You are on page 1of 38

Flowering Habits of Fruit and Nut Crops

HORT 319 – Temperate Fruit and Nut Production

Plant Development Stages

Juvenile phase
– Not inducible to flower – Basal portion remains juvenile – Rooting ease

Adult phase
– Minimum size, delayed by slow growth – Apple, 16-20 nodes – Non flowering adult phase varies with spp/cv
HORT 319 - Temperate Fruit and Nut Production

Plant Development Stages
Juvenile phase  Adult phase  Effect of budding

– Use adult bud – Flower more rapidly than seedling

HORT 319 - Temperate Fruit and Nut Production

male Walnut Pistachio Persimmon HORT 319 .Flowering Habits Summer before  Same year Quince Strawberry Most initiate the summer before flowering Stone fruit Apple and pear Blackberry Blueberry Grape Kiwi Fig Pecan .female .Temperate Fruit and Nut Production Fig Pecan .

culture.Flowering Habits   May coincide with fruit development Crop load. and climate at this time affects next year’s crop Bloom Fruit bud development Fruit development Leaf fall -2C to -8 C Deacclimation -21C to -28C Endodormancy or Rest Chilling Bloom Heat Accum. Endodormancy Growth begins Spring Summer Fall HORT 319 .Temperate Fruit and Nut Production Winter Spring .

Temperate Fruit and Nut Production .Age of Fruiting Wood Current Season Quince Strawberry Fig One-year Old Peach Almond Persimmon Blackberry Blueberry Grape Kiwi Pistachio Pecan-male Two-year Both 1&2Old Spurs year Cherry Apple Pear Plum Apricot Pecan-female HORT 319 .

pistachios  Due to poor flower initiation during heavy cropping year – Response to developing embryo – GA inhibits flower bud initiation – Nutrients do not appear deficient  Management: control the crop load HORT 319 . apricots. plums. pecans.Alternate Bearing  Cycle of alternating heavy and light cropping years – Apples.Temperate Fruit and Nut Production .

Factors Affecting Fruit Bud Initiation Precocity: Scion and rootstock  Pruning  – On young trees encourage vigorous growth  Bending – Encourages fruit bud initiation  Girdling – May increase if done early spring HORT 319 .Temperate Fruit and Nut Production .

Temperate Fruit and Nut Production .Effect of bending on flowering HORT 319 .

auxin and GA Tree Growth Rate  Crop Load  Environmental Factors  – Good nutrition – Excessive heat/drought – Insufficient chill HORT 319 .Temperate Fruit and Nut Production .Factors Affecting Fruit Bud Initiation  Chemicals – Thinning agents – Hormones .

Temperate Fruit and Nut Production .g.. a bee) –Pollinizer is the source of pollen HORT 319 .Pollination  Pollinator vs. Pollinizer –Pollinator is the agent of pollen transfer (e.

Temperate Fruit and Nut Production .Pollination  Importance of Pollination – Needed for fruit set – Seed development affects fruit growth   Fruit shape Fruit size – Cross pollination can enhance set over self pollination HORT 319 .

common figs. and some pears HORT 319 . filberts Insect pollination – Pome fruit – Stone fruit – Small fruit  Parthenocarpic set – Persimmons.Pollination   Wind pollination – Pecans. walnuts.Temperate Fruit and Nut Production . pistachios.

Pollination: Terminology    Self compatible – or self incompatible Self fertile – or self sterile Self fruitful – or self unfruitful   Monoecious – Dichogamous – Protogynous – Protandrous Dioecious – Staminate plant – Pistillate plant HORT 319 .Temperate Fruit and Nut Production .

Temperate Fruit and Nut Production .Wind Pollination Pecans and Walnuts    Dichogamous Monecious Self fertile HORT 319 .

Wind Pollination Pecans and Walnuts    Types of varieties Protandrous = male 1st Protogynous = female 1st HORT 319 .Temperate Fruit and Nut Production .

Wind Pollination Pecans and Walnuts Pawnee Cheyenne Wichita Choctaw Protandrous Protandrous Protogynous Protogynous Catkins shedding pollen Female flowers receptive Pollen shed best   Low humidity (< 85% relative humidity) Slight breeze HORT 319 .Temperate Fruit and Nut Production .

Temperate Fruit and Nut Production . 3 complementary cultivars are recommended HORT 319 .Wind Pollination Pecans and Walnuts Timing of pollen shed and female receptivity varies with the climate Cool climate Hot climate Catkins shedding pollen Female flowers receptive Protandrous Thus in pecans orchards.

Temperate Fruit and Nut Production .Wind Pollination Pistachios Dioecious  One staminate plant per 10 pistillate plants recommended  HORT 319 .

Temperate Fruit and Nut Production .Insect Pollination: Pollinizer Need of Crops Self fruitful Peach Apricots* European plums* Tart cherry Strawberry Blackberry Highbush blueberry Grapes Walnuts+ Pecans+ Self unfruitful Apple Pear Asian plums Sweet cherry* Almonds* Rabbiteye blueberry Lowbush blueberry * also self fruitful/unfruitful types. + dichogamous so need pollinizers HORT 319 .

Temperate Fruit and Nut Production .Insect Pollination: Pollinizer Choice  Cross compatibility of varieties  Bloom overlap  Pollen production  Culturally compatibility  Comparable pest/disease management needs  Produce good fruit if possible HORT 319 .

G = Good fruit set most years. F = Fair fruit set most years.Pollinizers for Asian Plums Range from self fertile to self incompatible Laroda Laroda Mariposa Queen Rosa Santa Rosa Mariposa Queen Rosa Santa Rosa O F G G F O F F G F G G G F G F O = Self unfruitful.Temperate Fruit and Nut Production . HORT 319 .

Delicious Mutsu Northern Spy P P G P P P P G P P G G F P G G G G P G P P G P P HORT 319 . late blooming Pollinated variety Mac spur Mc Intosh Golden Delicious Mutsu Northern Spy Pollinizers for Apples Macspur McIntosh G. sports.Triploids.Temperate Fruit and Nut Production . self fertility.

Pollinizers for Apples HORT 319 .Temperate Fruit and Nut Production .

Pollinizers for cherries HORT 319 .Temperate Fruit and Nut Production .

Pollinizers for Sweet Cherries Gametophytic incompatibility HORT 319 .Temperate Fruit and Nut Production .

Temperate Fruit and Nut Production .Fruit Set Needed for a Full Crop  Pollination: Small fruited crops – Range is 40% to 100% – Commonly 60% to 70%  Large fruited crops – Range 2% to 25% – Commonly 3% to 10% HORT 319 .

Temperate Fruit and Nut Production .Factors affecting Fruit Set Competing blooms attract pollinators  Temperature  Pollination: – Pollen tube growth – Egg viability HORT 319 .

Temperate Fruit and Nut Production .Effective Pollination Period in Pear Temp. C (F) 10-15 (50-59) 8-9 (46-48) 5-7 (41-45) Pollen tube growth to ovule 4 Ovule viability Effective Fertilization pollination probability period 6 High Pollination: 10 10 13 3 Medium 13 13 0 None HORT 319 .

HORT 319 .Temperate Fruit and Nut Production .

Pollinators Pollen Transporters  Most common: European honey bee – Hives are rented to orchardists  Others bees – Wild bees: both honey and bumblebees – Difficult to manage – Normally adequate for small orchard  Africanized bees or KILLER BEES HORT 319 .Temperate Fruit and Nut Production .

Stings are equally venomous  Behaviors very different  HORT 319 . African honey bee.Africanized Honey Bee  Hybrid bee between – African bee – European honey bee European honey bee on left. right.Temperate Fruit and Nut Production .

Temperate Fruit and Nut Production .Pollinators Africanized Honey Bees       1957 into Brazil Very defensive of nest – Only attack if provoked Swarm more often – 4-8x vs. 1/5x per year Less selective about nesting sites Produce more offspring Store less honey HORT 319 .

Temperate Fruit and Nut Production .HORT 319 .

Factors Affecting Bee Activity  Pollinators Pesticide applications – Very susceptible to many insecticides – Sevin. Diazinon.Temperate Fruit and Nut Production . Parathion  Weather conditions – Wind (10-20 mph) – Rain – Temperature (10°C or 50°F) HORT 319 .

Pollination Management  Hive density – 1-4 per acre – More hives   In poor weather With small fruited crops  Hive position – Normally hives are clustered – Face south .warm up quicker – Protected from wind HORT 319 .Temperate Fruit and Nut Production .

or by hand HORT 319 .Temperate Fruit and Nut Production .Pollination Management  Pollinizer distribution – Entire row every 4th row – Every 3rd tree per 3rd row  Alternate pollen sources if low pollen production – – – – Graft pollinizer branches Bouquets Beehive inserts Spray. puff.

Any Questions? .

.943 .10967:  %.907:9.!1169.5 .6  644653 .&.#6335.6  #% %02507.65 9.339.99.3/:9!74/:.10967:  %.6  644653 .33967 &4.6 .5: .

0.  #% %02507.&...59.9  #6335./96..9.69:.69: '479.3/:9!74/:..943 .0. 647.5/3664:.#6335./3.  .907:9.65 .0. 76335..

.65#9615#..#6335.#6335.65 0.9 '47   H H  .

 .

  .

 .

  .

 .

/3.943 ../3.3./ 96. 9. 7961       14    !65   #% %02507. 0.663  "3 .907:9.. .3/:9!74/:.   #6335 .65 796/.65 76335.

943 .907:9.3/:9!74/:. #% %02507.

1..51/:69%&  #% %02507.64.943 .51/4/3/:  03.69: #6335'9.5.565 /  :.995.9:/:  31/:/6.91 90.65.  !694.33.9: 6:.907:9.69:4.33690.91:.3/:9!74/:.51/:69%& 90.18.6690.064465967.#6335.: "..5:769..

 #% %02507.943 .5165 /91//.565/ :7450.3/:9!74/:.33 5646: .5  90.90.5/  967.907:9.69:9 195.3430-0043019  17.3430-00 79 &.98.5:..

...  "53.5  ..69: 90.5165: 5.02796621 &.3 915:65:.69.944696.#6335.

: #9610469 6:795 &.9 :::30.907:9.: 79.5:.943 . 5:.3/:9!74/:.693::65  #% %02507./6..

 #% %02507.3/:9!74/:.943 .907:9.

#6335.50.0.01:  &5 .65:  51 .64./3.69: .55:0.69:0.65:  9::07..90651.565 #.9..7730...65 .01. #:..

47 .

943 .907:9.5  '479.9 K69K  K69K  #% %02507.  %.3/:9!74/:..

5..45. 15:.65 .#6335.  .

09  69: 57669.65  !694.0:6.33:.903:.91  .79.10967: 76:.:4..339..9 .

9478029 . ..0:6.

943 .907:9.0.3/:9!74/:.  #96.196451  #% %02507.

45.76335:690:3676335 79610.3/:9!74/:.95. 7 69/..943 .97991 96 3.#6335.51  #% %02507.: 5:9.5.9/..50: 68.9969.907:9.65  5.. #633591:.763359/9.65 . 96  991 .65     9.: &79.

65: .5$:.