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BS2404 Research Methods Qualitative vs.

Quantitative
Christopher Kronenberg & Alia Weston
Kingston University Department of Strategy, Marketing and Entrepreneurship

Dr Christopher Kronenberg

Kingston University London

Aims
Understanding the research process Distinguishing between qualitative and quantitative research methods

Dr Christopher Kronenberg

BS2404 Research Methods

Kingston University London

Research Process
1 2
An idea What is your research philosophy/ paradigm Put your idea in context Collect your data Analyse your data
All research starts with a question(s) that needs answering What are your assumptions about the world? What do I know about the world (ontology)? How do I know what I know about the world (epistemology)? What does this say about the way you will carry out your research? What have other researchers said about your topic? Has someone else answered your question? Where does your idea fit in relation to other ideas?

Does your paradigm change the way you ask your research question?

What information will you need to collect in order to answer your question?

5 6

What does your data tell you about the question you asked? How are you going to interpret your data so it says something useful?

Dr Christopher Kronenberg

Findings

What have you found? Does it answer your question?


BS2404 Research Methods

Kingston University London

Research Onion

The research onion


Source: Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2006

Dr Christopher Kronenberg

BS2404 Research Methods

Kingston University London

Research Approaches
Deductive Approach Research approach involving the testing of a theoretical proposition by the employment of a research strategy specifically designed for the purpose of its testing.
Dr Christopher Kronenberg

Inductive Approach Research approach involving the development of a theory as a result of the observation of empirical data.

BS2404 Research Methods

Kingston University London

Research Approach Deductive


1. Discussing the theory. 2. Deducing a hypothesis from the theory 3. Empirically testing the hypothesis 4. Examining the outcome 5. Drawing conclusions, if necessary, modifying the theory
Dr Christopher Kronenberg BS2404 Research Methods

Theory

Hypothesis

Testing

Discussion
Kingston University London

Characteristics of Deduction
Explaining causal relationships between variables Establishing controls for testing hypotheses Independence of the researcher Concepts operationalised for quantitative measurement Generalisation
Dr Christopher Kronenberg Kingston University London

BS2404 Research Methods

Research Approach Inductive


Lack of theory(ies) Researcher starts with data collection Generalisation of findings Theory development
Observation

Empirical generalisation

Discussion

Dr Christopher Kronenberg

BS2404 Research Methods

Theory development University London Kingston

Characteristics of Induction
Building theory by Understanding the way human build their world Permitting alternative explanations of whats going on Being concerned with the context of events Using more qualitative data Using a variety of data collection methods
Dr Christopher Kronenberg BS2404 Research Methods Kingston University London

Inductive Approach

Deductive Approach

Theories
Forming concepts, developing theories Deducing consequences, making predictions (Literature Review

Empirical generalisation

Tests

Hypotheses

Inducing generalisations

Drawing samples and devising measuring instruments

Observation
Dr Christopher Kronenberg BS2404 Research Methods

Adapted from Deshpande (1983)

Kingston University London

Group Discussion
What do you think: Do we have enough theories in business science or is there still a need for theory development?

Dr Christopher Kronenberg

BS2404 Research Methods

Kingston University London

Data Collection
Two main data sources can be identified

Primary Data

Secondary Data

Dr Christopher Kronenberg

BS2404 Research Methods

Kingston University London

Research Orientation Map

Dr Christopher Kronenberg

BS2404 Research Methods

Kingston University London

Secondary Data
Secondary sources / data are writings about or using (other) primary sources. Examples of secondary data are governmental statistics about unemployment, report on a presidential speech, etc. Desk research
Dr Christopher Kronenberg BS2404 Research Methods Kingston University London

Secondary Data

Dr Christopher Kronenberg

BS2404 Research Methods

Types of secondary data


Source: Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill, 2006

Kingston University London

How the government spends your money


(Guardian.co.uk, 19 October 2010)

Dr Christopher Kronenberg

BS2404 Research Methods

Kingston University London

Primary Data
Primary data are the results of original research. Sources of primary data include face-to-face interviews, observations, focus groups, questionnaires, etc. Field research

Dr Christopher Kronenberg

BS2404 Research Methods

Kingston University London

Primary Data

Quantitative Data

Qualitative Data

Dr Christopher Kronenberg

BS2404 Research Methods

Kingston University London

Qualitative and quantitative research


Qualitative All research ultimately has a qualitative grounding Donald Campbell The aim is a complete, detailed description. Researcher may only know roughly in advance what he/s is looking for. Data is in the form of words, pictures or objects. Quantitative There is no such thing as qualitative data. Everything is either 1 or 0 Fred Kerlinger The aim is to classify features, count them, and construct statistical models in an attempt to explain what is observed. Researcher knows clearly in advance what he/s is looking for. Data is is in the form of numbers and statistics.

Qualitative data is more rich, time consuming, and less able to be generalized.

Quantitative data is more efficient, able to test hypotheses, but may miss contextual details

Dr Christopher Kronenberg

BS2404 Research Methods

Kingston University London

Qualitative and quantitative research


Qualitative Based on meanings expressed through words Collection results in non-standardised data Quantitative Based on meanings derived from numbers Collection results in numerical and standardised data

Analysis conducted through the use of conceptualisation

Analysis conducted through the use of diagrams and statistics

Dr Christopher Kronenberg

BS2404 Research Methods

Kingston University London

Quantitative Research
An objective approach which includes collecting and analysing numerical data and applying statistical tests

Collis and Hussey (2003) Business Research 2nd edition Palgrave, Basingstoke p354

Dr Christopher Kronenberg

BS2404 Research Methods

Kingston University London

Main Administration Modes


Questionnaires
Face-to-face Telephone Postal surveys Internet

Dr Christopher Kronenberg

BS2404 Research Methods

Kingston University London

Quantitative Research
Key points Data must be analysed to produce information Computer software analysis is normally used for this process (SPSS, Excel, ) Researchers need to know how to select and use different charting and statistical techniques

Dr Christopher Kronenberg

BS2404 Research Methods

Kingston University London

Questionnaire Example

Dr Christopher Kronenberg

BS2404 Research Methods

Kingston University London

Quantitative Data
Data matrix

Dr Christopher Kronenberg

BS2404 Research Methods

Kingston University London

Quantitative Data
Bar chart

Dr Christopher Kronenberg

BS2404 Research Methods

Kingston University London

Quantitative Data
Histogram

Dr Christopher Kronenberg

BS2404 Research Methods

Kingston University London

Quantitative Data
Pie chart

Dr Christopher Kronenberg

BS2404 Research Methods

Kingston University London

Qualitative Research
An unstructured, primarily exploratory methodology based on small samples, intended to provide insight and understanding (Malhotra & Birks, 2000) An array of interpretive techniques which seek to describe, decode, translate and otherwise come to terms with meaning, not the frequency, of certain more or less naturally occurring phenomena in the social world (Van Maanen, 1979) Qualitative research helps the marketer to understand the richness, depth and complexity of consumers (Malhotra & Birks, 2000)

Dr Christopher Kronenberg

BS2404 Research Methods

Kingston University London

Dimensions of Qualitative Research

Dr Christopher Kronenberg

BS2404 Research Methods

Kingston University London

Value of Qualitative Research


Essence of in-depth understanding Examination without prior judgement Why and how in addition to what

Dr Christopher Kronenberg

BS2404 Research Methods

Kingston University London

Why Use Qualitative Research?


For exploratory research To gather sensitive information To get at subconscious feelings To measure complex phenomena Get holistic dimensions

Dr Christopher Kronenberg

BS2404 Research Methods

Kingston University London

Qualitative Research
Key issues Transcribing qualitative data Using electronic textual data including other documents (videos, pictures, ) Interactive nature of the process

Dr Christopher Kronenberg

BS2404 Research Methods

Kingston University London

Main Administration Modes


Interview (in-depth interview) Focus Groups Case Studies

Dr Christopher Kronenberg

BS2404 Research Methods

Kingston University London

Group Work
Analyse the two articles Which approach do they use? Why? Think about alternative approaches (either qualitative or quantitative)

Dr Christopher Kronenberg

BS2404 Research Methods

Kingston University London