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By: Chenee B.


Orthodontic tooth movement is a unique process were a solid object (tooth) is made to move through a solid medium(bone)

-Naturally occurring tooth movement that takes place during and after tooth eruption Includes: Toot eruption Migration or drift of the teeth Changes in tooth position during mastication

eruption takes place in chronological order involves active eruption vertical movement of the tooth as opposed to passive eruption receding of the gingiva how it occurs is not understood

root growth, hormonal action, contractile collagen, vascular pressure no requirement for the root

three distinct phases to the development of the dentition

1. pre-eruptive initiation of tooth development 2. tooth eruption prefunctional phase

begins as the roots begin to form after the teeth have emerged into the oral cavity

3. development and maintenance of occlusion functional phase

Teeth have the ability to drift through the alveolar bone Human teeth have a tendency to migrate in mesial or occlusal direction This maintains the inter-proximal and cclusal contact Aided by bonr resorption and deposition by osteoclacts and osteoblasts respectively.

Types of Drifting: Mesial drifting- due to proximal caries (loss of tooth structures) Occlusal drifting- due to premature exfoliation of absence of opposing tooth( supra eruption)

Mesial drifting

Occlusal drifting

Normal force of mastication -1- 50 kg It occurs in cycles of 1 duration Teeth exhibits slightly movement with the socket and return to their original position on withdrawal of the force Whenever the force is sustained for more than 1 second, periodontal fluid is squeezed out and pain is felt as the tooth is displaced within the periodontal space.

It is a pathological process from which the tooth recovers

Forces created by orthodontic appliances about tooth movement by 2 mechanism.

Frontal resorption Undermining resorption

Accomplished by light orthodontic forces Least painful Least harmful to the periodontium Most desirable

Caused by heavy orthodontic forces Painful More harmful to the periodontium Occurs in small scale even in the most careful orthodontic treatment The dentist should always try to minimize this

Anterior Posterior
Buccal Lingual Vertical

Anterior Posterior: tipping, uprighting, translation bodily Buccal Lingual: tipping, torque (controlled tipping) Vertical: intrusion, extrusion Rotation

Orthodontic Appliances Brackets wires - force

Biological requirement 75 grams

Actual force 150-200 grams

The center of resistance (CR) of a tooth is the point of concentrated resistance to movement. In free space, CR is the center of the tooth which happens to correspond to the center of gravity of the tooth.

In space not in the bone

In bone

Moment (M) = Force (F) X Distance (D) from CR



Moments can also be created by couples. The moment of a couple is defined by the following equation: Moment (M) = Magnitude of a force (F) X Distance (D) between the two forces Although the couple symbol may be drawn anywhere on the figure, the moment always rotates the tooth about its CR. Oftentimes, the moment is shown around CR then.

Two contact points


Couple of Moment



Two contact points

Torque is a force system.

It is produced by torsion in an arch wire that creates a couple when interacted with a bracket slot, which is the result of twist in the wire compared to the bracket slot.

Single force

Couple - two contact points

Rotation is the movement a tooth makes as it spins around its center of resistance (CR). Although CR's position differs for a tooth in free space versus a tooth embedded in bone, rotation always occurs around CR.

Created by a single force acting at a distance from CR

50 - 75 grams

Controlled tipping is the motion of a tooth that has a force applied at a distance from the center of resistance (CR) and has a counterbalancing couple (CBC) to regulate the rotation of the tooth.

100 150 grams

Translation MovementBodily Tooth Movement

Rotation Movement
No translation is involved-requires equal two forces

50 100 grams

Extrusion is a Translation out of bone

40-50 grams

Intrusion is a translation movement into the bone

15-25 g