14-1

14-2

14
Career Planning and Development

McGraw-Hill/Irwin Human Resource Management, 10/e

© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

14-3

Introduction
Global

competition and economic changes are causing organizations of all sizes to restructure Self-management is the reality for the coming years Organizations must know how to best utilize the talents of employees at all levels of the company Even organizations facing a stable or contracting future recognize that performance is tied to development of human resources

14-4

Introduction
As

organizations change, so do their employees Careers follow a fairly uniform pattern of phases Each phase produces different opportunities and stresses that affect job performance Effective managers help employees confront and deal with career and life needs

Managers

and employees should be involved with their own career development Employees often lack the ability and information to develop their own career plans

14-5

Introduction
This

chapter reviews programs that organizations and employees can use to plan and develop careers Career stages are influenced by attitudes, motivation, the task, economic conditions, and so forth Be sensitive to the “career cycle” and its influences individual needs, abilities, preferences, motivation, and opportunities will not just happen Everyone must take responsibility for the things they can control

Matching

14-6

Introduction
Insert

Exhibit 14-1 here (Linking Org Needs with Individual Needs)

14-7

The Concept of Career
The

concept of career has many meanings The most popular is “moving upward in one’s chosen line of work” It also means making more money, having more responsibility and acquiring more status, prestige, and power concept of career can apply to other life pursuits Homemakers Parents Volunteer workers

The

14-8

The Concept of Career
Greenhaus

offers this definition: A career is the pattern of work-related experiences and activities over the span of the person’s work life The term “career” does not imply success or failure except in the judgment of the individual A career consists of both attitudes and behavior It is an ongoing sequence of work-related activities person’s nonwork life and roles play a significant part in a career

A

14-9

The Concept of Career
The

values of society change over time A growing number of people are less obsessed with advancement, continual success, and a continually increasing salary Family needs and spending time off the job are becoming important personal issues

14-10

Career Stages
people: Undergo some form of organized education Take a first job Move to jobs in the same organization, or in other organizations Eventually settle into a position and hold it until retirement

Most

The

duration of each stage varies among individuals, but most working people go through all of them

14-11

Career Stages
and expectations change over time, as individuals move through the career stages: Establishment phase Advancement phase Maintenance phase

Needs

14-12

Career Stages
Exhibit 14-2 here (Career stages and important needs)

Insert

14-13

Career Stages
maintenance phase: A period of creativity because many of the psychological and financial needs associated with earlier phases have been satisfied Esteem and self-actualization are the most important needs During this phase, many people experience a mid-career crisis

The

14-14

Career Stages
phase: The individual has completed one career and may be ready to start another Self-actualization may be experienced through activities impossible to pursue while working Financial and health status may make it necessary to worry about satisfying needs Pre-retirement planning programs are becoming more common

Retirement

14-15

Career Stage I

Young

professionals have technical knowledge, but often do not understand the organization’s demands They must work closely with experienced people (apprenticeship) Apprentices are expected to show competence, including learning and following directions Moving through Stage 1 requires accepting the psychological state of dependence Some cannot cope with a situation similar to school

14-16

Career Stage II

Stage

II calls for working independently Passage to this stage depends on having demonstrated competence in some area The primary activity is being an independent contributor The psychological state is one of independence Those who fail at this stage typically do so because they lack self-confidence

14-17

Career Stage III

Stage

III professionals mentor those in Stage I They broaden their interests and deal more with people outside the organization The central activities are training and interaction with others They assume responsibility for the work of others, which can cause considerable psychological stress Individuals who cannot cope with this new requirement may shift back to Stage II Individuals who enjoy seeing others move to bigger/ better jobs are content in Stage III until retirement

14-18

Mentoring

The

experienced person is expected to contribute to the junior employee’s: Instruction Job performance Retention

14-19

Mentoring
a successful relationship, the junior person’s career is enhanced by the coaching, exposure, and protection the senior person facilitates The relationship helps the junior person acquire a sense of personal identity The mentor derives satisfaction from the growth, development, and advancement of a protégé

In

14-20

Mentoring
has been difficult for women and minorities to establish mentoring relationships Men hesitate to mentor female protégé because of the sexual innuendoes attached to such relationships Senior women are reluctant to mentor junior women because they perceive significant organizational risks in doing so

It

14-21

Career Stage IV

Not

all professionals experience Stage IV, which involves shaping the direction of the organization itself Stage IV professionals direct their attention to longrange strategic planning They play the roles of manager, entrepreneur, and idea generator Primary tasks are: Identify and sponsor the careers of successors Interact with key people outside the organization

14-22

Career Choice and Personality
L. Holland, a career counseling expert, suggests that: The choice of a career is an expression of personality and not a random event, although chance plays a role What a person accomplishes and derives from a career depends on the congruence between his or her personality and the job environment

John

14-23

Career Choice and Personality
types: Realistic (machinist) Investigative (research scientist) Artistic (interior decorator) Social (school counselor) Enterprising (lawyer) Conventional (accountant)

Personality

The

more one resembles a given type, the more likely one is to display the behavior/traits of that type

14-24

Career Choice and Personality
Exhibit 14-4 here (Holland’s hexagon)

Insert

14-25

Career Choice and Personality
suggests that many personalities fall within the boundaries of two or more types The closer the orientations, the more similar are the personality types If a person’s predominant and secondary orientations are similar, he/she will have a relatively easy time selecting a career

Holland

14-26

Career Choice and Personality

Various

quantitative instruments can assess a person’s personality type: The Vocational Preference Inventory asks a person to select appealing vocations from a list of 84 occupational titles The higher a person’s score on a scale, the greater the resemblance to the type that scale represents

14-27

Examining Your Skills
preferring one career or occupation over another is not enough A person must have, or be able to develop, the skills required to perform the job The Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) provides information on the skills required for more than 20,000 jobs

Simply

14-28

Examining Your Skills
way to measure interests and skills is the Campbell Interest and Skill Survey (CISS) A six-part response scale is used to assess 200 items about interests and 120 items about skills Scores are translated into seven orientations: Influencing Organizing Helping Creating Analyzing Producing Adventuring

Another

14-29

Examining Your Skills
seven orientations are further subdivided into 29 areas, such as leadership, writing, and science If a person scores high on interests and skills, he/she should seriously consider the orientation or activity High interest, low skill = develop skills Low interest, high skill = exploration is needed Low interest, low skill = avoid the orientation/activity

The

14-30

Career Development: A Commitment
development can range from simply reimbursing tuition to detailed counseling These programs are most valuable when they are: Offered regularly Open to all employees Modified as evaluation indicates change is necessary The goal is to match employees’ needs and goals with current or future career opportunities in the organization

Career

14-31

Career Development: A Commitment
well-designed career development effort will: Help employees determine their own career needs Develop and publicize career opportunities in the organization Match employees’ needs/goals with those of the organization

A

Career

planning is important during all phases of a career, but three points are particularly crucial: Recent hiree Midcareer person Pre-retirement person

14-32

Career Development For Recent Hirees
select their positions on the basis of: Expectations regarding the demands that the organization will make of them What will be received in exchange for meeting those demands

Employees

Young

managers, particularly college graduates, expect recognition and advancement Recently hired managers are often disappointed with their initial career decisions

14-33

Causes of Early Career Difficulties

Early

career disappointments vary from person to person, but reality shock is often a factor Reality shock is a mismatch between what they thought the organization was and what it actually is

14-34

Causes of Reality Shock
job challenge First jobs often demand far less of managers than they are capable of delivering Employees may be unable to create challenge from routine jobs job satisfaction Recently hired college graduates often believe they can perform at levels beyond their initial assignments Disappointment and dissatisfaction result when these self-evaluations are not shared by others

Initial

Initial

14-35

Reality Shock

Reality

shock is caused by: Initial job challenge Initial job satisfaction Initial job performance evaluation

14-36

Counteracting Early Career Problems
early career interventions focus on developing managers, but other employees can benefit too Blue-collar workers are valuable assets who also need career development Workers at any level accumulate skill, therefore must have access to systematic career development

Most

14-37

Realistic Job Previews (RJPs)
is based on the idea that recruits should know both the good and bad things about a job and an organization The recruitment rate is the same for those who receive RJP as for those who do not Those who receive RJPs are more likely to remain on the job and be satisfied with it

RJP

14-38

Challenging Initial Assignments
newly hired should be put into the most demanding job available This policy is risky because managers are accountable for the performance of subordinates Most managers bring subordinates along slowly by giving them progressively more difficult jobs However, managers who experience initial job challenge are more effective in their later years

The

14-39

Enriched Initial Assignments
enrichment can motivate employees with strong needs for growth and achievement Give new managers more authority and responsibility Permit new managers to interact directly with customers and clients Enable new managers to implement their own ideas

Job

14-40

Demanding Bosses
increase the retention rate of young managers, assign them initially to demanding supervisors Demanding is not the same as “autocratic” The boss most likely to get new hires off in the right direction is one with high but achievable expectations benefits of challenging experiences are not limited to the early phase of a career Those who meet early challenges are better prepared to contribute in their middle and late careers as well Setting the stage for successfully managing a career can help avoid stagnation and dissatisfaction

To

The

14-41

Career Development During Midcareer
mid-career problems: Higher levels of stress Personal and family problems associated with midlife crisis and transition Dealing with the notion that one’s most productive years may already be past to deal with these pressures can lead to: Job withdrawal Mid-career can be rewarding Substance abuse if career management programs are in place Depression

Common

Trying

14-42

Career Development During Midcareer
is an important way to help midcareer managers: Improve skills Improve knowledge Grow intellectually showing an interest introduces the Hawthorne effect It is especially important at midcareer to receive such signals from the organization

Training

Merely

14-43

The Midcareer Plateau
face a midcareer plateau during the adult stage of life and the maintenance phase of careers The likelihood of upward promotion is low because there are fewer jobs at the top Openings may exist, but the manager lacks the ability, skills, or desire to fill them in this position cope in consistent ways: Depression, poor health, and fear of/hostility toward subordinates They “retire” on the job or leave the organization

Managers

Managers

14-44

The Midcareer Plateau
crisis is real It has psychological and physical effects that can become dangerous if not properly handled who have coped effectively: John W. Culligan was 64 when promoted to chairperson of American Home Products Thomas S. Derek started the Ugly Duckling Rent-ACar agency after retiring from a 30-year career as a life insurance agent Joyce Fox got her first job at 41 and became VP of international loans at American Express Bank

Midcareer

Individuals

14-45

Counteracting Midcareer Problems

Counteracting midcareer problems involves counseling and providing alternatives

14-46

Midcareer Counseling
Midcareer

managers are often well-educated and articulate Verbalizing problems to an objective listener is often enough to allow them to recognize their problems and cope with them constructively

14-47

Midcareer Counseling

At

times, the organization needs to accept career moves that are usually viewed as unacceptable: Lateral transfers Downward transfers Failback positions

14-48

Lateral Transfer
lateral transfer means moving from one department to another at the same organizational level The manager must learn the technical demands of the new position quickly There will be a period of reduced performance as this learning occurs Once qualified, the manager will bring the perspectives of both areas to bear on decisions

A

14-49

Downward Transfer
transfers are equated with failure, unless one or more of these conditions exist: The manager wants to stay in, or move to, a specific geographic area The manager wants to establish a base for future promotions The manager must choose between dismissal or a downward move The manager wants to pursue autonomy and self-actualization in non-job activities

Downward

14-50

Failback Positions
a failback position means identifying a position to return to if the new job doesn’t work out Allowing a failback position means the organization accepts some of the responsibility for the transfer protects the careers of those who are making their first moves into management This does not excuse managers from taking responsibility for themselves Formulating career plans early on minimizes the risk of becoming obsolete or redundant

Having

It

14-51

Pre-retirement Problems

Many

organizations are ill-prepared to help retirees develop a truly secure retirement The problem is becoming increasingly important as workers retire at earlier ages and organizations cut retirement benefits to reduce costs

14-52

Retirement Adjustment Problems
must consider questions such as: When do employees plan to retire? Who is attracted by early retirement? What do employees plan to do during retirement? Can the organization help prepare for these activities? Do retirees plan a second career? Can the organization assist in this preparation? Which retirees can still be consulted by the organization to help new employees?

Organizations

14-53

Retirement Adjustment Problems
is feared by some, anticipated by others Counseling and education programs can make the transition from employment to retirement easier most cases, a retired person must learn to: Accept a reduced role Manage a less structured life Make accommodations for family and community

Retirement

In

IBM

aids this transition by offering tuition for courses on any topic within three years of retirement

14-54

Retirement Adjustment Problems

By

2016, the annual number retiring will be 4 million In the wake of downsizing, a growing number of companies will need retirees to come back to work This is due to a skills gap between new employees and organizational needs

14-55

Career Planning and Pathing
career planning means matching an individual’s career aspirations with opportunities Career pathing is the sequencing of the specific jobs associated with those opportunities If career management is to be successful, the individual and the organization must assume an equal share of the responsibility for it

Organizational

14-56

Career Planning and Pathing

Sample

career path for a manager Insert Exhibit 14-8 here

14-57

Career Planning
the American Management Association (AMA), the most widely used informal approaches are: Counseling by the personnel staff Career counseling by supervisors formal but less used approaches involve: Workshops Seminars Self-assessment centers

Per

More

14-58

Informal Counseling
often offer counseling services for employees who wish to assess their abilities/interests Counseling can also involve personal concerns, which are important for determining career aspirations counseling is usually part of evaluations Employees should be told how well they have done, and what the future holds Few supervisors know about needs and opportunities throughout the organization, so more formal and systematic counseling approaches are often needed

Organizations

Career

14-59

Formal Counseling
assessment centers, and career development centers are being used more often Management trainees and “high-potential” or “fasttrack” candidates have received most attention to date Women and minority employees are receiving increased attention Development programs for women and minorities indicate an organization’s commitment to affirmative action

Workshops,

14-60

Formal Counseling
Corp.’s Career Development Center found eight skill areas related to effective management: Problem analysis Communication Goal setting Making decisions and handling conflicts Selecting, training, and motivating employees Controlling employees Interpersonal competence Use of time

Syntex

14-61

Formal Counseling
to facilitate an employee’s career plans: Tuition aid Job posting a minimum, job postings should: Include promotions, transfers, permanent vacancies Be posted 3-6 weeks prior to external recruiting Have explicit and straightforward eligibility rules Clearly state selection and bidding instructions Give vacationing employees an opportunity to apply Notify rejected applicants in writing

Practices

At

14-62

Formal Counseling
technology is now one of the most significant career management tools It enhances an individual’s career planning activities and saves money for the organization corporations are relying more heavily on filling job vacancies from within The key is making sure applicants know about the job opening and its requirements The organization must also know which current employees are qualified for the vacancy An effective HRIS job posting program does both

HRIS

Many

14-63

Formal Counseling

The

World Wide Web is becoming a valuable resource for people who want to help their careers Thousands of organizations utilize their websites to recruit and inform employees

14-64

Career Pathing
organization’s future workforce depends on the passage of individuals through the ranks A career path is the sequence of jobs that one wants to undertake to achieve personal and career goals Systematic planning can close the gap between individual and organizational needs

An

14-65

Career Pathing
career paths have emphasized upward mobility in a single operation or functional area There is a pervasive attitude that not moving up within an expected time frame equals failure This makes it hard to use lateral and downward transfers as alternatives for managers who no longer wish to pay the price of upward promotion one nears the top of the organization, the number of openings declines and the number of candidates increases

Traditional

As

14-66

Career Pathing
alternative method bases career paths on realworld experiences and individualized preferences Paths of this kind: Include lateral, downward, and upward possibilities Are not tied to “normal” rates of progress Are tentative and responsive to organizational needs Take into account the qualities of individuals Specify jobs in terms of acquirable skills, knowledge, and other specific attributes

An

14-67

Career Development Programs: Problems and Issues

14-68

Career Development & Workforce Planning
development provides a supply of talent and ability Workforce planning projects the demand

Career

It

seems that organizations undertaking one activity would undertake the other Some organizations have one or the other, not both development and planning is hard to do: Development is done by psychologists; economists and systems analysts handle planning Career development occurs in personnel departments; workforce planning is the function of planning staffs

Integrating

14-69

Managing Dual Careers
the past, many companies wouldn’t employ both a husband and wife Organizations now try to accommodate the unique pressures that exist when both spouses work is difficult for dual-career couples Many offer special career planning programs for dual-career couples Talented people can be lost if the organization is too inflexible

In

Relocation

14-70

Managing Dual Careers
leave has negative overtones Taking six months off is assumed fatal to a career Peer pressure perpetuates the belief that paternity leave unfairly burdens coworkers with extra work Some couples compromise by having the husband work at home while the wife recovers

Maternity

There

are currently more than 25 million dualcareer couples

14-71

Managing Dual Careers
to the Department of Labor, 29 percent of working wives make more than their husbands This figure has grown by 53% since 1988 Among upper-income women, the numbers are higher is this happening when women, on average, make only 70% of their male counterparts? Women are better educated than they used to be More women are working full-time EEO laws removed or lowered barriers that hold women back

According

Why

14-72

Hints for Dealing With Dual Careers
a survey to determine: How many employees are in a two-career situation How many people who interviewed for positions are in a dual-career situation Where, and at what level in the organization, the dual-career employees are What conflicts these employees have now If these dual-career couples perceive company policy and practices to be helpful to their careers

Conduct

14-73

Hints for Dealing With Dual Careers

Present

realistic previews of what the company offers dual-career couples Revise policies regarding career development and transfer; most are based on a one-career family Providiedual-career couples with special career management assistance Establish cooperative employment arrangements with other organizations Establish flexible working hours Remember that non-managerial personnel are also members of dual-career families

14-74

Hints for Dealing With Dual Careers
a spouse abroad is especially difficult in dual-career situations Visits home Extended vacation benefits Family culture training Electronic communication needs both partners are relocated at the same time, to the same location, these issues must be addressed: Adjustment Stress Distance

Relocating

Unless

14-75

Career Planning and Equal Employment
Civil Rights Act of 1964 is now 40 years old Tremendous strides have been made in providing women and minorities with equal employment Still, few have made it to the top of organizations “glass ceiling” is still a reality Some still believe that women and minorities cannot be effective managers Women and minorities feeling such resistance often leave, resulting in a drain of needed talent

The

A

14-76

Career Planning and Equal Employment
minorities make it to the top of organizations 90% of officers of large corporations are white males males feel threatened by affirmative action No data support the claim that they are being replaced by minorities Above-average males still progress; below-average performers lag behind The threat is most felt when the economy slows and the few promotions available go to women and minorities

Few

White

14-77

Career Planning and Equal Employment
guarantees that white males will support affirmative action programs, but some practices offer promise Providing open and complete information about promotions Allowing white males to see precisely where they stand given such information, white males: Are less likely to over-estimate their disadvantage Can assess their position more accurately

Nothing

If

14-78

Downsizing and Job Loss
increasing number of companies consider employees vital assets, but downsizing continues Downsizing seems sensible because it eliminates unneeded positions and reduces bureaucracy However, it eliminates an organization’s memory and sense of values humane options: Retention Lateral transfers Temporary work

An

More

14-79

Downsizing and Job Loss
job layoff exists when three conditions occur: There is no work and the employee is sent home Management expects the no-work situation to be temporary Management intends to recall the employee

A

Job

loss means the employee has permanently lost the job
No company is immune to eliminating jobs

14-80

Effects of Job Loss
and Kasl studied job loss and discovered that: Job loss is: Stressful and requires several months to adjust Linked to depression, anomie, and suspicion Illness and drug use were: High during the anticipation phase Dropped at termination Rose again at six months Those who were unemployed longer and had less social support experienced more stress

Cobb

14-81

Effects of Job Loss

Higher

levels of unemployment are linked to higher levels of: Social disorders First admissions to mental hospitals Suicide

14-82

Effects of Job Loss
conclusions: Denial/disbelief is a typical response to layoff rumors As rumors circulate and some lose their jobs, there is high anxiety among the remaining employees Several weeks after job loss, there is a period of relaxation, relief, optimism, and vigorous job hunting Friends and family play a major supporting role Those still unemployed after four or more months go through a period of doubt; they may experience panic, rage, or erratic behavior

Tentative

14-83

Managerial Responses to Layoffs/Job Loss
strong performance is one way to guard against the need for job layoffs or job loss An efficient appraisal system can help pinpoint poor performance and initiate corrective steps events that can require a cutback: Decrease in market demand Reduced availability of resources Competition

Consistently

Uncontrollable

14-84

Managerial Responses to Layoffs/Job Loss
best time to prepare for job layoff and job loss is when business is good Establishing layoff criteria is an important step Seniority is the criterion most commonly used A valid and reliable performance appraisal system can also be used Some firms use a panel of managers from outside the work unit to decide who will be laid off

The

14-85

Managerial Responses to Layoffs/Job Loss
an outplacement services unit is another valuable step Services can include such things as: Help with resumes Use of company telephones Letters of introduction Reference letters Payment of placement fees Some firms also provide Career counseling severance pay Retraining

Creating

14-86

Managerial Responses to Layoffs/Job Loss
layoffs and job loss are expected to continue into the foreseeable future Management must continue to study the related problems and experiment with solutions present, we need more information on: Women’s and minority workers’ reactions to job layoffs and loss Long-range effects of job loss How personality predisposes reactions to job loss Effectiveness of outplacement services The effect of career halt

Job

At

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