A Peek Inside the Computer | Computer Data Storage | Central Processing Unit

A PEEK INSIDE THE COMPUTER

Click to Functions: Main edit Master subtitle style 1. Processing data into information 2. Maintaining data and instructions in memory

Peripheral Equipment

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THE CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT
 Brain of the computer, where all

processing takes place
Consists of: 1.) control unit and 2.)

arithmetic logic unit

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 Microprocessor
- Modern form of CPU; a silicon chip with
multiple circuits that carries signals to execute all the processing that takes place within a computer

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enabled engineers to install millions of circuits on one microprocessor 4/28/12 .Increasing CPU Capacity q Integrated Circuits -.today’s electronic semiconductors q Large Scale Integration (LSI) and Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) -.

The Machine Cycle 4/28/12 .

Word Maximum number of bits that the control unit can fetch from internal memory in one machine cycle. 4/28/12 .

The Clock/System Clock Synchronizes all tasks Clock Rate –computer frequency 4/28/12 .

subtraction. 4/28/12 . division. etc. all arithmetic and logic operations take place Arithmetic Operations –addition. multiplication.The Arithmetic Logic Unit Operations ALU –part of CPU.

Memory Circuitry 4/28/12 .Memory Program instructions and data must be stored.

4/28/12 .Registers A circuitry in the CPU which allows for the fast storage and retrieval of instructions and data during the various stages of the machine cycle.

Storage spaces: random access memory (RAM).read-only memory (ROM) 4/28/12 .Internal Memory Main memory. and immediately after they are processed. Primary Memory Used for storage of data and instructions just before they are processed by the CPU.

External Memory Consists of storage media that allow for programs and data to be permanently stored 4/28/12 .

Cache (pronounced as cash) – made up of fast memory semiconductor chips 4/28/12 .Random Access Memory First place all instructions and data are stored on their way to being processed by the CPU.

Read-Only Memory Small part of internal memory Maintains instructions and data that the user need not. and should not change. 4/28/12 .

Nonvolatile Memory Volatile means temporary Nonvolatile means permanent * ROM is nonvolatile 4/28/12 .Volatile vs.

) The rate at which the CPU operates 2.) The amount of information the CPU can process per cycle 4/28/12 .Computer Power 1.

INPUT DEVICES Keyboard – most pervasive input device * Optimal Keyboard * Ergonomic Keyboard 4/28/12 .

Trackball.Mouse. and Track Pad Touch Screen – allows the computer user to choose operations 4/28/12 .

bar code scanner Directly copy data without the need for human intervention 4/28/12 .Source Data Input Devices E.g.

checks. and many other types of documents 4/28/12 . insurance policies and claims. personnel files.Imaging/ Image Processing The process of scanning and storing shipping documents.

4/28/12 .readable data and instructions.Voice Recognition Translates human speech into computer.

) Monitors.most pervasive output device + Cathode-Ray Tube + Flat-Panel Monitors 4/28/12 .OUTPUT DEVICES  Soft Copy Output Devices 1.

) Voice Output.2.through speakers + Voice Synthesizing.using machine sounds to emulate a human voice 4/28/12 .

 Hard Copy Output Devices 1.) Nonimpact Printers – laser printers 2.) Impact Printers – reproduction of an image on a page requires a mechanical impact 4/28/12 .

EXTERNAL STORAGE MEDIA Punched Cards & Punched Tapes Magnetic Tapes 4/28/12 .

Magnetic Disks Optical Disks Optical Tape 4/28/12 .

Business Considerations of Storage Media Trade-Offs -.both the transfer time and capacity of external storage are major factors. and must both be weighed against cost 4/28/12 .

e.Mode of Access >> Sequential Storage – requires much data to be reviewed in order to access. tapes >> Direct Storage – allows data to be accessed by address or location on disk 4/28/12 .g.

and most expensive computers 4/28/12 .largest.CLASSIFICATION OF COMPUTERS Supercomputers -. most powerful.

4/28/12 .less powerful and significantly less expensive than supercomputers.Mainframe Computers -.

Minicomputers -. 4/28/12 .much smaller than mainframes and less powerful.

THE MICROCOMPUTER REVOLUTION Microcomputers – collective name for all desktop computers 4/28/12 .

personal computer operated by a rechargeable battery 4/28/12 .Computers on the Go: Laptop and Notebook Computers Laptop Computer – compact. light.

but users does not miss anything if those functions aren’t necessary 4/28/12 .Reduced Instructions Set Computing RISC – these computers trade off some computing functions for speed.

CONSIDERATIONS IN THE PURCHASE OF HARDWARE 4/28/12 .

Power Expandability Ports Ergonomics Compatibility Footprint Support Warranty Cost 4/28/12 .

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