• Cell membrane transportation

Cell transport involves the many ways that wastes and other materials get in and out

•Plasma membrane is selectively permeable •Selectively permeable membranepermits free passage of some material and restricts passage of others •Cells differ in their permeability depending on.what lipid and proteins are present in how these components are arranged .

passive transport PASSAVE TRANSPORT.Transportation are two type 1. active transport is the movement of a substance across a cell membrane without the input of the cell energy .

Simple Diffusion Simple diffusion involves the movements of atom across the cytolema from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration Atoms moves across the cell membrane by going between the lipid molecules that make of the cell membrane small atom diffuse the easiest across the membrane no outside chemical energy is needed for simple diffusion .

7 .Diffusion Through the Plasma Membrane Figure 3.

Effect of Membrane Permeability on Diffusion Figure 3.8a .

FECILITATED DIFFUSION diffusion is facilitated by cell membrane proteins that provide a way for atoms or molecules to more easily diffuse across the membrane .

the lower the water concentration. . a concentration gradient for water also exists. the higher the solute concentration. – Thus.Osmosis: A Special Case of Diffusion Osmosis is the simple diffusion of water molecules across a semi permeable membrane it occurs when the concentration of solutes in solution on the two sides of a semi permeable membrane are different moves from a solution with a higher water concentration to solution with lower concentration • Whenever a solute concentration gradient exist.

By Definition • Movement of water • Across a selectively permeable membrane • Down its concentration gradient (from high to low concentration) • Toward the solution containing the higher solute concentration – This solution has a lower water concentration – Continues until water concentrations and solute concen-trations are the same on either side of the membrane .Osmosis .

Effect of Membrane Permeability on Diffusion and Osmosis Figure 3.8b .

Osmosis and Cells • Important because large volume changes caused by water movement disrupt normal cell function • Cell shrinkage or swelling – Isotonic: cell neither shrinks nor swells – Hypertonic: cell shrinks (crenation) – Hypotonic: cell swells (lysis) .

Notice the crenated and swollen cells. . isotonic and hypertonic solutions affect the fluid volume of a red blood cell.Effects of Tonicity on RBCs Hypotonic.

Ca++. K+. Cl– Exchange pumps: Na+-K+ pump .Active Transport Chemical energy in the form of ATP is used to begin this process a membrane carrier is used and the direction can be from high to low concentration or from low to high concentration active transport can enable a cell to move items across the membrane against a concentration gradient • Carrier proteins utilized called ion or exchange pumps. – Ion pumps: actively transport Na+.

4 K+ binding triggers release of the phosphate group.K+ 6 is released and Na+ sites are ready to bind Na+ again.10 . The shape change expels Na+ to the outside. Figure 3. Cytoplasm 2 Phosphorylation causes the protein to change its shape. Sodium-Potassium Pump Extracellular fluid Binding1of cytoplasmic Na+ to the pump protein stimulates phosphorylation by ATP. the cycle repeats. Concentration gradients of K+ and Na+ 5 3 Loss of phosphate restores the original conformation of the pump protein. and extracellular K+ binds.

outside positive • Secondary active transport (No ATP used) – steep concentration gradient of Na+ and K+ maintained across the cell membrane – carriers move Na+ with 2nd solute easily into cell • SGLT saves glucose in kidney .K+ pump to  ion concentration.  osmolarity and cell swelling • Heat production • Maintenance of a membrane potential in all cells – pump keeps inside negative.Functions of Na+ -K+ Pump • Regulation of cell volume – “fixed anions” attract cations causing osmosis – cell swelling stimulates the Na+.

Vesicular Transport • Transport large particles or fluid droplets through membrane in vesicles – uses ATP • Exocytosis –transport out of cell • Endocytosis –transport into cell – phagocytosis – engulfing large particles – pinocytosis – taking in fluid droplets – receptor mediated endocytosis – taking in specific molecules bound to receptors .

Phagocytosis .ENDOCYTOSIS The cell membrane surrounds desirable macromolecules outside the cell pinches off a saclike portion of its outer membrane to from a tiny new vesicle the vesicle moves into the cell where it relases it contents into cytoplasm • Involves relatively large volumes of extracellular material • Requires energy in the form of ATP • Three major types 1. Receptor-mediated endocytosis 2. Pinocytosis 3.

.Receptor Mediated Endocytosis • A selective process • Involves formation of vesicles at surface of membrane – Vesicles contain receptors on their membrane – Vesicles contain specific target molecule in high concentration • .

Receptor Mediated Endocytosis .

the cell membrane encloses a droplet of fluid and its solute and brings the droplet into the cell .Vesicular Transport Pinocytosis or “Cell-Drinking” • Taking in droplets of ECF – occurs in all human cells • Not as selective as „receptor-mediated endocytosis‟ • .

PHAGOCYTOSIS or CELLEATING In phagocytosis the cell engulfs a food particle the vesicle containing food then fuses with a lysosome carrying digestive enzyme .

EXOCYTOSIS in exocytosis wastes and cell products are packaged by golgi vesicles fuse with the cell membrane and the materials in the vesicles are secreted out of the cell .

Vesicular Transport: Exocytosis • Secreting material or replacement of plasma membrane .

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