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# GRAVITATIONAL

FIELD
1.The Law of Universal Gravtation
( Newtons Law of Gravitation )
The gravitational force ( F ) between two objects is
attractive force which its magnitude is directly
proportional to the mass ( m ) of each object and
inversely proportional to the square of distance ( r )
between their centres.

F r F
m
1
m
2

equation

2
2 1
r
m m
G F =
.m : mass of the object ( in kg )
.r : disctance between two objects ( in m )
G : The universal gravitation constant
( 6,67x10
-11
Nm
2
/kg
2
)
F : Gravitasional Force ( in N )

Resultant force

F
1
F
2
F
m
m
2
m
1
o cos 2
2 1
2
2
2
1
F F F F F + + =
F
1
=

F
2
= ..
r
1
r
2
F
1
F
2
m
1
m m
2
F
1
= ..
F
2
=
The resultant force acting on m mass is :
F =
Exercise
1. The earth may be considered to be sphere 0f mass 6.0x10
24
kg and
6
m. Calculate the gravitational force acting on a
a. 1.0 kg mass on the Earth surface
b. 1.0 kg mass placed at a distance 0f
3.8x10
8
m from the centre of Earth

2. Three homogeneous objects each mass of 2 kg, 3 kg and 4 kg
continually located at coordinate ( 0,0 ), ( 4,0 ) and ( o,4 ) on Cartecius
coordinate system with unit in meter. Determine:
a. gravitational force between 2 kg and 3 kg objects
b. gravitational force between 2 kg and 4 kg object
c. resultant of gravitational force acting at 2 kg object

3. Two objects each of 40 kg and 90 kg separated at 10 m away. An other
object X of 20 kg mass is on connected line of both object If the
gravitational force acting on object X is zero , determine the distance of
object X from a 40 kg object.
2. Gravitational Field of a Point Mass
A gravitational field is said to exist at a point if a gravitational force F
exerted on a test mass m placed at that point in space.
The gravitational field strength g at a point is defined as:
g = force/mass = F/m
Gravitational field strength is also known as gravitational
acceleration or free-fall acceleration. Its SI unit is N/kg. If can also
be expressed in SI base unit of m/s
2.
The formula for the gravitational field strength :
2
2
r
M
G g
m
r
Mm
G
g
m
F
g
=
=
=
F
r g m
M
The resultant of gravitational field strength
M
1
M
2
r
2
r
1
g
1
g
2
P
.g
1
=

.g
2
=

The resultant:

o cos 2
2 1
2
2
2
1
g g g g g + + =
r
1
g
1
P g
2
r
2
M1 M2

The gravitational field strength at point P:
.g
1
= .
.g
2
= .
The resultant of gravitational field strength at point P

.g = ..
The Weight
The weigh of an object (w) is the gravitational force
acting downward on the object. On the Earth, it is the
gravitational force exerted on the object by the planet. Its
units are newtons ( in the SI)
2
r
Mm
G w=
mg w=
.m
.w
.r
M
Earth
The period of the Earth
The force Fc which
provides the
centripetal
acceleration R

The period of the Earth
The force Fc which provides the centripetal
acceleration R
2
that keeps the Earth in
circular motion round the Sun.
Fc = mR
2

The centripetal force is due to the
gravitational force of attraction exerted on
the Earth y the Sun. It is given by Newtons
Law of Universal Gravitation
Fg = Gm
1
m
2
/R
2

Equation
2
2
3
2
2
1
3
1
2
3
3 2
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
tan
4
2
2
T
R
T
R
t cons
T
R
or
R T
R
Gm
T
T
R m
R
m m
G
T
R m
R
m m
G
Fc Fg
S
E
S E
E
S E
=
=
~
(

=
(

=
=
=
=
t
t
t
=
=
Fc
Earth
Sun