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Role of communication

Communication essential in business communicators are scarce



Types of communication





Employers preference
Good Most


important skill is communication and college students don’t communicate well correlation between communication & income

Employees High

Determination of career success Writing Display and speaking well of proper etiquette: a. courtesy in society Listening attentively Performance depends upon ability to communicate: a. prescribed rules of behaviour b. promotions/higher4/28/12 positions .

process information b. give and take orders c. communication in between departs 4/28/12 . oral & written messages e.Why business needs communication? Employees send /receive communication a. speak over telephones d.

plan & control 4/28/12 .Purpose of communication Essential Enables To for the organised efforts human beings to work together perform management functions directing coordinating staff.

Main forms of communication Inter-operational External Personal communication operational communication communication 4/28/12 .

manufacture products b. sell goods Forms of internal operations 4/28/12 giving orders .Inter-operational communication All To communications within business implement business operating plan: a. provide service or c.

4/28/12 . messaging Telephoning.External operational communication Communication Direct with people outside business environment selling advertising.

News paper and magazine advertising. and 4. Display material at the point of purchase. Website and advertising. 2. 3. Radio / television messages. 4/28/12 .Advertising 1.

warmth & understanding 4/28/12 . clarity.Improving public relations community courtesy services of its employees of its employees and environmental Messages friendship of its products and facilities display the company’s etiquette a. has the human effect b.

Importance of internal & external communication Business Ability success depends upon external contacts to satisfy customers & distribution of goods Production 4/28/12 .

Personal Communication Non-business related exchanges & feelings Attitudes affect employees performance 1. directly affect productivity 4. spending much time with friends in work place affects the success of business 3. 2. intense heated arguments 4/28/12 .

absolute denial leads to emotional upset 3.Personal Communication Employees attitude affected to the extent of personal communication permitted 1. extent permitted affects the attitude 2. mid approach is the best 4/28/12 . could interfere in the work done 4.

information.Communication network Complex Flow formal & informal network is mainly downward Upward communication is also important 1. formal lines of organisation 2. originate from the top 3. Information from lower level is important 4/28/12 . orders etc.

internal flow and 2.Formal network Like arteries in the body operational communication Maintains Most communication falls under formal network network includes: 1. external flow 4/28/12 Formal .

Internal flow information records orders instructions e-mail. by reports kept in the organisation and messages intranet and internet 4/28/12 .

External flow Directed Sales messages and publicity presentations Advertising 4/28/12 .

Informal network Parallel Like to formal network of communication take veins in the body Thousands place Does Ever not follow any set pattern changing linking all relationships networks consisting of group 4/28/12 Complex Smaller .

Variation in communication activity The amount of business communication depends on: business require little communication business needs more communication location / single4/28/12 location Small Large Multiple .

process takes place in separate actions but simultaneously one is sending.Process of communication ‘A’ ‘B’ sends a message to ‘B’ receives the message from ‘A’ This i.e. another is receiving 4/28/12 .

Forms of message Gestures Facial expressions Drawings Written Spoken words 4/28/12 .

Sensory world of ‘B’ When It the message enters the sensory world of ‘B’ picks up noise through the senses of: 1. Smell 4. sight 2. taste and 5. hearing 3. touch 4/28/12 .

filters the message through his unique mind 2. gives a meaning 3. sends a message to ‘A’ It enters ‘A’s Sensory world and a second cycle begins 4/28/12 . trigger a response and 4.Process in ‘B’’s mind 1.

Factors involved in sensing  Picking up the message depends up on the ability to sense Message is picked up 4/28/12 .

The contents include: 1.Filtering Process  The contents of B's mind filter the message received.knowledge 4/28/12 .all the experience of B 2.

Formation and Sending of the Response B’s mind reacts to the meaning to the message received to react meaning is strong B may react by: Begins If 1. words 2. gestures 3. some other means 4/28/12 . physical actions or 4.

Written communication Creative work begins in the mind Communication Process is well thought : in a few days : perhaps in days. Letters 3. Reports months Some written communication is one 4/28/12 cycle . Fax/ e-mail: read in few minutes 2. weeks or 1.

Meanings sent are not always received: No two minds are having identical: a. facial expressions or d.Some basic truth about communication  1. gestures c. store house of words b. Symbols 4/28/12 .

supplement and 2. It communicates itself. b. Use non-verbal communication to: 1.Non-verbal communication  Accounts total message a. 4/28/12 . reinforce your words.

Frown on some one’s forehead. b. body positions and movements 4/28/12 affecting various factors .g. Headache or deep thought interpreted as worry. Cross-cultural aspects give many meanings to nonverbal communication. a. e.Nature of nonverbal communication  All communication without words.

Body language Space Time and paralanguage 4/28/12 . 2. 4.Types of non-verbal communication 1. 3.

Body language

body senses non-word messages through : Arms Fingers Expression gestures (physical movements of the arms, legs, head etc.,),

1. 2. 3. 4.

Body language

convey certain meanings to others. convey certain meanings to us in return. networking of emotions in our body reflect: face and eyes, gestures,
4/28/12 posture and physical appearance

Others Inner

1. 2. 3.

Body language
Gestures More

send non-verbal message.

louder messages will have more gestures. appearance - clothing, hair, jewelry, cosmetics, etc., also communicate. sure your appearance fits to the situation.



Space Space Your The is another type of nonverbal language. culture constructs the space language. four types of space are: • intimate : physical contact to 18 inch • personal: 18 inch to 4 feet • social • public : 4 inch to 12 inch 4/28/12 : 12 feet to the range of hearing .

you prioritize your telephone calls? you prepare agenda for your meetings? people tend to view time as linear and always moving ahead.Time How Do Do do manage your daily time schedule. People in e. English 4/28/12 Monochromatic .g.

anger or 4/28/12 .Para language You can change the meaning of the spoken sentences:   • I am a good communicator • I am a good communicator • I am a good communicator • I am a good communicator • I am a good communicator Counting one to ten with different emotional state viz. anxiety.

.Degrees of consistency between what and how someone says 4/28/12 something conveying meaning. 2. 3.Para language  Para language creates meanings because of: speed. pitch volume and connection of words 1. .

please be advised that we do not presently in receipt of the above-mentioned item but expect to have it in stock within one week. Enclosed herewith please find a brochure regarding the said transistor as per your request.” 4/28/12 .Use Plain English  Consider the brief passage as follows: “Pursuant to our discussions of February 3 in reference to the L-19 transistor.

“yours”. whenever you can. “me”. “my”. “we”. Use the “you” approach Avoid Never Merely .Appreciate Use for being approached in a personal way. “your”. or “mine”. the word “you”. 4/28/12 using “you” is not enough. “I”. begin a letter with “I” or “we”.

Ignoreing “you” attitude “I am happy to announce the 4/28/12 .

You will be happy to learn that now there will be a department store in a central locality where you can purchase almost anything you and your family wants. will amuse 4/28/12 children your . You can step into the children’s department where “Chacha Friend”.You attitude You can rewrite the announcement of opening the store as follows.

filter and retain the incoming message of us do not listen well  4/28/12 effort to improve your mental Most Be attentive to improve your listening Take .Listening Listening is just as important as causes more problems talking Listening  Listening involves how we sense.

4/28/12 .The nature of Listening Listening involves: sensing filtering and remembering sounds are mainly spoken words Listening process involves the addition of filtering and remembering.

How . 1. well our ears can pick the sounds? aids can reduce the 4/28/12 difference. . 2.Sensing You can sense the deteriorated spoken words:  with the ability to sense sounds and being attentive.Hearing .

4/28/12 .Filtering Filtering It is the process gives meaning to the symbols Meaning depends upon the unique contents of each person’s mind.

4/28/12 .Remembering Remembering what we hear is part of our listening.

Concentrate Think Consciously In addition. from the speaker’s viewpoint. Be you must want to improve it. follow the guidelines of “Ten Commandments” of listening 4/28/12 as follows: .Improve your Listening Ability First. try to remember. on your mental filtering. alert and free yourself to pay attention.

Ten commandments Stop Put talking the talker you want to distractions with the talker the talker at ease Show listen Remove Emphasis Be patient your temper 4/28/12 Hold .

the applicant and b. Interviewing Determine the qualifications purpose of the interview is to: 2. Matching the needs of: a. the employer 4/28/12 .  The 1.

Will the person do the job and continued to do it? the job? 3. How will the person fit with others in 4/28/12 . Can the applicant do the job or trained to do it? 2.Qualifications Qualifications are important in the following perspectives: 1.

Interviews promote goodwill Encourage Enhance Help acceptance of job offer the number of persons to seek employment the current customers to repeat purchase the products or services and avoid legal action for discrimination 4/28/12 Can .

Cost of recruitment Release of advertisement of applications received of interview Processing Hiring interviewers Arrangement Issue of orders and development 4/28/12 Training Place of posting .

the applicant 4/28/12 . the employers and 2.The interviewing process Preparing for the interview the necessary Establishing information Controlling Evaluating the interview and the data in terms of the needs of: 1.

Preparation for the interview You must plan for the interview Develop you skill in role playing and have feed back the essential job requirements the physical environment suitable for interview 4/28/12 Determine Arrange .

Preparation for the interview Be alert to fair and equal employment considerations your action that allow for time efficiency candidate’s qualifications as they relate to the demands of the job Plan Explore 4/28/12 .

Rapport with the interviewee The interview should be free from stress the feeling of discrimination relationship when appropriate listening to what is said Avoid Enhance Actively Compliment Continue attention to the comfortable level of needs 4/28/12 .

the following procedure to penetrate into the sensitive and personal area quickly. Public to the private knowledge area and . Move the questioning from general to the  Encourage Use specific. 1.Funnel approach Use funnel approach to gathering information the applicant to talk freely and responsively. 4/28/12 2.

Open-ended questions Begin with what. How did you handle them? 3. how and why to get appropriate reply from the applicant For example: 1. Why did you take the approach that you did? 4/28/12 . What were some of your more challenging  responsibilities in your last position? 2.

Did you do well in your last job? 2. Would you say that you have a good personality? 4/28/12 .Direct and close-ended questions Provokes one word or yes or no response Use these type of questions sparingly will reveal less information Answers No one would say ‘no’ to the following close-ended questions: 1.

The data will be obtained at random 4/28/12 The Sort If . the following may occur: 1.Control Do not ask questions in rapid succession interview should be a planned event the information obtained properly there is no planning.

Closing The interviewer should thank the interviewee and ask the applicant anything he would like to tell or express Then the interviewer presents information about: job / benefits applicant will now feel that he was fully heard and fairly treated 4/28/12 Can  the The .

Dictation 4/28/12 Most However.In business. while you are in meetings 2. you spend more time in talking than in writing of your oral communication will be informal some of them will be formal. . handling telephone calls 3. For example: 1.

Most You

of us talk reasonably well

can still do better, provided you are: 
1. aware of the nature of talking and its

Informal talking

2. assess your ability and 3. work to overcome the shortcomings


Difficulties in expression
You You You

don’t have any word to speak.

become frustrated in trying to express yourself. become more and more emotional and become frustrated. experience non-verbal symbols / physical symptoms such as:
1. redness in the face


Process of speech

a child, you expressed yourself with:
1. screams 2. cries and 3. non-verbal symbols


you matured, words have greatly reduced the frustrations of the past.

4/28/12 You . may think about the best and the worst speakers you can imagine. viewpoints and emotions through words”. This contrast should give you the qualities of good talking.Definition of talking “ Talking is the oral expression of knowledge.

5. 4. Voice quality Speaking style Word choice and Adaptation Courtesy in talking 4/28/12 . 3. 2.Elements of good talking 1.

4/28/12 Study Compare    .Voice quality Helps It you to communicate effectively involves pitch. delivery speed and volume the quality of your voice it with what experience tells you is good Then correct the shortcomings.

speed and 3.Style Style is the blending of: 1. pitch 2. volume Your style of speaking makes you unique your talking and the image it projects Analyze Modify deficiency if any 4/28/12 .

Word choice Respect the listener’s knowledge Select the appropriate words in your listener vocabulary the morality and courtesy you intend Deliver 4/28/12 .

voice and style to deliver a good talking is called adaptation 4/28/12 .Adaptation Adaptation is fitting the message to the listener It includes word selection The combined effect of words.

Courtesy in talking Good talkers are: 1. practice courtesy in their voices  4/28/12 . encourage others to make their voices heard 6. don’t attempt to dominate 5. treat others the way they wanted to be treated by others 4. courteous 2. Aggressive 3.

you will be either a 4/28/12 Conferences Meetings In .Conducting meetings Meetings Business involve oral communications meeting will range from extreme formality to extreme informality and committee meetings will be formal will involve communication a meeting.

Move the discussion along Control Monitor Permit the agenda as a leader the subject of discussion complete discussion and avoid repetition. 4/28/12 .

Control too much talking Allow the talker as long as they are contributing they stray .step in. into the next topic. When Do Summarize Move 4/28/12 . the discussion it tactfully.

Encourage people talk little Encourage Ask them to participate their viewpoints respect to their comments Show 4/28/12 .

Control time Announce End time goal discussions at the appropriate time in advance how much time needed for each item Determine 4/28/12 .

if group decision is required the progress made at the the review 4/28/12 Summarise end Summarise Keep the minutes .Summarize appropriately Summarize after discussion of every key item Call for a group vote.

Persuasion Change reader’s mindset reader’s needs indirectly Approach 4/28/12 .

mind Create Incline 4/28/12 .Persuasive requests Convince Or the reader else Reader will reject your request an interest in the reader’s or induce him/her to read.

Have a slow or deliberate approach c. The reader should grant you the d. The reader may likely to reject your request b.Persuasive sales Persuasive sales requires a highly specialized form of writing: a. You need to present the facts request before you make the request convincingly with logical reasoning to support writing 4/28/12 .

Planning Persuasion Plan the persuasion to overcome the reader’s objections • Determine the reader’s objections • Think what you can say to overcome these objections • Your plan of persuasion should emerge with imagination. 4/28/12 .

. 4/28/12 .Persuasive approaches  Persuasive approaches can be a. money rewards b. personal benefits etc.

. excitement 4/28/12 c.Persuasive approaches The reader may a. prestige. gain time or b. benefit goodwill or d. serenity (calm and clear) or the like. love of beauty b. money or c. You can appeal to the reader for their: a.

Gain attention Persuasive sales messages are uninvited The The writers have to encounter the resistance of the reader reader may throw your persuasive message to the dust bin gain the attention in the beginning 4/28/12 Hence .

While you and I heartily dined last night. Examples: .Strategy to gain attention The You reader may not agree to your persuasion need to shape him or creative mind Imagination Some statements arouse mental activity and might offer benefit to the reader 4/28/12 a.

• You are trying to penetrate a neutral or • You need to pay careful attention to the:  meanings of your words and clarity of expression.Presenting persuasion A logical and orderly presentation resistant mind. • You need to make your words travel faster. as the reader will become impatient Present 4/28/12 the points convincingly .

Making requests clearly & positively Follow Word Do Be the persuasion with a request. not use the negative tone. * with a reminder of the appeal is also good. * 4/28/12 Ending . the request for the best use. The request can end the message or to be followed by more persuasion. positive.

Present You can request clearly and without negatives at the end of the message or after the words that recall the 4/28/12 . the strategy of persuasion using: a. you-view-point.Summary of general plan Open with words that set-up strategy to gain attention. persuasive language and b.

The It Opening ‘I’ .Contrasting persuasive messages First message – bad persuasion efforts: first message is direct and weak in persuasion.there is no appeal. is dull. statement is little more than the announcement. 4/28/12 view point .

next sentences explain the services quickly and interestingly.Contrasting persuasive messages Second message – good persuasion efforts: It is indirect and persuasive is rational. 4/28/12 presents a ‘you-view-point’ writing . Appeal The The It beginning sentence continues this appeal and holds the attention.

4/28/12 The The A .making money.Second message (contd. last sentence highlights the main benefit . message also drives for action. post note courteously express how you can unsubscribe suggests the writer’s good intentions. efficiency. cost cutting).) The reader learns what he will get or benefits (profits.

Public Speaking and Oral Reporting 4/28/12 .

your audience and their interest and . your knowledge 4/28/12 b. the topic for presentation topics based on: Determine Select a.Introduction Making formal speeches is difficult Speaking Improve before others is not comfortable public speaking techniques and practice.

consult people in your own company and 6. experiences or ideas 2. on-line network 5. research in library 3. company files 4. .Preparation for presentations Conduct Gather Search research information your mind for: 1. 4/28/12 other companies.

Greetings The first word spoken is greetings of greetings: : Examples 1. All male audience: gentlemen 3. Mixed audience: ladies and gentlemen 2. Rotary Club members: fellow Rotarians 4/28/12 .

conclusion Organize 4/28/12 . introduction 2.Organise information Follow time honored order of a speech your speech: 1. body. and 3.

Human interest or ability of story telling 4/28/12 2. Prepare your listeners or audience to receive the message. listeners. Arouse interest in the minds of your 3. Many opening possibilities 1. Gain and hold the attention of your audience. Techniques of arousing interest are limited . 2.Introduction  Gain attention in the opening 1.

Example: ‘Last year. questions and so on 1. Ask questions to the audience Example: ‘who wants to be freed of burdensome financial 4/28/12 . right here in our town. Presentation based on the audiences’ response 3. Use startling statements to present facts & ideas to wake-up the mind. Quote the names of people 2.) Quotation. in your homes. there were thefts over several lakh of rupees and most of you did nothing’ 1.Introduction (contd.

Introduction (contd.)

should set-up your

1. Tell your audience the theme of your

2. Skip if your audience know what you are

going to stay


you must persuade the audience:
1. Don’t reveal your position on the topic




most speeches by

1. Divide your entire speech into comparable

2. Further divide the parts as practicable. 3. While you speak, use factors instead of

time, place or quantity as the basis of division
4. Build presentation around issues and

questions that are sub-topics of the 4/28/12 subject.

Body (contd.)
Divide There

the parts as for as possible

must be clear transition between transitions. may miss while you shift / transit from one part to another



Restate the subject 2. Draw conclusions 4/28/12 . Summarize key points 3.Conclusion You must conclude Conclude with important points what you spoke will make your speech effective Conclusion End your speech: 1.

Presentation Methods 4/28/12 .

1. Presenting extemporaneously. Reading 4/28/12 .Determining presentation methods Presentation methods. 2. Memorizing or 3.

Ensure that entire speech is clear in 4/28/12 mind .Extemporaneous presentations More popular and effective method natural to the listeners the speech thoroughly as notes to present your speech Sound Prepare outlined Prepare Rehearse.

Memorizing Memorizing Memorizing is difficult requires much effort or skill You memorize words than its meaning confused when you miss a word Become Few speakers memorize entire speech 4/28/12 .

Reading Reading The A is not well received by the audience audience think that they are insulted CEO or a head of a government will read from a carefully prepared speech read the text of the speech in a dull monotone 4/28/12 Some .

Making effective presentations 4/28/12 .

Effective speaker Analyze You The your self as a speaker for a good speech are the part of the message audience listens to not only your words they see in you may affect your intended evaluate your personal effect on your speech 4/28/12 What Hence .

Confidence Have You You confidence in you must have confidence in your audience must earn the confidence of your audience by: 1. Practicing your presentation thoroughly 4. Projecting a right image 2. Talking in a strong clear voice 4/28/12 . Preparing your presentation diligently 3.

Sincerity Sincerity Convey If is valuable to conviction your sincerity to your audience insincere audience may not believe you of sincerity is rarely successful 4/28/12 Pretense .

Thoroughness Through Hurried presentation is well received or scanty presentation is disliked Impress Makes Avoid Leave that time and care have been taken the presentation believable too many details unimportant information to the 4/28/12 audience. .

Watch as you practice speaking 3.Friendliness Friendliness has significant advantage Helps How you to communicate effectively to improve your friendliness: 1. Be enthusiastic. Develop interest and be original in thinking 4. 4/28/12 . Do a thorough self-analysis 2.

Audience analysis Analyze audience reactions while you feed back speak Receive Adjust Facial according to the feedback expressions will indicate whether the audience: 1. accept with you 4/28/12 . understand you or 2. agree with you or 3.

Appearance & Physical Actions 4/28/12 .

Lighting 3.Introduction  Your audience see what surrounds you – stage. and the like  You  The  Your 4/28/12 personal appearance . lighting need to improve the following six factors: communication environment 1. Stage 2.

Communication Environment While you speak. the stage 2. noises influence your speech communication effort should: Contribute to your message and Should not detract from it 4/28/12 . background etc. the audience sees: 1. Outside Your 1. Lighting 3. 2.

occasion Be clean and well groomed Use facial expressions and physical movement to your advantage.Your Personal Appearance  It is part of your message appropriately for the: audience and Dress 1. 4/28/12 . 2.

Your posture You are not seeing your posture yourself audience sees your posture from whether your posture needs improvement. speaking before a mirror your body weight 4/28/12 Your Find Practice Watch yourself on a video Distribute .

) Maintain Do poised. alert.Your posture (contd. & Communicative bearing all the above acts naturally danger in artificial posture Great 4/28/12 .

smile 2. and . grimace (twisted expression on a person’s Clear image / expressing strong disapproval or 4/28/12 pain).Facial Expressions Unconscious A facial expressions may convey unintended meanings frightened speaker tightens his jaw unconsciously and begins to grin messages can be expressed through a: 1.

make a threat or a strong point 3. have vague meanings.Gestures Gestures Gestures have no definite or clear-cut meanings. 1. but they do communicate. signify respect for a cause 4/28/12 . Use a clenched fist to show defiance Examples (bold disobedience) 2.

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