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DIGESTIVE TRACT

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. DIGESTIVE TRACT IS A LONG MUSCULAR TUBE CONSISTING OF THE FOLLOWING PARTS FROM ABOVE DOWNWARDS MOUTH TONGUE PHARYNX OESOPHAGUS STOMACH SMALL INTESTINE LARGE INTESTINE RECTUM ANAL CANAL

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The wall of alimentary canal from oesophagus to the anal canal consists of typical 4 encircling layers or tunics from outside inwards Tunica adventitia or serosa Tunica muscularis Tunica submucosa Tunica mucosa
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HISTOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF ALIMENTARY CANAL/ DIGESTIVE TUBE

TUNICA ADVENTATIA OR SEROSA


it is a fibrous layer which forms the outer coat It carries large blood vessels and nerves When the organs is covered by the peritoneum this layer is called serosa If the organ is not covered by peritoneum this layer is called adventitia .

TUNICA MUSCULARIS
It consists of a double layer of smooth muscle The inner layer lies circularly and outer layer sheet runs longitudinally Nerves and vascular plexus lies b/w the layers This muscular layer controls the diameter of intestine and propels its content towards anus

TUNICA SUBMUCOSA
It is a loose areolar connective tissue layer. It contains large blood and lymphatic vessels, nerves and glands in certain portions

TUNICA MUCOSA
1. 2. It is a mucous membrane Consisting of Stratified squamous or single columnar epithelial layer Lamina propria Which is a delicate areolar connective tissue layer and is normally infiltrated with lymphocytes and lymph nodes 3. Muscularis mucosa Is a thin layer of smooth muscle and forms the boundary b/w mucous membrane and submucosa

TONGUE
1. 2. 3. 1. 2. The tongue is a muscular organ situated in the floor of mouth It is associated with the function of taste, speech, mastication and deglutition. Tongue is barely 3 inches long It has an oral part that lies in the mouth and a pharyngeal part that lies in the pharynx. The oral and the pharyngeal parts are separated from each other by a V shaped sulcus called sulcus terminalis. The tongue has A root A tip A body Two types of special structures are seen on the tongue those are Papillae Taste buds

PHARYNX
Pharynx is a wide muscular tube about 12cm long It is lined by mucous membrane. The upper part of pharynx transmits only air where as the lower part transmits food but the middle part is common passage for both food n air The wall of pharynx are provided with sensory receptors The cavity of pharynx are divided into 1. The nasal part called nasopharynx 2. The oral part called oropharynx

1. Pharynx helps in transmission of air from nose to mouth to the larynx 2. Production of voice 3. Pharynx serves as a channel to transport food from mouth to oesophagus Wall of pharynx is made up of mucosa, submucosa and pharyngo basilar fasia

OESOPHAGUS
1. 2. 3. 4. This is a narrow muscular tube. The wall of oesophagus is made up of 4 layers Tunica adventitia Tunica muscularis Tunica submucosa Tunica mucosa It extends from lower part of neck to the upper part of abdomen The oesophgus is 25cm/10inchs long The lumen is kept collapsed it dilates only during the passage of food bolus. It receives food from the pharynx and it passes it on to the stomach by a series of peristaltic contraction

STOMACH
The stomach is a muscular bag forming the widest and the most dilatable part of the digestive tract It is connected above to the oesophagus n below to the duodenum. The stomach lies obliquely in the upper n left part of abdomen, occupying the epigastric, umblical and left hypochondric regions The stomach is about 25cm long It has 2 orifice or opening 1. Cardiac orifice 2. Pyloric orifice

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2 curvatures lesser curvature forms right border of stomach Greater curvature forms left border of stomach 2 surfaces Anterior / anterosuperior Posterior / posteroinferior Stomach is divided into 3 parts Fundus Body Pylorus Stomach is also made of same 4 layers General functions of stomach are secretion, digestion, absorption, excretion, and reflex function

SMALL INTESTINE
1. 2. 3. 1. 2. 3. The small intestine extends from pylorus to the iliocoecal junction. It is about 6cm long The length is greater in males than in females n also the length is greater in cadavers due to loss of tune. Small intestine is divided into Duodenum [upper fixed part] Jejunum [lower mobile part] Ileum [lower mobile part] From outside inwards the arrangements of 4 layers is same. The mucous membrane has the following 3 characteristic features Simple tubular gland Vilus Lymphoid tissue

LARGE INTESTINE
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. THE LARGE INTESTINE is also known as colon. It extends from iliocoecal valve up to anus It consists of 7 portions Cecum with appendix Ascending colon Transverse colon Descending colon Sigmoid colon Rectum Anal canal

Function of large intestine are absorption, formation of feces, excretory function, secretary function and synthetic function..

RECTUM
THE RECTUM is similar to large intestine except that the taeniae coli form outer n encloses the tube in an outer longitudinal layer of uniform thickening. The rectum functions as a reservoir for semisolid feces and rectal valves helps to supports the fecal mass as the rectum filli..