Baseband M-ary PAM

• Consider more of pulse amplitude modulation. • It arises at some point in almost all systems • Its performance and design is key to many systems.

where Tb = bit interval.ary symbols use less bandwidth.+3} • T −1 is the signaling rate in symbols/sec (baud) • Assume Gray coding of bits to symbols • T = Tb log 2 M . .+1. where p (t ) is usually a Nyquist or root k Nyquist pulse shape. but more power than a binary signal for a given performance level.−1. ak ∈ {−3.Baseband M-ary PAM • Consider a transmitt ed signal of the form s (t ) = ∑ ak p (t − kT ). • Illustrated in the following for M = 4. • Such M . • Consider here that symbols ak take on M > 2 values Eg.

• In practice these are then passed through a shaping filter to obtain Nyquist pulses. .Baseband M-ary PAM • Illustrates 4-level PAM using NRZ pulses.

Baseband M-ary PAM • Digital Subscriber Lines (DSL): Major Application of PAM • Use normal twisted pair that historically has been used for POTS. . ISI is a major problem and must be compensated.5 km to exchange. • Because of band limited nature of telephone channel. Operational Environment: Are several different DSL modes. • Used in local loop typically at distances of < 1. • Actually bandpass signals. but can consider as PAM since modulation is simple frequency translation.

often referred to as ping-pong TDM.Baseband M-ary PAM Time Compression Multiplexing: This is actually a form of TDM. .

• Almost always also requires echo cancellation .Baseband M-ary PAM Echo Cancellation Mode • Allows simultaneous transmission in both directions • Requires a hybrid transformer to do this because channel is 2-wire.

Baseband M-ary PAM Basic hybrid transformer: Hybrids are found in all 2-4 wire transitions. .

although this may now be questioned with OFDM (more later). . l0 = reference length. Echo cancellation approach tends to yield better performance. ISI • Occurs in all bandlimited channels • To a first order we can model by considerin g the channel transfe r function. | H ( f ) |2 = exp( −α f ). where α = kl / l0 where k = constant. Channel Impairments: 1.Baseband M-ary PAM • • DSL achieves multiple Mbits/sec on telephone lines. • Causes significan t ISI at DSL symbol rates.

Two types are 1.Baseband M-ary PAM • • Arises due to capacitive coupling between adjacent twisted pairs in typical telephone cable. Model as: NEXT is signal with same power spectral density as the desired signal passing through filter H NEXT ( f ) = βf 3 / 2 β = constant. 2. Near-end crosstalk (NEXT) Far-end crosstalk (FEXT) NEXT is major problem since usually much stronger than FEXT. .

Want – – Zero at d. since telephone lines are transformer coupled. Small at high frequency where there is higher attenuation and much worse cross talk.Baseband M-ary PAM Line Codes: • Used to shape the transmitted spectrum.c. . • Possible line codes include a) b) c) d) Manchester codes Modified duobinary (discuss later) Bipolar 2B1Q (already seen) which is North American standard.

POTS . 2. 3. Downstream up to 9 Mb/s depending on length of loop Upstream up ~ 1Mb/s again depending on loop length.Baseband M-ary PAM Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Loop (ADSL): • Single twisted pair supports 1.

Baseband M-ary PAM • Use FDM to accommodate • Downstream will handle video on demand (main reason originally for asymmetry). • Now will consider equalization schemes.544 Mb/s – Upstream ~ 160 kb/s • On typical loops to get data rates at DS1 and higher rates requires sophisticated modulation techniques such as OFDM or very sophisticated schemes (equalizers) to compensate the ISI. • Internet applications typically get – Downstream is DS1 ~ 1. .

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