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# NEEP 541 – Hardening

Fall 2002
Jake Blanchard

Outline

Hardening

Radiation tends to increase the strength
of metals

Point defects

Impurity atoms

Depleted zones

Dislocation loops

Line dislocations

Voids

precipitates
negligible

Two Mechanisms

Increase stress needed to start
dislocation motion (source hardening)

Impede dislocation motion (friction
hardening)

Source Hardening

Stress to initiate dislocation motion is
associated with unpinning of Frank-

This source increases dislocation
density as a result of deformation

Dislocation
Source
=pinning point

Animation

Si

What stress is required to
activate source?

Shear stress acting on the dislocation,
which is pinned by defects, distorts
dislocation

We can estimate the stress needed to
bend the dislocation beyond the critical
strain needed to activate the source
and create a new loop

Force on a Dislocation
θ
s
R

Model for critical shear stress
R
Gb
b
R
T
s
T
s
T
L
F
R s
Gb T
length arc s
tension line T
α
σ
σ
θ θ
θ
α α
·
· · ≈ ·
·
< < ·
·
·
2 sin 2
2
1 5 . 0 ;
2

Critical Stress

Critical point is when radius is half the
distance between pinning points
(dislocation is semi-circular)

Decreasing distance between pinning
points increases stress needed to
initiate motion

Gb α
σ
2
·

Friction Hardening

Defects impede dislocation motion

2 sources of resistive force

Long range forces from interaction with
other dislocations

Short range forces from obstacles
s LR i
stress friction σ σ σ + · ·

Long Range Stresses

Dislocations repel each other because
of stress fields associated with
interruption of lattice structure

Model dislocation as an ordered array of
defects

Dislocation Network Model

Select a Unit Cell
Dislocation loop
•Find force on loop from network of line
dislocations
•L determined by dislocation density
L

Modeling

Let ρ=total length of dislocations in
cube/cube volume (dislocation density)

ρ=(12/4)L/L
3
=3/L
2

(each dislocation shared by 4 unit cells)

L=(3/ρ)
1/2

Loop is only affected by parallel
dislocations (4 top, 4 bottom)

Approximate force by force only on
parallel dislocations

Modeling
( )
( )
( )
( ) ) ( sin ) ( cos ) ( sin
) ( sin ) ( cos ) cos( ) sin(
1 2
/
1 2
/
2 2 2
2 2
2
2
θ θ θ
θ θ θ θ
ν π
ν π
− ·
− ·

t
·

t
·
y
x
y
y
x
x
f
f
y
f
Gb
length unit F
y
f Gb
length unit F
θ
Fy
Fx
y

Modeling

Maximum force (Fx) is at angle where
fx is a maximum

Differentiate fx and set to 0

Maximum angle is 22.5 degrees

Maximum value of fx is 0.25

Let poisson’s ratio=1/2

Y=L/2

Modeling
( )
· · ·
·
·

,
_

¸
¸
·
3 2
2
/
2
2
25 . 0
5 . 0 2
/
2 2
π
ρ
π
σ
σ
π π
d
LR
LR LR
LR
Gb
L
Gb
b length unit F
L
Gb
L
Gb
length unit F
•Applied stress must overcome this force to move
dislocation
•Increasing dislocation density increases this
friction stress

Short Range Forces

Short range stresses are due to
obstacles lying in the slip plane

Force is exerted at point of contact

Two types:

Athermal=bowing around obstacle

Thermal=climbing over or cutting through
barrier (energy is supplied by thermal
activation)

Friction stress depends on distance
between obstacles

Obstacles
L
Area=A

Modeling

N=particle density

Slab volume is 2rA

Number of particles in slab=2rAN

Average distance between particles=L

L
2
*2rAN=A
rN
b
L
b
rN
L
2
2
1
· ∝
·
σ
More defects
implies higher
strength

Hardening by Depleted Zones

Significant at low fluence and low
temperatures

Mechanism is thermally activated
friction hardening

Thermal activation allows dislocation to
cut through or jump over obstacle

Dislocation is moved by short range
stress

Picture of Model
R
Lo
Lo
h
Lo
Lo=distance between
pinning points
L=distance between
obstacles
Lo>L

Model
( )
3 / 1
2
2
2
4
2
2 2
2
2 2
2
2
2
2

,
_

¸
¸
·
·

,
_

¸
¸

,
_

¸
¸
+
·
+
·
− + ·
·
·
σ
σ
σ
σ
GbL
L
Gb
L
L
L
L
L
Gb
h
h L
R
h R L R
R
Gb
h L L
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
So the dislocation line
satisfies this equation

Diagram
Lo
La
If La<Lo, then
dislocation cuts
through so that
Lo is the pinning
point distance

Diagram
Lo
La
If La>Lo, then
dislocation does
not cut through
and La becomes
the pinning point
distance

Strain Rate

Strain is determined by step size, which is b

Shear strain is b/a

Modeling

Assume N
1
loops in a volume V

Assume each loop grows by amount dA

N
1

1/a=N
1
dA/dV

Dislocation density:

Modeling
bv
dt
dR
b
dt
d
bdR d
RdR dA
RN
dAb N
a
b
d
RN
dV
dV
RN
d d
d
d
d
d
ρ ρ
ε
ρ ε
π
π
ρ
ε
ρ
π
π
ρ
· ·
·
·
· ·
·
·
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
•V=dislocation
glide velocity

Glide Velocity

,
_

¸
¸

·

,
_

¸
¸

·
·
kT
U
bL
dt
d
kT
U
L v
bv
dt
d
d
d
d d
*
*
exp
exp
ν ρ
ε
ν
ρ
ε
•Velocity depends on T,
activation energy, and
thermal vibration
frequency
•Increasing temperature
increases strain rate
because it becomes
easier to overcome
obstacles

Overcoming Obstacles

Shearing Obstacles

Slicing a sphere is easier off the diameter

r’
r r
3
2
' ·

Stress to penetrate obstacle

The stress needed to cut a model can
be approximated as:
G rb
N U
rN
L
GbL
L
r bL
U
o
o
2
2 / 3
2
3 / 1
2
2 4
3
2
1
2
' 4

,
_

¸
¸
>
·

,
_

¸
¸
·
>
σ
σ
σ •R=obstacle size
•N=obstacle density
•B, G =material properties

Temperature Effects

,
_

¸
¸
·
1
1
]
1

¸

,
_

¸
¸
− ·

,
_

¸
¸
− ·

,
_

¸
¸
ε
ρ
σ
σ
σ
σ

rN
bv
k
U
T
T
T
T
T
c
c o
c o
2
ln
2
1
1
2 / 3
3 / 2
3 / 2 3 / 2

Temperature Dependence Plot

Fluence Dependence

According to the model, the strength is
proportional to the square root of the
fluence

But saturation occurs

The theory is that as depleted zones
get too close, their hardening effect is
diminished

Saturation Modeling
VN
dt
dN
density cluster N
s s
Φ Σ − Φ Σ ·
·
α α
# zones per
collision
Collision rate per
unit volume
V=volume around depleted
zone that is unavailable for
Destruction rate

Saturation Modeling
( ) [ ]
( ) Vt
N
Vt
V
N
N
s s
s
s
Φ Σ − − ∝

Φ Σ − − ·
·
α σ
σ
α
exp 1
exp 1
1
0 ) 0 (

Outline

Hardening

Radiation tends to increase the strength of metals
      

Point defects Impurity atoms Depleted zones Dislocation loops Line dislocations Voids precipitates

negligible

Two Mechanisms

Increase stress needed to start dislocation motion (source hardening) Impede dislocation motion (friction hardening)

Source Hardening   Stress to initiate dislocation motion is associated with unpinning of FrankRead source This source increases dislocation density as a result of deformation .

Dislocation Source =pinning point .

Animation .

What stress is required to activate source?   Shear stress acting on the dislocation. distorts dislocation We can estimate the stress needed to bend the dislocation beyond the critical strain needed to activate the source and create a new loop . which is pinned by defects.

Force on a Dislocation θ R s .

Model for critical shear stress T = line tension s = arc length T = αGb 2 .5 < α < 1 s = 2θR F 2T sin θ 2Tθ T = ≈ = =σb L s s R αGb σ= R . 0.

Critical Stress  Critical point is when radius is half the distance between pinning points (dislocation is semi-circular) 2α Gb σ=  Decreasing distance between pinning points increases stress needed to initiate motion  .

Friction Hardening   Defects impede dislocation motion 2 sources of resistive force   Long range forces from interaction with other dislocations Short range forces from obstacles σ i = friction stress = σ LR + σ s .

Long Range Stresses   Dislocations repel each other because of stress fields associated with interruption of lattice structure Model dislocation as an ordered array of defects .

Dislocation Network Model .

Select a Unit Cell Dislocation loop L •Find force on loop from network of line dislocations •L determined by dislocation density .

Modeling       Let ρ=total length of dislocations in cube/cube volume (dislocation density) ρ=(12/4)L/L3=3/L2 (each dislocation shared by 4 unit cells) L=(3/ρ)1/2 Loop is only affected by parallel dislocations (4 top. 4 bottom) Approximate force by force only on parallel dislocations .

Modeling ± Gb 2 f x Fx / unit length = 2π (1 − ν ) y ± Gb 2 f y Fy / unit length = 2π (1 − ν ) y f x = sin(θ ) cos(θ ) cos 2 (θ ) − sin 2 (θ ) f y = sin 2 (θ ) cos 2 (θ ) − sin 2 (θ ) Fy Fx ( ( ) ) θ y .

5 degrees Maximum value of fx is 0.Modeling       Maximum force (Fx) is at angle where fx is a maximum Differentiate fx and set to 0 Maximum angle is 22.25 Let poisson’s ratio=1/2 Y=L/2 .

Modeling 2 Gb 2  2  Gb FLR / unit length = 0.5)  L  2π L FLR / unit length = σ LR b σ LR Gb Gb ρ d = = = 2π L 2π 3 •Applied stress must overcome this force to move dislocation •Increasing dislocation density increases this friction stress .25  = 2π ( 0.

Short Range Forces    Short range stresses are due to obstacles lying in the slip plane Force is exerted at point of contact Two types:   Athermal=bowing around obstacle Thermal=climbing over or cutting through barrier (energy is supplied by thermal activation)  Friction stress depends on distance between obstacles .

Modeling      N=particle density Slab volume is 2rA Number of particles in slab=2rAN Average distance between particles=L L2*2rAN=A 1 L= 2rN b b σ∝ = L 2rN More defects implies higher strength .

Hardening by Depleted Zones     Significant at low fluence and low temperatures Mechanism is thermally activated friction hardening Thermal activation allows dislocation to cut through or jump over obstacle Dislocation is moved by short range stress .

Picture of Model Lo R Lo=distance between pinning points L=distance between obstacles Lo>L Lo h Lo .

Model L2 = Lo h σ= Gb R 2 R 2 = L2 + ( R − h ) o L2 + h 2 Gb R= o = 2h σ  L4  2 Lo +  2   L  Gb  o= σ  L2  2  L   o  2GbL2  Lo =   σ     1/ 3 So the dislocation line adjusts its position until Lo satisfies this equation .

Diagram If La<Lo. then dislocation cuts through so that Lo is the pinning point distance La Lo .

Diagram If La>Lo. then dislocation does not cut through and La becomes the pinning point distance La Lo .

which is b Shear strain is b/a .Strain Rate   Strain is determined by step size.

Modeling      Assume N1 loops in a volume V Assume each loop grows by amount dA N1adA=dV 1/a=N1dA/dV Dislocation density: .

Modeling 2πRN1 ρd = dV 2πRN1 dV = ρd b ρ d N1dAb dε = = a 2πRN1 dA = 2πRdR dε = ρ d bdR dε dR = ρd b = ρ d bv dt dt •R=loop radius •V=dislocation glide velocity .

activation energy. and thermal vibration frequency •Increasing temperature increases strain rate because it becomes easier to overcome obstacles .Glide Velocity dε = ρ d bvd dt  −U *  vd = Lν exp  kT      −U *  dε = ρ d bLν exp  kT   dt   •Velocity depends on T.

Overcoming Obstacles .

Shearing Obstacles    Slicing a sphere is easier off the diameter Obstacle radius about 10 angstroms Average radius is 2 r' = 3 r r’ .

G =material properties N rb 2 G .Stress to penetrate obstacle  The stress needed to cut a model can be approximated as: •R=obstacle size 1/ 3 σ> U 4bLo r '  2GbL2  Lo =   σ     1 L2 = 2rN  3U   σ > 4 2   3/ 2 •N=obstacle density •B.

Temperature Effects σ    σ   o 2/3 T  = 1−   T   c 2/3 σ  T   = 1 −    σ o   Tc       2U Tc =  ρbv  k ln    2rN ε  2 / 3 3/ 2 .

Temperature Dependence Plot .

Fluence Dependence    According to the model. their hardening effect is diminished . the strength is proportional to the square root of the fluence But saturation occurs The theory is that as depleted zones get too close.

Saturation Modeling N = cluster density dN = α Σ s Φ − α Σ s ΦVN dt # zones per collision Destruction rate Collision rate per unit volume V=volume around depleted zone that is unavailable for cascade production .

Saturation Modeling N (0) = 0 1 N = [1 − exp( − α Σ s ΦVt ) ] V σs ∝ N σ s ∝ 1 − exp( − α Σ s ΦVt ) .

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