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Fall 2002

Jake Blanchard

Outline

Hardening

Radiation Hardening

Radiation tends to increase the strength

of metals

Point defects

Impurity atoms

Depleted zones

Dislocation loops

Line dislocations

Voids

precipitates

negligible

Two Mechanisms

Increase stress needed to start

dislocation motion (source hardening)

Impede dislocation motion (friction

hardening)

Source Hardening

Stress to initiate dislocation motion is

associated with unpinning of Frank-

Read source

This source increases dislocation

density as a result of deformation

Dislocation

Source

=pinning point

Frank-Read Source

Animation

Frank-Read Source

Si

What stress is required to

activate source?

Shear stress acting on the dislocation,

which is pinned by defects, distorts

dislocation

We can estimate the stress needed to

bend the dislocation beyond the critical

strain needed to activate the source

and create a new loop

Force on a Dislocation

θ

s

R

Model for critical shear stress

R

Gb

b

R

T

s

T

s

T

L

F

R s

Gb T

length arc s

tension line T

α

σ

σ

θ θ

θ

α α

·

· · ≈ ·

·

< < ·

·

·

2 sin 2

2

1 5 . 0 ;

2

Critical Stress

Critical point is when radius is half the

distance between pinning points

(dislocation is semi-circular)

Decreasing distance between pinning

points increases stress needed to

initiate motion

Gb α

σ

2

·

Friction Hardening

Defects impede dislocation motion

2 sources of resistive force

Long range forces from interaction with

other dislocations

Short range forces from obstacles

s LR i

stress friction σ σ σ + · ·

Long Range Stresses

Dislocations repel each other because

of stress fields associated with

interruption of lattice structure

Model dislocation as an ordered array of

defects

Dislocation Network Model

Select a Unit Cell

Dislocation loop

•Find force on loop from network of line

dislocations

•L determined by dislocation density

L

Modeling

Let ρ=total length of dislocations in

cube/cube volume (dislocation density)

ρ=(12/4)L/L

3

=3/L

2

(each dislocation shared by 4 unit cells)

L=(3/ρ)

1/2

Loop is only affected by parallel

dislocations (4 top, 4 bottom)

Approximate force by force only on

parallel dislocations

Modeling

( )

( )

( )

( ) ) ( sin ) ( cos ) ( sin

) ( sin ) ( cos ) cos( ) sin(

1 2

/

1 2

/

2 2 2

2 2

2

2

θ θ θ

θ θ θ θ

ν π

ν π

− ·

− ·

−

t

·

−

t

·

y

x

y

y

x

x

f

f

y

f

Gb

length unit F

y

f Gb

length unit F

θ

Fy

Fx

y

Modeling

Maximum force (Fx) is at angle where

fx is a maximum

Differentiate fx and set to 0

Maximum angle is 22.5 degrees

Maximum value of fx is 0.25

Let poisson’s ratio=1/2

Y=L/2

Modeling

( )

· · ·

·

·

,

_

¸

¸

·

3 2

2

/

2

2

25 . 0

5 . 0 2

/

2 2

π

ρ

π

σ

σ

π π

d

LR

LR LR

LR

Gb

L

Gb

b length unit F

L

Gb

L

Gb

length unit F

•Applied stress must overcome this force to move

dislocation

•Increasing dislocation density increases this

friction stress

Short Range Forces

Short range stresses are due to

obstacles lying in the slip plane

Force is exerted at point of contact

Two types:

Athermal=bowing around obstacle

Thermal=climbing over or cutting through

barrier (energy is supplied by thermal

activation)

Friction stress depends on distance

between obstacles

Obstacles

L

Area=A

Radius=r

Modeling

N=particle density

Slab volume is 2rA

Number of particles in slab=2rAN

Average distance between particles=L

L

2

*2rAN=A

rN

b

L

b

rN

L

2

2

1

· ∝

·

σ

More defects

implies higher

strength

Hardening by Depleted Zones

Significant at low fluence and low

temperatures

Mechanism is thermally activated

friction hardening

Thermal activation allows dislocation to

cut through or jump over obstacle

Dislocation is moved by short range

stress

Picture of Model

R

Lo

Lo

h

Lo

Lo=distance between

pinning points

L=distance between

obstacles

Lo>L

Model

( )

3 / 1

2

2

2

4

2

2 2

2

2 2

2

2

2

2

,

_

¸

¸

·

·

,

_

¸

¸

,

_

¸

¸

+

·

+

·

− + ·

·

·

σ

σ

σ

σ

GbL

L

Gb

L

L

L

L

L

Gb

h

h L

R

h R L R

R

Gb

h L L

o

o

o

o

o

o

o

So the dislocation line

adjusts its position until Lo

satisfies this equation

Diagram

Lo

La

If La<Lo, then

dislocation cuts

through so that

Lo is the pinning

point distance

Diagram

Lo

La

If La>Lo, then

dislocation does

not cut through

and La becomes

the pinning point

distance

Strain Rate

Strain is determined by step size, which is b

Shear strain is b/a

Modeling

Assume N

1

loops in a volume V

Assume each loop grows by amount dA

N

1

adA=dV

1/a=N

1

dA/dV

Dislocation density:

Modeling

bv

dt

dR

b

dt

d

bdR d

RdR dA

RN

dAb N

a

b

d

RN

dV

dV

RN

d d

d

d

d

d

ρ ρ

ε

ρ ε

π

π

ρ

ε

ρ

π

π

ρ

· ·

·

·

· ·

·

·

2

2

2

2

1

1

1

1

•R=loop radius

•V=dislocation

glide velocity

Glide Velocity

,

_

¸

¸

−

·

,

_

¸

¸

−

·

·

kT

U

bL

dt

d

kT

U

L v

bv

dt

d

d

d

d d

*

*

exp

exp

ν ρ

ε

ν

ρ

ε

•Velocity depends on T,

activation energy, and

thermal vibration

frequency

•Increasing temperature

increases strain rate

because it becomes

easier to overcome

obstacles

Overcoming Obstacles

Shearing Obstacles

Slicing a sphere is easier off the diameter

Obstacle radius about 10 angstroms

Average radius is

r’

r r

3

2

' ·

Stress to penetrate obstacle

The stress needed to cut a model can

be approximated as:

G rb

N U

rN

L

GbL

L

r bL

U

o

o

2

2 / 3

2

3 / 1

2

2 4

3

2

1

2

' 4

,

_

¸

¸

>

·

,

_

¸

¸

·

>

σ

σ

σ •R=obstacle size

•N=obstacle density

•B, G =material properties

Temperature Effects

,

_

¸

¸

·

1

1

]

1

¸

,

_

¸

¸

− ·

,

_

¸

¸

− ·

,

_

¸

¸

ε

ρ

σ

σ

σ

σ

rN

bv

k

U

T

T

T

T

T

c

c o

c o

2

ln

2

1

1

2 / 3

3 / 2

3 / 2 3 / 2

Temperature Dependence Plot

Fluence Dependence

According to the model, the strength is

proportional to the square root of the

fluence

But saturation occurs

The theory is that as depleted zones

get too close, their hardening effect is

diminished

Saturation Modeling

VN

dt

dN

density cluster N

s s

Φ Σ − Φ Σ ·

·

α α

# zones per

collision

Collision rate per

unit volume

V=volume around depleted

zone that is unavailable for

cascade production

Destruction rate

Saturation Modeling

( ) [ ]

( ) Vt

N

Vt

V

N

N

s s

s

s

Φ Σ − − ∝

∝

Φ Σ − − ·

·

α σ

σ

α

exp 1

exp 1

1

0 ) 0 (

Outline

Hardening

Radiation Hardening

**Radiation tends to increase the strength of metals
**

Point defects Impurity atoms Depleted zones Dislocation loops Line dislocations Voids precipitates

negligible

Two Mechanisms

Increase stress needed to start dislocation motion (source hardening) Impede dislocation motion (friction hardening)

Source Hardening Stress to initiate dislocation motion is associated with unpinning of FrankRead source This source increases dislocation density as a result of deformation .

Dislocation Source =pinning point .

Frank-Read Source .

Animation .

Frank-Read Source Si .

What stress is required to activate source? Shear stress acting on the dislocation. distorts dislocation We can estimate the stress needed to bend the dislocation beyond the critical strain needed to activate the source and create a new loop . which is pinned by defects.

Force on a Dislocation θ R s .

Model for critical shear stress T = line tension s = arc length T = αGb 2 .5 < α < 1 s = 2θR F 2T sin θ 2Tθ T = ≈ = =σb L s s R αGb σ= R . 0.

Critical Stress Critical point is when radius is half the distance between pinning points (dislocation is semi-circular) 2α Gb σ= Decreasing distance between pinning points increases stress needed to initiate motion .

Friction Hardening Defects impede dislocation motion 2 sources of resistive force Long range forces from interaction with other dislocations Short range forces from obstacles σ i = friction stress = σ LR + σ s .

Long Range Stresses Dislocations repel each other because of stress fields associated with interruption of lattice structure Model dislocation as an ordered array of defects .

Dislocation Network Model .

Select a Unit Cell Dislocation loop L •Find force on loop from network of line dislocations •L determined by dislocation density .

Modeling Let ρ=total length of dislocations in cube/cube volume (dislocation density) ρ=(12/4)L/L3=3/L2 (each dislocation shared by 4 unit cells) L=(3/ρ)1/2 Loop is only affected by parallel dislocations (4 top. 4 bottom) Approximate force by force only on parallel dislocations .

Modeling ± Gb 2 f x Fx / unit length = 2π (1 − ν ) y ± Gb 2 f y Fy / unit length = 2π (1 − ν ) y f x = sin(θ ) cos(θ ) cos 2 (θ ) − sin 2 (θ ) f y = sin 2 (θ ) cos 2 (θ ) − sin 2 (θ ) Fy Fx ( ( ) ) θ y .

5 degrees Maximum value of fx is 0.Modeling Maximum force (Fx) is at angle where fx is a maximum Differentiate fx and set to 0 Maximum angle is 22.25 Let poisson’s ratio=1/2 Y=L/2 .

Modeling 2 Gb 2 2 Gb FLR / unit length = 0.5) L 2π L FLR / unit length = σ LR b σ LR Gb Gb ρ d = = = 2π L 2π 3 •Applied stress must overcome this force to move dislocation •Increasing dislocation density increases this friction stress .25 = 2π ( 0.

Short Range Forces Short range stresses are due to obstacles lying in the slip plane Force is exerted at point of contact Two types: Athermal=bowing around obstacle Thermal=climbing over or cutting through barrier (energy is supplied by thermal activation) Friction stress depends on distance between obstacles .

Obstacles Area=A Radius=r L .

Modeling N=particle density Slab volume is 2rA Number of particles in slab=2rAN Average distance between particles=L L2*2rAN=A 1 L= 2rN b b σ∝ = L 2rN More defects implies higher strength .

Hardening by Depleted Zones Significant at low fluence and low temperatures Mechanism is thermally activated friction hardening Thermal activation allows dislocation to cut through or jump over obstacle Dislocation is moved by short range stress .

Picture of Model Lo R Lo=distance between pinning points L=distance between obstacles Lo>L Lo h Lo .

Model L2 = Lo h σ= Gb R 2 R 2 = L2 + ( R − h ) o L2 + h 2 Gb R= o = 2h σ L4 2 Lo + 2 L Gb o= σ L2 2 L o 2GbL2 Lo = σ 1/ 3 So the dislocation line adjusts its position until Lo satisfies this equation .

Diagram If La<Lo. then dislocation cuts through so that Lo is the pinning point distance La Lo .

Diagram If La>Lo. then dislocation does not cut through and La becomes the pinning point distance La Lo .

which is b Shear strain is b/a .Strain Rate Strain is determined by step size.

Modeling Assume N1 loops in a volume V Assume each loop grows by amount dA N1adA=dV 1/a=N1dA/dV Dislocation density: .

Modeling 2πRN1 ρd = dV 2πRN1 dV = ρd b ρ d N1dAb dε = = a 2πRN1 dA = 2πRdR dε = ρ d bdR dε dR = ρd b = ρ d bv dt dt •R=loop radius •V=dislocation glide velocity .

activation energy. and thermal vibration frequency •Increasing temperature increases strain rate because it becomes easier to overcome obstacles .Glide Velocity dε = ρ d bvd dt −U * vd = Lν exp kT −U * dε = ρ d bLν exp kT dt •Velocity depends on T.

Overcoming Obstacles .

Shearing Obstacles Slicing a sphere is easier off the diameter Obstacle radius about 10 angstroms Average radius is 2 r' = 3 r r’ .

G =material properties N rb 2 G .Stress to penetrate obstacle The stress needed to cut a model can be approximated as: •R=obstacle size 1/ 3 σ> U 4bLo r ' 2GbL2 Lo = σ 1 L2 = 2rN 3U σ > 4 2 3/ 2 •N=obstacle density •B.

Temperature Effects σ σ o 2/3 T = 1− T c 2/3 σ T = 1 − σ o Tc 2U Tc = ρbv k ln 2rN ε 2 / 3 3/ 2 .

Temperature Dependence Plot .

Fluence Dependence According to the model. their hardening effect is diminished . the strength is proportional to the square root of the fluence But saturation occurs The theory is that as depleted zones get too close.

Saturation Modeling N = cluster density dN = α Σ s Φ − α Σ s ΦVN dt # zones per collision Destruction rate Collision rate per unit volume V=volume around depleted zone that is unavailable for cascade production .

Saturation Modeling N (0) = 0 1 N = [1 − exp( − α Σ s ΦVt ) ] V σs ∝ N σ s ∝ 1 − exp( − α Σ s ΦVt ) .

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