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FIELD

1.The Law of Universal Gravtation

( Newtons Law of Gravitation )

The gravitational force ( F ) between two objects is

attractive force which its magnitude is directly

proportional to the mass ( m ) of each object and

inversely proportional to the square of distance ( r )

between their centres.

F r F

m

1

m

2

equation

2

2 1

r

m m

G F =

.m : mass of the object ( in kg )

.r : disctance between two objects ( in m )

G : The universal gravitation constant

( 6,67x10

-11

Nm

2

/kg

2

)

F : Gravitasional Force ( in N )

Resultant force

F

1

F

2

F

m

m

2

m

1

o cos 2

2 1

2

2

2

1

F F F F F + + =

F

1

=

F

2

= ..

r

1

r

2

F

1

F

2

m

1

m m

2

F

1

= ..

F

2

=

The resultant force acting on m mass is :

F =

Exercise

1. The earth may be considered to be sphere 0f mass 6.0x10

24

kg and

radius 6.3810

6

m. Calculate the gravitational force acting on a

a. 1.0 kg mass on the Earth surface

b. 1.0 kg mass placed at a distance 0f

3.8x10

8

m from the centre of Earth

2. Three homogeneous objects each mass of 2 kg, 3 kg and 4 kg

continually located at coordinate ( 0,0 ), ( 4,0 ) and ( o,4 ) on Cartecius

coordinate system with unit in meter. Determine:

a. gravitational force between 2 kg and 3 kg objects

b. gravitational force between 2 kg and 4 kg object

c. resultant of gravitational force acting at 2 kg object

3. Two objects each of 40 kg and 90 kg separated at 10 m away. An other

object X of 20 kg mass is on connected line of both object If the

gravitational force acting on object X is zero , determine the distance of

object X from a 40 kg object.

2. Gravitational Field of a Point Mass

A gravitational field is said to exist at a point if a gravitational force F

exerted on a test mass m placed at that point in space.

The gravitational field strength g at a point is defined as:

g = force/mass = F/m

Gravitational field strength is also known as gravitational

acceleration or free-fall acceleration. Its SI unit is N/kg. If can also

be expressed in SI base unit of m/s

2.

The formula for the gravitational field strength :

2

2

r

M

G g

m

r

Mm

G

g

m

F

g

=

=

=

F

r g m

M

The resultant of gravitational field strength

M

1

M

2

r

2

r

1

g

1

g

2

P

.g

1

=

.g

2

=

The resultant:

o cos 2

2 1

2

2

2

1

g g g g g + + =

r

1

g

1

P g

2

r

2

M1 M2

The gravitational field strength at point P:

.g

1

= .

.g

2

= .

The resultant of gravitational field strength at point P

.g = ..

The Weight

The weigh of an object (w) is the gravitational force

acting downward on the object. On the Earth, it is the

gravitational force exerted on the object by the planet. Its

units are newtons ( in the SI)

2

r

Mm

G w=

mg w=

.m

.w

.r

M

Earth

The period of the Earth

The force Fc which

provides the

centripetal

acceleration R

The period of the Earth

The force Fc which provides the centripetal

acceleration R

2

that keeps the Earth in

circular motion round the Sun.

Fc = mR

2

The centripetal force is due to the

gravitational force of attraction exerted on

the Earth y the Sun. It is given by Newtons

Law of Universal Gravitation

Fg = Gm

1

m

2

/R

2

Equation

2

2

3

2

2

1

3

1

2

3

3 2

3

2

2

2

2

2

2

tan

4

2

2

T

R

T

R

t cons

T

R

or

R T

R

Gm

T

T

R m

R

m m

G

T

R m

R

m m

G

Fc Fg

S

E

S E

E

S E

=

=

~

(

=

(

=

=

=

=

t

t

t

=

=

Fc

Earth

Sun

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