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# Designing a PV System

if any. . taking into account the back-up source.Input Data Required For PV System Sizing • The daily or hourly load requirements during a typical year • The required security of supply. • The mean daily irradiation in the plane of the array at the chosen site for every month of a typical year.

Data Required cont`d • The maximum number of consecutive sunless days likely to be experienced. • Typical current-voltage characteristics of the module at various irradiances. . • The estimated cell temperature rise above ambient of the modules in the array. • The mean daily ambient temperature for every month of a typical year.

• The maximum allowable depth of discharge of • • • the battery. . power conditioning equipment and control system.Data Required cont`d • The selected DC bus voltage. cables and voltage drop across blocking diodes. The estimated losses from dust and shading. The estimated percentage energy losses in the battery. The estimated losses in the array from module mismatch.

Types of Materials t Single Crystal t Polycrystalline t Thin-Film .

Off-Grid Design .

DC Device Device Watts 60 150 12 X Hours of Daily Use 24 4 8 = DC Watt-Hrs per Day 1.440 600 96 2.136 Refrigerator Lighting fixtures Device A Total DC Watt-hrs/Day [A] .Off-Grid Design Example Step 1: Determine the DC Load.

Convert to DC AC Device Device Watts 175 80 175 X Hours of Daily Use 6 0.440 Divided by 0.Step 2: Determine the AC Load. losses) Total DC Whrs/Day [B] 1.85 (Inverter.694 .5 2 = AC Watt-Hrs per Day 1.050 40 350 Device B Pump Television Total AC Watt-hrs/Day 1.

2(Losses and safety factor) 319 Amp-hrs/Day X 1.136 Total DC Loads [B] 1.694 Total System Load 3.830 Whrs/Day Step 4: Determine Total DC Amp-hours/Day Total System Load / System Nominal Voltage = (3.Step 3: Determine the Total System Load Total DC Loads [A] 2.8 or 383 Amp-hrs/Day .830 Whrs/Day) / 12 Volts = 319 Amp-hrs/Day Step 5: Determine Total Amp-hr/Day with Batteries Total Amp-hrs/Day X 1.2 = 382.

0 peak solar hrs = 76.56 Amps Max Voltage = 16.8 Volts Nominal Output Voltage 12 Volts .Step 6: Determine Total PV Array Current Total Daily Amp-hr requirement / Design Insolation* 383 Amp-hrs / 5.6 Amps * Insolation Based on Optimum Tilt for Season Step 7: Select PV Module Type Choose BP Solar-Solarex MSX-60 module: Max Power = 60 W (STP) Max Current = 3.

90) = 23.90 modules Use 24 Modules Step 9: Determine Number of Modules in Series System Nominal Voltage / Module Nominal Voltage 12 Volts / (12 Volts/module) = 1 Module Step 10: Determine Total Number of Modules Number of modules in parallel X Number of modules in Series 24 X 1 = 24 modules .56 Amps/Module)(0.6 Amps / (3.Step 8: Determine Number of Modules in Parallel Total PV Array Current / (Module Operating Current) X (Module Derate Factor) 76.

Step 11: Determine Minimum Battery Capacity [Total Daily Amp-hr/Day with Batteries (Step 5) X Desired Reserve Time (Days)] / Percent of Usable Battery Capacity (383 Amp-hrs/Day X 3 Days) / 0.80 = 1.436 Amp-hrs Step 12: Choose a Battery Use an Interstate U2S – 100 Flooded Lead Acid Battery Nominal Voltage = 6 Volts Rated Capacity = 220 Amp-hrs .

5 Use 6 Batteries Step 14: Determine Number of Batteries in Series Nominal System Voltage / Nominal Battery Voltage 12 Volts / (6 Volts/Battery) = 2 Batteries Step 15: Determine Total Number of Batteries Number of Batteries in Parallel X Number of Batteries in Series 6 X 2 = 12 Batteries .Step 13: Determine Number of Batteries in Parallel Required Battery Capacity (Step 11) / Capacity of Selected Battery 1.436 Amp-hrs / (220 Amp-hrs/Battery) = 6.

24 V + 3A 12 V - + 3A 12 V - + 6A .Series: Voltage is additive + 3A 12 V - + 3A 12 V + 3A .12 V Parallel: Current is additive .

if needed. Several iterations may be necessary to optimize costs. if needed Battery Charger. . Complete the design by specifying the: Charge Controller Inverter Wire Sizes (Battery will have larger gage due to higher currents) Fuses and Disconnects Standby Generator.Step 16: Determine the need for a Standby Generator to reduce other Components (number of Modules and Batteries). Step 17: Complete Balance of System a. if needed Manual Transfer Switch.

Obtain permits as required. Assure proper grounding for safety.): b. Determine mounting method: Roof mount Ground mount with racks Ground mount with pole. d. .Step 17 (Cont. c.

The Elegance of Simplicity .

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