‬ ‫באיזה מפרקים?‬ ‫מהם מישורי התנועה?‬

‫25‬

Movements: Definition
• Flexion: Narrowing joint angle in saggital plane (bending elbow) • Extension: Increasing joint angle in saggital plane (straightening elbows) • Hyperextension: Increasing angle more than in natural position, e.g. bending backwards

Movements: Definition
• Abduction: Lifting a body part away from body midline (in frontal plane). • Adduction: Returning a body part to body midline (in frontal plane). • Rotation: Turning a body part on axis (horizontal plane) (not rotation all the way round - see circumduction).

Movement Definition
• Lateral flexion: Bending body sideways (frontal plane). • Lateral extension: Returning body to anatomical position

Movements: Definition
• Elevation: Lifting a body part (shoulder shrugs) • Depression: Lowering a body part (dropping the jaw) • Protraction: Moving a body part outwards • Retraction: Bringing a body part back

Movements: Definition
• Horizontal Flexion (starts from abducted position): Moving arm forwards in horizontal plane • Horizontal Extension (starts from abducted position): Returning arm to the abducted position

Movements: Definition
• Dorsal Flexion: Bending ankle so that the toes are raised • Plantar Flexion: Hyperextending ankle joint so toes point downwards • Circumduction: Range of movements that create a complete circle (as opposed to a rotation of less than 360 degrees.)

‫סכום‬ ‫• התנועות העיקריות‬ ‫במפרקי הגוף השונים‬

Shoulder girdle

Shoulder Joint

Elbow Joint

Wrist joint

Hip joint

Knee joint

Ankle joint

Spinal column

‫• תודה רבה‬

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