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Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering Villanova University Villanova, PA 19085 singh@ece.vill.edu

US Nanocorp, Inc. 74 Batterson Park Rd. Farmington, CT 06032 dreisner@usnanocorp.com

MIT Presentation, December 5, 2002 1

Outline

Definitions of SOC/SOH Overview of SOC/SOH Measurement Techniques Introduction to Fuzzy Logic Examples of Applications of Fuzzy Logic to Battery SOC/SOH Estimation Fuzzy Logic-Based SOC/SOH Measurement Hardware

SOC/SOH Definitions

State-of-Charge (SOC)

SOC is a percentage of the available capacity. However, available capacity depends on temperature, discharge rate, battery design, etc. By the term available capacity do we mean nominal capacity, theoretical capacity, available capacity considering aging of the battery ? Is the available capacity being considered as the battery is being charged or discharged ?

State-of-Health (SOH)

SOH or state-of-condition generally means the ability of a battery to perform the task required for the application. SOH can be defined by the capacity available from the battery (in the UPS/Telecom industry). SOH may be defined by the power delivery capability of the battery (EVs, HEVs, some medical devices). If a battery is not in a good SOH, what is the failing condition? Is this a recoverable failure mechanism?

MIT Presentation, December 5, 2002 5

Coulomb Counting - widely used in portable

products, e.g. laptop computers (and in electric vehicles). (primarily SOC)

in testing of UPS and EV batteries (SOC/SOH)

employed because of difficulty in analyzing impedance data (used in Midtronics automotive battery testers). (SOC/SOH)

In Aristotelian logic, a quantity is either a member of a set or is not a member of a set. The set has sharp (or crisp) boundaries. In fuzzy logic, a quantity may be a member of a set to some degree or not be a member of a set to some degree. The boundaries of the set are fuzzy rather than crisp.

MIT Presentation, December 5, 2002 9

Fuzzy Systems

A fuzzy system is a rule-based mapping of inputs to outputs for a system. It can be theoretically proven that a fuzzy system is a universal approximator*.

MIT Presentation, December 5, 2002 10

11

Analog Inputs Fuzzifier Rule Processor Defuzzifier Analog Outputs

Knowledge Database

12

13

Fuzzy Rules

If temperature is WARM and Discharge Rate is LOW then available capacity is HIGH If temperature is COLD and Discharge Rate is HIGH then available capacity is LOW

14

15

16

Mamdani Approach

Most commonly used approach to developing fuzzy logic models for control applications. Uses expert knowledge to generate rule set. Uses membership functions for both input and output variables. Computationally intensive compared to Sugeno approach.

MIT Presentation, December 5, 2002 17

Sugeno Approach

Output membership functions are singletons (zero order) or polynomials (first order). The rule in a first order Sugeno model may be expressed as: if x is A and y is B then z=p*x+q*y+r where p, q, and r are constants. Computationally efficient. Well suited to optimization/adaptation.

MIT Presentation, December 5, 2002 18

n1 m1 F1 A1 S1 m2 n2 F2 A2 S2

MIT Presentation, December 5, 2002 19

Rule1

Rule2

Mamdani Implication: F1 = min (m1, n1) F2 = min (m2, n2) Defuzzification Conversion: Weighted Average

S S iAiFi i y s t e u m =t O= 1n u t p AiFi

i=1

A1, A2: areas of output membership functions S1, S2: singletons of output membership functions.

MIT Presentation, December 5, 2002 20

Supervised Learning

In supervised learning, an initial set of membership functions and rules are generated. The model is then optimized using neural network algorithms (e.g. back propagation) to minimize the error between training data and model-generated data.

21

Unsupervised Learning

In unsupervised learning, the initial set of membership functions and rule set are selfgenerated using clustering algorithms. Optimization can then be performed using neural network algorithms.

22

Example of using Coulomb Counting and Fuzzy Logic to Estimate Battery SOC

23

D c ag e ie c o Pimr L O c lls is h r e ffic ny f r ay i/S 2 e 1 0 .9 0 .8 D isch arge efficien cy 0 .7 0 .6 0 .5 0 .4 0 .3 0 .2 0 .1 0 0 2C 0 0C - 0C 2 - 0C 3 - 0C 4 1 2 3 4 D c ag r te( A m2 is h r e a m/c ^ ) 5 6

24

L w L wMd m o o _ e iu MMmmH h e iu iu _ ig de d Hh ig V r _ ig ey H h

D egree of m bersh em ip

0 .8

0 .6

0 .4

0 .2

0 0 1 2 3 4 c re t ur n 5 6 7 8

25

vr _ o ey c ld c ld o co ol m ild

D egree of m bersh em ip

0 .8

0 .6

0 .4

0 .2

0 -0 4 -0 3 -0 2 -0 1 te p ra r me tue 0 1 0 2 0

26

Vr - o eyL w lo w L wMdmdd a_o t_ ig H h o _ e iueem lmig h h ig miuiu H h M m s

D egree of m bersh em ip

0 .8

0 .6

0 .4

0 .2

0 0 2 0 4 0 e ie c ffic ny 6 0 8 0 10 0

27

D c ag e ie c o Pimr L O c lls is h r e ffic ny f r ay i/S 2 e 1 0 .9 0 .8 D isch arge efficien cy 0 .7 0 .6 0 .5 0 .4 0 .3 0 .2 0 .1 0 0 2C 0 0C - 0C 2 - 0C 3 - 0C 4 1 2 3 4 D c a er te(m/c ^ ) is h rg a A m2 5 6

28

80 70 60 efficiency 50 40 20 0 -20 temperature -40 0 4 2 current 8 6

29

i n 1 m f 1 i n 1 m f 2 i n 1 m f 3 i n 2 m f 1 i n 2 m f 2 i n 2 m f 3 i n 2 m f 4 i n 2 m f 5

1 Do bp e fe s g mh r e m e e r i

1 Do bp e fe s g mh r e m e e r i

0 . 8

0 . 8

0 . 6

0 . 6

0 . 4

0 . 4

0 . 2

0 . 2

0 1 2 3 D ia s c h a r^ g e R t e ( m A / c m 2 ) 4 5

0 4 0 3 0 2 0 1 0 T e m p e r a t u r e 0 1 0 2 0

30

Model-Predicted Discharge Efficiency vs. Measured Disharge Efficiency for Sugeno Model 1

1 0 .9 0 .8 D isch arge efficien cy 0 .7 0 .6 0 .5 0 .4 0 .3 0 .2 0 .1 0 0 xc e kd ta hc a otr ind ta a a s .er 7 8 e4 q r.= .0 5 1 2 3 4 D c ag r te(m/c ^ ) is h r e a A m2 5 6

31

1.5 1 Efficiency 0.5 20 0 -20 Temperature(C) -40 1 2 3 4 5

Discharge Rate(mAmps/cm^2)

32

in m 1 f2 in m in m 1 f 1 f4 1 in m in m 1 f 1 f3 5

inm 2f 3 1

inm 2f 5 2

inm 2f 4

0 .6

D g e o m m e ip e re f e b rsh

1 2 3 D c ag Rte( A m2 is h r e a m /c ^ ) 4 5

D egree of m bersh em ip

0 .8

08 .

06 .

0 .4

04 .

0 .2

02 .

0 -0 4 -0 3 -0 2 -0 1 Tmeaue( ) e pr t r C 0 1 0 2 0

33

1 0 .9 0 .8 D isch arge efficien cy 0 .7 0 .6 0 .5 0 .4 0 .3 0 .2 0 .1 0 0 xc e kd ta hc a otr ind ta a a s .er 1 .0 q r.= 5 e4 1 2 3 4 D c ag r te( A m2 is h r e a m/c ^ ) 5 6

34

0 .8 0 .7 0 .6 0 .5 0 .4 2 0 0 -0 2 T mea r ( ) e p r tue C -0 4 1 2 3 4 5

D c ag Rte( A m2 is h r e a m/c ^ )

35

Examples of Combining Impedance Measurements and Fuzzy Logic to Estimate Battery SOC/SOH

36

Impedance Parameters

Applied small signal AC voltage: v(t)= vmaxsin(t) (=2f) Current response of cell: i(t) = imaxsin(t- ) Impedance of cell: Z= v(t) i(t) = Z + jZ = (vmax/imax)ej and tan = Z/Z

MIT Presentation, December 5, 2002 37

Z Diffusion Capacitive behavior

MIT Presentation, December 5, 2002

10 mHz

Inductive behavior

Z

38

Ranode RS Rcathode L

Canode

Ccathode

39

1. Find a single frequency at which cell impedance varies linearly with battery SOC (e.g. Midtronics tester). 2. a) Measure cell impedance at many frequencies b) Derive cell equivalent circuit parameters c) Find an equivalent circuit parameter that varies linearly with battery SOC. 3. Use intelligent inspection of cell impedance at one or two frequencies to find a measureable parameter that varies monotonically with battery SOC (New fuzzy logic-enhanced method).

MIT Presentation, December 5, 2002 40

Spirally-wound, Hawker, 2.5 Ah D-size cells measured EIS measured over a frequency range 1 Hz65kHz, potentiostatically, 10mVamplitude signal Discharged at 1A for 15 minutes; 1 min. rest at open circuit before measurement; continued until 1.69V cutoff voltage reached.

MIT Presentation, December 5, 2002 41

0.07

A 1pred is.z A _015m 1d1 .z A _030m 1d1 .z A _045m 1d1 .z A _060m 1d1 .z A _075m 1d1 .z A _090m 1d1 .z A _105m 1d1 .z A _120m 1d1 .z A _135m 1d1 .z

0.06

0.05

|Z|

0.04 0.03 0.02 10 0

10 1

10 2

1 3 0

10 4

F requency (H z)

42

-7 5 -5 0

A p d .z 1 re is Ad _ 1 m 1 1 0 5 .z Ad _ 3 m 1 1 0 0 .z Ad _ 4 m 1 1 0 5 .z Ad _ 6 m 1 1 0 0 .z Ad _ 7 m 1 1 0 5 .z Ad _ 9 m 1 1 0 0 .z Ad _ 0 m 1 1 1 5 .z Ad _ 2 m 1 1 1 0 .z Ad _ 3 m 1 1 1 5 .z

theta

-2 5

2 5

1 0 0

1 1 0

1 2 0

1 3 0

1 4 0

F q e c (H ) re u n y z

43

3-input, 1 output model Input 1 - |Z| @ 10 Hz; input 2 - |Z| @ 100Hz; input 3 - @ 10 Hz Fuzzy Logic Model has 6 Rules Each of the three inputs has 5 membership functions

44

2 0

A c t u a l S O C - P re d ic t e d S O C

1 5

1 0

-5

-1 0

-1 5

-2 0 0 1 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 6 0 7 0 8 0 9 0 1 0 0

A c t u a l S t a t e - o f- C h a r g e

Battery State-of-Charge

MIT Presentation, December 5, 2002 45

Performed (EIS) measurements

- EIS data has been collected on Medtronic 2.5 Ah, 8 V,

Lead Acid batteries at various SOCs throughout the cycle life of the batteries.

- Based on measured impedance data and cycle number,

a 3-input, 1-output fuzzy logic model has been developed that predicts the number of remaining simulated defibrillator pulses a battery can deliver to a load within +/- 1 pulse.

MIT Presentation, December 5, 2002 46

Medtronic 2.5 Ah, 8 V, Lead Acid, cycle 9

0 2 .1 5

I IT L N IA p lse u -1 p lse u -2 p lse u -3 p lse u -4 p lse u -5 p lse u -6 p lse u -7 p lse u -8 p lse u -9 p lse 0 u -1 p lse 1 u -1 p lse 2 u -1 p lse 3 u -1 p lse 4 u -1 p lse 5 u -1 p lse 6 u -1 p lse 7 u -1 p lse 8 u -1

0 0 .1 0

|Z |

0 7 .0 5

0 5 .0 0

0 2 .0 5

1 0 0

1 1 0

1 2 0

1 3 0

1 4 0

F ue req ncy (H z)

47

Medtronic 2.5 Ah, 8 V, Lead Acid, cycle 9

-4 0

IN IA IT L p ls u e1 p ls u e2 p ls u e3 p ls u e4 p ls u e5 p ls u e6 p ls u e7 p ls u e8 p ls u e9 p ls - 0 u e1 p ls - 1 u e1 p ls - 2 u e1 p ls - 3 u e1 p ls - 4 u e1 p ls - 5 u e1 p ls - 6 u e1 p ls - 7 u e1 p ls - 8 u e1

-3 0

theta

-2 0

-1 0

0 1 0 0

1 1 0

1 2 0

1 0

Fe u n y ( z r q e c H)

48

Medtronic 2.5 Ah, 8 V, Lead Acid, cycle 57

01 5 .2

01 0 .0

|Z |

I IT L N IA p ls -1 ue p ls -2 ue p ls -3 ue p ls -4 ue p ls -5 ue p ls -6 ue p ls -7 ue p ls -8 ue p ls -9 ue

00 5 .7

00 0 .5

00 5 .2

1 0 0

1 0

1 2 0

1 3 0

1 0

Fe u n y( z r q e c H)

49

Medtronic 2.5 Ah, 8 V, Lead Acid, cycle 57

-0 4

IN I L I A T p ls u e1 p ls u e2 p ls u e3 p ls u e4 p ls u e5 p ls u e6 p ls u e7 p ls u e8 p ls u e9

-0 3

theta

-0 2

-0 1

0 1 0

1 0

1 2 0

1 0

Fe u n y( z r q e c H)

50

3-input, 1 output model Input 1 - |Z| @ 160 Hz; input 2 - @ 16Hz; input 3 - cycle number Output - number of simulated defibrillator pulses that may be delivered by the battery Model has 67 rules

51

5 4 E rro r, M o d e l p re d ic t e d - A c t u a l 3

-1

-2

-3

-4

RMSE = 0.629

-5 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

MIT Presentation, December 5, 2002 52

53

Current (analog) Load A/D A/D Temp. Battery (analog) LCD Display

MIT Presentation, December 5, 2002 54

- acquires the sensed current and temperature values and stores them in memory.

the sensed values of current and temperature.

- accumulates the charge flow

4. Display Driver

- driver software that updates the LCD display with the present value of the cell SOC

5. Runtime Module

55

56

Fuzzy Logic model is very code efficient - easily embedded into an 8-bit microcontroller or even on-chip FLASH memory. Robust, accurate approach with nonlinear interpolation capability. Impedance approach may be used - especially useful for SOH of battery. Fast model development time for new battery designs. Can be integrated with Fuzzy Logic-Based charge controller

MIT Presentation, December 5, 2002 57

Bibliography

1. A.J. Salkind, C. Fennie, P. Singh, T. Atwater, and D.E. Reisner, Determination of State-of-Charge and State-of-Health of Batteries by Fuzzy Logic Methodology, J. Power Sources, 80 pp. 293-300 (1999) 2. P. Singh, C. Fennie, Jr., A. J. Salkind, and D. E. Reisner, A Fuzzy Logic Methodology to Determine State-of-Charge (SOC) in Primary and Rechargeable Batteries, Procs. 38th Power Sources Conf., Cherry Hill, NJ, June 8-11, 1998, p. 295 3. P. Singh and C. Fennie, Jr., A Method for Determining Battery State of Charge Using Intelligent Systems, U.S. Patent No. 6,011,379, Jan 4, 2000.

58

Bibliography (contd)

4. P. Singh and C. Fennie, Jr., A Method for Determining Battery State of Health Using Intelligent Systems, Patent Pending 5. B. Kosko, Fuzzy Engineering (Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 1997). 6. J.-S.R. Jang, C.-T. Sun, and E. Mizutani, Neuro-Fuzzy and Soft Computing, Prentice -Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 1997. 7. The Mathworks, Inc., (Natick, MA) www.mathworks.com (Fuzzy Logic Toolbox for Matlab)

59

Bibliography (contd)

8. P.Singh, C. Fennie and D.E.Reisner, Fuzzy Logic Enhanced Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (FLEEIS) to Determine Battery State of Charge, Procs. 15th Ann. Batt. Conf., Long Beach, CA, Jan 11-14, 2000. 9. V.R. Gaddam, X.Q. Wang, S. Arey, Z.J. Yang, P. Singh, C. Fennie, and D.E. Reisner, Fuzzy Logic-Based SOC Hardware for Li/SO2 Cells, Procs. 39th Power Sources Conf., Cherry Hill, NJ, June 12-15, 2000. 10. F. Huet, A Review of Impedance Measurements for Determination of State-of-Charge and State-of-Health of Secondary Batteries, J. Power Sources 70 pp. 59-69 (1998).

MIT Presentation, December 5, 2002 60

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