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You are on page 1of 6

The test statistic, Z, for testing if the population mean equals 5 is -3.17. The p-value, or the

probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is true, is 0.002. This is called the attained

significance level, p-value, or attained α of the test. Because the p-value of 0.002 is smaller

than commonly chosen α-levels, there is significant evidence that m is not equal to 5, so you

can reject H0 in favor of m not being 5.

A hypothesis test at α error = 0.1 could also be performed by viewing the individual value

plot. The hypothesized value falls outside the 90% confidence interval for the population

mean (4.67923, 4.89855), and so you can reject the null hypothesis.

1 Sample t test : This test compares the mean of the sample with some test Population

when Population standard deviation σpop is Unknown. This procedure is based upon the t-

distribution, which is derived from a normal distribution with unknown σ.

Example : Measurements were made on nine widgets. You know that the distribution of

widget measurements has historically been close to normal, but suppose that you do not

know σ. To test if the population mean is 5 and to obtain a 90% confidence interval for the

mean, you use a t-procedure.

Analyze

Solution : Values

1 Open the worksheet enter the data. 4.9

5.1

2 Choose Stat > Basic Statistics > 1-Sample t. 4.6

5

3 In Samples in columns, enter Values.

5.1

4 In Test mean, enter 5. 4.7

4.4

5 Click Options. In Confidence level enter 90. 4.7

Click OK in each dialog box 4.6

One-Sample T: Values

Test of mu = 5 vs not = 5

Variable N Mean StDev SE Mean 90% CI T P

Values 9 4.78889 0.24721 0.08240 (4.63566, 4.94212) -2.56 0.034

Result Interpretation :

The p-value < 0.01 , also the test mean does not lie within the Confidence Interval so Null

Hypothesis is rejected and Alternate Hypothesis is accepted. It confirms that the sample

mean is not euqal to Population Mean ).

Analyze

2 Sample t test :. It computes a confidence interval and performs a hypothesis test of the

difference between two population means when σ 's are unknown and samples are drawn

independently from each other. This procedure is based upon the t-distribution, and for small

samples it works best if data were drawn from distributions that are normal or close to

normal. You can have increasing confidence in the results as the sample sizes increase.

Example : A study was performed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of two devices for

improving the efficiency of gas home-heating systems. Energy consumption in houses was

measured after one of the two devices was installed. The two devices were an electric vent

damper (Damper=1) and a thermally activated vent damper (Damper=2). The energy

consumption data (BTU.In) are stacked in one column with a grouping column (Damper)

containing identifiers or subscripts to denote the population. Suppose that you performed a

variance test and found no evidence for variances being unequal .Now you want to compare

the effectiveness of these two devices by determining whether or not there is any evidence

that the difference between the devices is different from zero.

Analyze

BTU.In Da mpe r

7.87 1

9.43 1

Solution : 7.16

8.67

12.31

1

1

1

9.84 1

1 Open the worksheet , enter the data. 16.9

10.04

1

1

12.62 1

7.62 1

13.43

1

1

9.07 1

6.94 1

9.37

7.93

1

1

1

13.96 1

6.8 1

4 1

8.58 1

8 1

5.98 1

5 In Subscripts, enter Damper. 15.24

8.54

1

1

11.09 1

11.7 1

6.78

1

1

9.82 1

12.91 1

10.35 1

9.6 1

9.58 1

9.83 1

9.52 1

18.26 1

10.64 1

6.62 1

5.2 1

12.28 2

7.23 2

2.97 2

8.81 2

9.27 2

11.29 2

8.29 2

9.96 2

10.3 2

16.06 2

14.24 2

11.43 2

10.28 2

13.6 2

5.94 2

10.36 2

6.85 2

6.72 2

10.21 2

8.61 2

Analyze

Minitab Output :

Two-Sample T-Test and CI: BTU.In, Damper

Two-sample T for BTU.In

Damper N Mean StDev SE Mean

1 40 9.91 3.02 0.48

2 50 10.14 2.77 0.39

Difference = mu (1) - mu (2)

Estimate for difference: -0.235250

95% CI for difference: (-1.450131, 0.979631)

T-Test of difference = 0 (vs not =): T-Value = -0.38 P-Value = 0.701 DF = 88

Both use Pooled StDev = 2.8818

Analyze

Result Interpretation :

Minitab displays a table of the sample sizes, sample means, standard deviations, and

standard errors for the two samples.

Since we previously found no evidence for variances being unequal, we chose to use the

pooled standard deviation by choosing Assume equal variances. The pooled standard

deviation, 2.8818, is used to calculate the test statistic and the confidence intervals.

A second table gives a confidence interval for the difference in population means. For this

example, a 95% confidence interval is (-1.45, 0.98) which includes zero, thus suggesting that

there is no difference. Next is the hypothesis test result. The test statistic is -0.38, with p-

value of 0.701, and 88 degrees of freedom.

Since the p-value is greater than commonly chosen a-levels, there is no evidence for a

difference in energy use when using an electric vent damper versus a thermally activated

vent damper.

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