Ch5. Uniform Circular Motion
Uniform circular motion is the
motion of an object traveling at a
constant (uniform) speed on a
circular path.
Period T is the time required to
travel once around the circle, that
is, to make one complete
revolution.
T
r
v
t 2
=
r
2
Example 1: A TireBalancing
Machine
The wheel of a car has a radius of r = 0.29m and is
being rotated at 830 revolutions per minute (rpm)
on a tirebalancing machine. Determine the speed
(in m/s) at which the outer edge of the wheel is
moving.
The speed v can be obtained directly from ,
but first the period T is needed. It must be
expressed in seconds.
T
r
v
t 2
=
3
830 revolutions in one minute
revolution
s revolution
min/ 10 2 . 1
min / 830
1
3 ÷
× =
T=1.2
*
10
3
min, which corresponds to 0.072s
s m
s
m
T
r
v / 25
072 . 0
) 29 . 0 ( 2 2
= = =
t t
4
Uniform circular motion emphasizes that
1. The speed, or the magnitude of the velocity
vector, is constant.
2. Direction of the vector is not constant.
3. Change in direction, means acceleration
4. “Centripetal acceleration” , it points toward
the center of the circle.
5
Centripetal Acceleration
Magnitude a
c
of the centripetal acceleration
depends on the speed v of the object and the
radius r of the circular path. a
c
=v
2
/r
6
v A
in velocity divided by the elapsed time
or a= /
t A
v A t A
Sector of the circle COP.
is very small, the arc
length OP is approximately
a straight line whose length
is the distance v
traveled by the object.
t A
t A
7
COP is an isosceles triangle. Both triangles
have equal apex angles .
u
r
t v
v
v A
=
A
t v A A /
a
c
=v
2
/r
The direction is toward the center of the circle.
8
Conceptual Example 2: Which
way will the object go?
An object on a guideline is in
uniform circular motion. The
object is symbolized by a dot,
and at point O it is release
suddenly from its circular
path.
If the guideline is cut suddenly, will the object move along
OA or OP ?
9
Newton’s first law of motion guides our reasoning. An
object continues in a state of rest or in a state of
motion at a constant speed along a straight line unless
compelled to changes that state by a net force. When
the object is suddenly released from its circular path,
there is no longer a net force being applied to the
object. In the case of a model airplane, the guideline
cannot apply a force, since it is cut. Gravity certainly
acts on the plane, but the wings provide a lift force
that balances the weight of the plane.
10
As a result, the object would move along the
straight line between points O and A, not on
the circular arc between points O and P.
In the absence of a net force, then, the plane or
any object would continue to move at a
constant speed along a straight line in the
direction it had at the time of release. This
speed and direction are given in Figure 5.4 by
the velocity vector v.
11
Example 3: The Effect of Radius on
Centripetal Acceleration
The bobsled track at the 1994
Olympics in Lillehammer,
Norway, contained turns with
radii of 33 m and 24 m, as the
figure illustrates. Find the
centripetal acceleration at each
turn for a speed of 34 m/s, a
speed that was achieved in the
twoman event. Express the
answers as multiples of
g=9.8m/s
2
.
12
From a
c
=v
2
/r it follows that
Radius=33m
Radius=24m
g s m
m
s m
a
c
6 . 3 / 35
33
) / 34 (
2
2
= = =
g s m
m
s m
a
c
9 . 4 / 48
24
) / 34 (
2
2
= = =
13
Conceptual Example 4: Uniform
Circular Motion and Equilibrium
A car moves at a constant speed, and there are
three parts to the motion. It moves along a
straight line toward a circular turn, goes around
the turn, and then moves away along a straight
line. In each of three parts, is the car in
equilibrium?
14
An object in equilibrium has no acceleration, according to
the definition given in Section 4.11. As the car approaches the
turn, both the speed and direction of the motion are constant.
Thus, the velocity vector does not change, and there is no
acceleration. The same is true as the car moves away from
the turn. For these parts of the motion, then, the car is in
equilibrium. As the car goes around the turn, however, the
direction of travel changes, so the car has a centripetal
acceleration that is characteristic of uniform circular motion.
Because of this acceleration, the car is not in equilibrium
during the turn.
In general, an object that is in uniform
circular motion can never be in equilibrium.
15
Check your understanding 1
The car in the drawing is moving clockwise around a
circular section of road at a constant speed. What are the
directions of its velocity and acceleration at (a) position 1
and (b) position 2?
16
(a) The velocity is due south, and the acceleration
is due west.
(b) The velocity is due west, and the acceleration
is due north.
17
Centripetal Force
18
Concepts at a glance: Newton’s second law indicates
that whenever an object accelerates, there must be a
net force to create the acceleration. Thus, in uniform
circular motion there must be a net force to produce
the centripetal acceleration. As the Conceptata
glance chart, the second law gives this net force as the
product of the object’s mass m and its acceleration
v
2
/r. This chart is an expanded version of the chart
shown previously in Figure 4.9. The net force causing
the centripetal acceleration is called the centripetal
force F
C
and points in the same direction as the
acceleration that is, toward the center of the circle.
19
r
mv
F
C
2
=
“centripetal force” does not denote a new and
separate force created by nature.
20
Example 5: The Effect of Speed
on Centripetal Force
The model airplane has a mass of 0.90 kg and
moves at a constant speed on a circle that is
parallel to the ground. The path of the airplane
and its guideline lie in the same horizontal
plane, because the weight of the plane is
balanced by the lift generated by its wings. Find
the tension T in the guideline(length=17m) for
speeds of 19 and 38m/s.
21
Equation 5.3 gives the tension directly:
F
C
=T=mv
2
/r
Speed =19m/s
Speed =38m/s
N
m
s m kg
T 19
17
) / 19 )( 90 . 0 (
2
= =
N
m
s m kg
T 76
17
) / 38 )( 90 . 0 (
2
= =
22
Conceptual Example 6: A
Trapeze Act
In a circus, a man hangs
upside down from a trapeze,
legs bent over the bar and
arms downward, holding his
partner. Is it harder for the
man to hold his partner
when the partner hangs
straight down and is
stationary or when the
partner is swinging through
the straightdown position?
23
Reasoning and Solution: When the man and his
partner are stationary, the man’s arms must
support his partner’s weight. When the two are
swinging, however, the man’s arms must do an
additional job. Then the partner is moving on a
circular arc and has a centripetal acceleration. The
man’s arms must exert and additional pull so that
there will be sufficient centripetal force to produce
this acceleration.
Because of the additional pull, it is harder for the
man to hold his partner while swinging than while
stationary.
24
Example 7: Centripetal Force and
Safe Driving
9 . 0 = ÷dry
S
µ
Compare the maximum
speeds at which a car can
safely negotiate an
unbanked turn (r= 50.0m)
S
µ
S
µ
dry = 0.9
icy = 0.1
F
S
F
S
N
mg
N f
s
s
µ =
max
25
N S
MAX
s
F f µ =
The car does not accelerate ,
F
N
– mg = 0 F
N
= mg.
r
v
g
s
2
= µ
gr v
s
µ =
f
S
N
mg
26
Dry road ( =0.900)
s
µ
s m m s m v / 0 . 21 ) 0 . 50 )( / 80 . 9 )( 900 . 0 (
2
= =
Icy road ( =0.100)
s
µ
s m m s m v / 00 . 7 ) 0 . 50 )( / 80 . 9 )( 100 . 0 (
2
= =
As expected, the dry road allows the greater
maximum speed.
27
Upward on the wing surfaces with a net lifting force L, the
plane is banked at an angle , a component L sin of the
lifting force is directed toward the center of the turn.
u
u
Greater speeds and/or tighter turns require greater centripetal
forces. Banking into a turn also has an application in the
construction of highspeed roadways.
28
Check your understanding 2
A car is traveling in uniform circular motion on a
section of road whose radius is r. The road is
slippery, and the car is just on the verge of sliding.
(a) If the car’s speed was doubled, what would have
to be the smallest radius in order that the car does
not slide? Express your answer in terms of r.
(b)What would be your answer to part (a) if the car
were replaced by one that weighted twice as
much?
29
(a) 4r (b) 4r
30
Banked Curves
31
A car is going around a frictionfree banked
curve. The radius of the curve is r.
F
N
sin that points toward the center C
u
r
mv
F F
N C
2
sin = = u
F
N
cos and, since the car does not accelerate in the
vertical direction, this component must balance the
weight mg of the car.
u
mg F
N
= u cos
32
mg
r mv
F
F
N
N
/
cos
sin
2
=
u
u
rg
v
2
tan = u
At a speed that is too small for a given , a car
would slide down a frictionless banked curve: at
a speed that is too large, a car would slide off the
top.
u
33
Example 8:The Daytona 500
The Daytona 500 is the major event of the
NASCAR (National Association for Stock Car
Auto Racing) season. It is held at the Daytona
International Speedway in Daytona, Florida. The
turns in this oval track have a maximum
radius(at the top)of r=316m and are banked
steeply, with . Suppose these maximum
radius turns were frictionless. At what speed
would the cars have to travel around them?
° =31 u
34
From Equation 5.4, it follows that
Drivers actually negotiate the turns at speeds up to
195 mph, however, which requires a greater
centripetal force than that implied by Equation 5.4
for frictionless turns.
s m s m m rg v / 43 31 tan ) / 80 . 9 )( 316 ( tan
2
= ° = = u
(96 mph)
35
Satellites in Circular Orbits
r
mv
r
mM
G F
E
C
2
2
= =
r
GM
v
E
=
36
If the satellite is to remain in an orbit of radius r,
the speed must have precisely this value.
The closer the satellite is to the earth, the smaller
is the value for r and the greater the orbital speed
must be.
Mass m of the satellite does not appear. For a
given orbit, a satellite with a large mass has
exactly the same orbital speed as a satellite with
a small mass.
37
Example 9: Orbital Speed of the
Hubble Space Telescope
Determine the speed of the Hubble Space
Telescope orbiting at a height of 598 km above the
earth’s surface.
Orbital radius r must be determined relative to the
center of the earth. The radius of the earth is
approximately 6.38
*
10
6
m, r=6.98
*
10
6
m
38
The orbital speed is
m
kg kg m N
r
GM
v
E
6
24 2 2 11
10 98 . 6
) 10 98 . 5 )( / . 10 67 . 6 (
×
× ×
= =
÷
) / 16900 ( / 10 56 . 7
3
h mi s m v × =
39
Global Positioning System(GPS)
40
Example 10: A Supermassive
Black Hole
The Hubble Telescope has detected the light
being emitted from different regions of galaxy
M87. The black circle identifies the center of the
galaxy. From the characteristics of this light,
astronomers have determined an orbiting speed
of 7.5
*
10
5
m/s for matter located at a distance of
5.7
*
10
17
m from the center. Find the mass M of
the object located at the galactic center.
41
Replacing M
E
with M
r
GM
v =
2 2 11
17 2 5 2
/ . 10 67 . 6
) 10 7 . 5 ( ) / 10 5 . 7 (
kg m N
m s m
G
r v
M
÷
×
× ×
= =
=4.8
*
10
39
kg
42
The ratio of this incredibly large mass to the mass
of our sun is (4.8
*
10
39
kg)/(2.0
*
10
30
kg)=2.4
*
10
9
.
Matter equivalent to 2.4 billion suns is located at
the center of galaxy M87. The volume of space in
which this matter is located contains relatively few
visible star. There are strong evidences for the
existence of a supermassive black hole.
“black hole” tremendous mass prevents even
light from escaping. The light that forms the image
comes not from the black hole itself, but from
matter that surrounds it.
43
Period T of a satellite is the time required for
one orbital revolution.
T r v / 2t =
T
r
r
GM
E
t 2
=
E
GM
r
T
2 / 3
2t
=
44
Period is proportional to the threehalves power
of the orbital radius is know as Kepler’s third
law. (Johannes Kepler, 15711630). Kepler’s third
law also holds for elliptical orbits.
“synchronous satellites”: orbital period is chosen
to be one day, the time it takes for the earth to
turn once about its axis. Satellites move around
their orbits in a way that is synchronized with the
rotation of the earth, appearing in fixed positions
in the sky and can serve as “stationary”.
45
Example 11: The Orbital Radius
for Synchronous Satellites
The period T of a synchronous satellite is one day.
Find the distance r from the center of the earth and
the height H of the satellite above the earth’s
surface. The earth itself has a radius of 6.38
*
10
6
m.
T=8.64
*
10
4
s
E
GM
r
T
2 / 3
2t
=
46
t t 2
) 10 98 . 5 )( / . 10 67 . 6 ( ) 10 64 . 8 (
2
24 2 2 11 4
2 / 3
kg kg m N s GM T
r
E
× × ×
= =
÷
r = 4.23
*
10
7
m
H=4.23
*
10
7
m0.64
*
10
7
m=3.59
*
10
7
m (22300 mi)
47
Check your understanding 3
Two satellites are placed in orbit, one about Mars and
the other about Jupiter, such that the orbital speeds are
the same. Mars has the smaller mass. Is the radius of the
satellite in orbit about Mars less than, greater than, or
equal to the radius of the satellite orbiting Jupiter?
Less than.
r
GM
v =
M
Mars
smaller
Since v is the same, M small r small.
48
Apparent Weightlessness and
Artificial Gravity
The idea of life on board an orbiting satellite
conjures up visions of astronauts floating around in
a state of “weightlessness”
49
Conceptual Example 12:
Apparent Weightlessness and
FreeFall
Objects in uniform circular motion continually
accelerate or “fall” toward the center of the
circle, in order to remain on the circular path.
The only difference between the satellite and the
elevator is that the satellite moves on a circle, so
that its “falling” does not bring it closer to the
earth. True weight is the gravitational force
(F=GmM
E
/r
2
) that the earth exerts on an object
and is not zero.
50
Example 13: Artificial Gravity
At what speed must the
surface of the space
station (r=1700m) move
in the figure, so that the
astronaut at point P
experiences a push on his
feet that equals his earth
weight?
51
F
C
=mv
2
/r
Earth weight of the astronaut (mass=m) is mg.
F
C
=mg=mv
2
/r
s m s m m rg v / 130 ) / 80 . 9 )( 1700 (
2
= = =
52
Example 14: A Rotating Space
Laboratory
The outer ring (radius=r
0
)
simulates gravity on earth, while
the inner ring (radius=r
1
) simulates
gravity on Mars
A space laboratory is rotating
to create artificial gravity. Its
period of rotation is chosen so
the outer ring (r
0
=2150m)
simulates the acceleration due
to gravity on earth (9.80 m/s
2
).
What should be the radius r
1
of the inner ring, so it
simulates the acceleration due
to gravity on the surface of
Mars (3.72 m/s
2
)?
53
Centripetal acceleration: a
c
=v
2
/r,
speed v and radius r:
T r v / 2t =
T is the period of the motion.
The laboratory is rigid. All points on a rigid
object make one revolution in the same time.
Both rings have the same period.
2
2
2
2
4
2
T
r
r
T
r
r
v
a
c
t
t
=

.

\

= =
54
m
r
s m
s m
2150 / 80 . 9
/ 72 . 3
1
2
2
=
r
1
= 816 m
2
2
2
) 2150 ( 4
/ 80 . 9
T
m
s m
t
=
Outer ring
2
1
2
2
4
/ 72 . 3
T
r
s m
t
=
Inner ring
Dividing the inner ring expression by the outer ring expression,
55
Check your understanding 4
The acceleration due to gravity on the moon is one
sixth that on earth.
(a) Is the true weight of a person on the moon less
than, greater than, or equal to the true weight of
the same person on the earth?
(b)Is the apparent weight of a person in orbit about
the moon less than, greater than, or equal to the
apparent weight of the same person in orbit about
the earth?
(a) Less than (b) Equal to
56
Vertical Circular Motion
Usually, the speed varies in this stunt.
“nonuniform”
57
r
mv
mg F
N
2
1
1
= ÷
=F
C1
(1)
r
mv
F
N
2
2
2
=
=F
C2
(2)
=F
C3
r
mv
mg F
N
2
3
3
= +
(3)
r
mv
F
N
2
4
4
=
=F
C4
(4)
The magnitude of the normal force changes, because
the speed changes and the weight does not have the
same effect at every point.
58
The weight is tangent to the circle at points 2
and 4 and has no component pointing toward
the center. If the speed at each of the four
places is known, along with the mass and
radius, the normal forces can be determined.
They must have at least a minimum speed at the
top of the circle to remain on the track. v
3
is a
minimum when F
N3
is zero. rg v =
3
Weight mg provides all the centripetal force. The
rider experiences an apparent weightlessness.
59
Concepts & Calculation
Examples 15: Acceleration
At time t=0 s, automobile A is
traveling at a speed of 18 m/s along
a straight road and its picking up
speed with an acceleration that has
a magnitude of 3.5 m/s
2
.
At time t=0 s, automobile A is
traveling at a speed of 18 m/s in
uniform circular motion as it
negotiates a turn. It has a
centripetal acceleration whose
magnitude is also 3.5 m/s
2
.
Determine the speed of each
automobile when t=2.0 s.
60
Which automobile has a constant acceleration?
Both its magnitude and direction must be constant.
A has constant acceleration, a constant magnitude of 3.5
m/s
2
and its direction always points forward along the
straight road.
B has an acceleration with a constant magnitude of 3.5
m/s
2
, a centripetal acceleration, which points toward the
center of the circle at every instant.
Which automobile do the equations of kinematics
apply?
Apply for automobile A.
61
Speed of automobile A at t=2.0 s
v=v
0
+at=18 m/s+(3.5 m/s
2
)(2.0 s)=25 m/s
B is in uniform circular motion and goes
around the turn. At a time of t=2.0 s, its speed
is the same as it was at t=0 s, i.e., v=18 m/s.
62
Concepts & Calculation Example
16: Centripetal Force
Ball A is attached to one end of a
rigid massless rod, while an
identical ball B is attached to the
center of the rod. Each ball has a
mass of m=0.50kg, and the length
of each half of the rod is L=0.40m.
This arrangement is held by the
empty end and is whirled around
in a horizontal circle at a constant
rate, so each ball is in uniform
circular motion. Ball A travels at a
constant speed of v
A
=5.0m/s. Find
the tension in each half of the rod.
63
How many tension forces contribute to the centripetal
force that acts on ball A?
A single tension force of magnitude T
A
acts on ball A,
due to the tension in the rod between the two balls. This
force alone provides the centripetal force keeping ball A
on its circular path of radius 2L
How many tension forces contribute to the centripetal
force that acts on ball B?
Two tension forces act on ball B. T
B
T
A
Is the speed of ball B the same as the speed of ball A?
No, it is not. Because A travels farther than B in the same
time. A travels a distance equal to the circumference of its
path, which is (2L). B is only L . Speed of ball B is
one half the speed of ball A , or v
B
=2.5 m/s
t 2 t 2
64
Ball A Ball B
L
mv
T
A
A
2
2
=
L
mv
T T
B
A B
2
= ÷
Centripetal force F
C
Centripetal force F
C
N
m
s m kg
L
mv
T
A
A
16
) 40 . 0 ( 2
) / 0 . 5 )( 50 . 0 (
2
2 2
= = =
) 40 . 0 ( 2
) / 0 . 5 )( 50 . 0 (
40 . 0
) / 5 . 2 )( 50 . 0 (
2
2 2 2 2
m
s m kg
m
s m kg
L
mv
L
mv
T
A B
B
+ = + =
=23N
65
Problem 4
R = 3.6m
u
= 25
OA = ?
66
Problem 4
REASONING AND SOLUTION Since the speed
of the object on and off the circle remains constant
at the same value, the object always travels the
same distance in equal time intervals, both on and
off the circle. Furthermore since the object travels
the distance OA in the same time it would have
moved from O to P on the circle, we know that the
distance OA is equal to the distance along the arc
of the circle from O to P.
67
Circumference =
and, from the argument given above, we conclude that the
distance OA is 1.6m.
2 2 t t r = (3.6 m) = 22.6 m
360
o
22.6m
1
o
(22.6/360)m
25
o
(22.6/360)
*
25m
68
Problem 43
REASONING In Example 3, it was shown that the
magnitudes of the centripetal acceleration for the
two cases are
Radius 33 m / s
C
2
= = a 35 m
Radius 24 m m/ s
C
2
= = a 48
According to Newton's second law, the centripetal
force is (see Equation 5.3). F ma
C C
=
69
SOLUTION
a. Therefore, when the sled undergoes the turn of
radius 33 m,
F ma
C C
2
350 kg)(35 m/ s 1.2 = = = × ( ) 10
4
N
b. Similarly, when the radius of the turn is 24 m,
F ma
C C
2
350 kg)(48 m/ s 1.7 = = = × ( ) 10
4
N
70
Problem 46
REASONING AND SOLUTION The force
P supplied by the man will be largest when
the partner is at the lowest point in the
swing. The diagram at the right shows the
forces acting on the partner in this
situation. The centripetal force necessary
to keep the partner swinging along the arc
of a circle is provided by the resultant of
the force supplied by the man and the
weight of the partner.
71
P mg
mv
r
÷ =
2
From the figure
P
mv
r
mg = +
2
Therefore
Since the weight of the partner, W, is equal to mg, it
follows that m = (W/g) and
2 2 2
( / ) [(475 N)/(9.80 m/s )] (4.00 m/s)
(475 N) = 594 N
(6.50 m)
W g v
P W
r
= + = +
Example 1: A TireBalancing Machine
The wheel of a car has a radius of r = 0.29m and is being rotated at 830 revolutions per minute (rpm) on a tirebalancing machine. Determine the speed (in m/s) at which the outer edge of the wheel is moving.
The speed v can be obtained directly from v but first the period T is needed. It must be expressed in seconds.
2 r T
,
2
830 revolutions in one minute
1 1.2 103 min/ revolution 830 revolutions / min
T=1.2*103 min, which corresponds to 0.072s
2r 2 (0.29m) v 25m / s T 0.072s
3
or the magnitude of the velocity vector. 2. it points toward the center of the circle. The speed. Direction of the vector is not constant.Uniform circular motion emphasizes that 1. means acceleration 4. 4 . 3. “Centripetal acceleration” . Change in direction. is constant.
ac=v2/r 5 .Centripetal Acceleration Magnitude ac of the centripetal acceleration depends on the speed v of the object and the radius r of the circular path.
v in velocity divided by the elapsed time t or a= v / t Sector of the circle COP. the arc length OP is approximately a straight line whose length is the distance v t traveled by the object. t is very small. 6 .
Both triangles have equal apex angles .COP is an isosceles triangle. v vt v r v / t ac=v2/r The direction is toward the center of the circle. 7 .
The object is symbolized by a dot. will the object move along OA or OP ? 8 . If the guideline is cut suddenly.Conceptual Example 2: Which way will the object go? An object on a guideline is in uniform circular motion. and at point O it is release suddenly from its circular path.
the guideline cannot apply a force. 9 . When the object is suddenly released from its circular path. there is no longer a net force being applied to the object. but the wings provide a lift force that balances the weight of the plane.Newton’s first law of motion guides our reasoning. In the case of a model airplane. Gravity certainly acts on the plane. An object continues in a state of rest or in a state of motion at a constant speed along a straight line unless compelled to changes that state by a net force. since it is cut.
the plane or any object would continue to move at a constant speed along a straight line in the direction it had at the time of release. the object would move along the straight line between points O and A. then. 10 .In the absence of a net force. not on the circular arc between points O and P. This speed and direction are given in Figure 5. As a result.4 by the velocity vector v.
a speed that was achieved in the twoman event.8m/s2. contained turns with radii of 33 m and 24 m. Express the answers as multiples of g=9. Norway. 11 . Find the centripetal acceleration at each turn for a speed of 34 m/s.Example 3: The Effect of Radius on Centripetal Acceleration The bobsled track at the 1994 Olympics in Lillehammer. as the figure illustrates.
From ac=v2/r it follows that Radius=33m (34 m / s ) 2 ac 35 m / s 3.6 g 33 m Radius=24m 2 (34 m / s ) ac 48 m / s 2 4.9 g 24 m 12 2 .
goes around the turn. It moves along a straight line toward a circular turn.Conceptual Example 4: Uniform Circular Motion and Equilibrium A car moves at a constant speed. and there are three parts to the motion. and then moves away along a straight line. In each of three parts. is the car in equilibrium? 13 .
In general. an object that is in uniform circular motion can never be in equilibrium. the velocity vector does not change. the direction of travel changes.An object in equilibrium has no acceleration. however. then. Thus. 14 . both the speed and direction of the motion are constant. the car is in equilibrium. For these parts of the motion.11. As the car approaches the turn. according to the definition given in Section 4. The same is true as the car moves away from the turn. the car is not in equilibrium during the turn. As the car goes around the turn. so the car has a centripetal acceleration that is characteristic of uniform circular motion. Because of this acceleration. and there is no acceleration.
Check your understanding 1 The car in the drawing is moving clockwise around a circular section of road at a constant speed. What are the directions of its velocity and acceleration at (a) position 1 and (b) position 2? 15 .
16 . and the acceleration is due west. (b) The velocity is due west. and the acceleration is due north.(a) The velocity is due south.
Centripetal Force 17 .
the second law gives this net force as the product of the object’s mass m and its acceleration v2/r.that is. there must be a net force to create the acceleration. Thus. The net force causing the centripetal acceleration is called the centripetal force FC and points in the same direction as the acceleration. 18 . As the Conceptataglance chart.Concepts at a glance: Newton’s second law indicates that whenever an object accelerates. This chart is an expanded version of the chart shown previously in Figure 4. in uniform circular motion there must be a net force to produce the centripetal acceleration.9. toward the center of the circle.
mv FC r 2 “centripetal force” does not denote a new and separate force created by nature. 19 .
The path of the airplane and its guideline lie in the same horizontal plane. 20 .Example 5: The Effect of Speed on Centripetal Force The model airplane has a mass of 0.90 kg and moves at a constant speed on a circle that is parallel to the ground. Find the tension T in the guideline(length=17m) for speeds of 19 and 38m/s. because the weight of the plane is balanced by the lift generated by its wings.
3 gives the tension directly: FC=T=mv2/r Speed =19m/s (0.90 kg)(19 m / s ) 2 T 19 N 17 m Speed =38m/s (0.90 kg)(38 m / s ) T 76 N 17 m 2 21 .Equation 5.
a man hangs upside down from a trapeze. holding his partner.Conceptual Example 6: A Trapeze Act In a circus. Is it harder for the man to hold his partner when the partner hangs straight down and is stationary or when the partner is swinging through the straightdown position? 22 . legs bent over the bar and arms downward.
it is harder for the man to hold his partner while swinging than while stationary. the man’s arms must support his partner’s weight. The man’s arms must exert and additional pull so that there will be sufficient centripetal force to produce this acceleration. Because of the additional pull. 23 . When the two are swinging.Reasoning and Solution: When the man and his partner are stationary. the man’s arms must do an additional job. however. Then the partner is moving on a circular arc and has a centripetal acceleration.
1 N FS FS mg f s m ax s N 24 .0m) S dry 0.9 icy = 0.Example 7: Centripetal Force and Safe Driving Compare the maximum speeds at which a car can safely negotiate an unbanked turn (r= 50.9 S S dry = 0.
FN – mg = 0 FN = mg. mg v s g r 2 v s gr 25 .f MAX s S FN fS N The car does not accelerate .
0m) 7.100)(9.900) v (0.00m / s As expected.Dry road ( s =0.0m / s Icy road ( s =0.80m / s 2 )(50. the dry road allows the greater maximum speed.100) v (0. 26 .80m / s 2 )(50.0m) 21.900)(9.
Upward on the wing surfaces with a net lifting force L. 27 . Greater speeds and/or tighter turns require greater centripetal forces. a component L sin of the lifting force is directed toward the center of the turn. Banking into a turn also has an application in the construction of highspeed roadways. the plane is banked at an angle .
(b)What would be your answer to part (a) if the car were replaced by one that weighted twice as much? 28 . and the car is just on the verge of sliding. The road is slippery. (a) If the car’s speed was doubled. what would have to be the smallest radius in order that the car does not slide? Express your answer in terms of r.Check your understanding 2 A car is traveling in uniform circular motion on a section of road whose radius is r.
(a) 4r (b) 4r 29 .
Banked Curves 30 .
this component must balance the weight mg of the car. since the car does not accelerate in the vertical direction. FN sin that points toward the center C mv FC FN sin r 2 FN cos and. The radius of the curve is r. FN cos mg 31 .A car is going around a frictionfree banked curve.
32 2 . a car would slide down a frictionless banked curve: at a speed that is too large.FN sin mv / r FN cos mg 2 v tan rg At a speed that is too small for a given . a car would slide off the top.
Florida.Example 8:The Daytona 500 The Daytona 500 is the major event of the NASCAR (National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing) season. At what speed would the cars have to travel around them? 33 . It is held at the Daytona International Speedway in Daytona. with 31 . The turns in this oval track have a maximum radius(at the top)of r=316m and are banked steeply. Suppose these maximumradius turns were frictionless.
which requires a greater centripetal force than that implied by Equation 5.From Equation 5. however.80m / s ) tan 31 43m / s 2 (96 mph) Drivers actually negotiate the turns at speeds up to 195 mph.4. it follows that v rg tan (316m)(9.4 for frictionless turns. 34 .
Satellites in Circular Orbits mM E mv FC G 2 r r 2 GM E v r 35 .
a satellite with a large mass has exactly the same orbital speed as a satellite with a small mass. The closer the satellite is to the earth. For a given orbit. Mass m of the satellite does not appear.If the satellite is to remain in an orbit of radius r. the smaller is the value for r and the greater the orbital speed must be. 36 . the speed must have precisely this value.
r=6. Orbital radius r must be determined relative to the center of the earth.38*106m.Example 9: Orbital Speed of the Hubble Space Telescope Determine the speed of the Hubble Space Telescope orbiting at a height of 598 km above the earth’s surface.98*106m 37 . The radius of the earth is approximately 6.
56 10 m / s(16900 mi / h) 3 38 .98 106 m v 7.98 1024 kg) v r 6.m 2 / kg 2 )(5.67 1011 N .The orbital speed is GM E (6.
Global Positioning System(GPS) 39 .
The black circle identifies the center of the galaxy. astronomers have determined an orbiting speed of 7. From the characteristics of this light.5*105m/s for matter located at a distance of 5. 40 .Example 10: A Supermassive Black Hole The Hubble Telescope has detected the light being emitted from different regions of galaxy M87.7*1017m from the center. Find the mass M of the object located at the galactic center.
5 10 m / s ) (5.m / kg 2 5 2 17 =4.Replacing ME with M GM v r v r (7.67 10 N .8*1039kg 41 .7 10 m) M 11 2 2 G 6.
The ratio of this incredibly large mass to the mass of our sun is (4. but from matter that surrounds it. 42 .4 billion suns is located at the center of galaxy M87.0*1030kg)=2. The volume of space in which this matter is located contains relatively few visible star.8*1039kg)/(2. The light that forms the image comes not from the black hole itself.4*109. There are strong evidences for the existence of a supermassive black hole. “black hole” tremendous mass prevents even light from escaping. Matter equivalent to 2.
v 2r / T GM E 2r r T 2r T GM E 3/ 2 43 .Period T of a satellite is the time required for one orbital revolution.
(Johannes Kepler. Kepler’s third law also holds for elliptical orbits. 15711630). Satellites move around their orbits in a way that is synchronized with the rotation of the earth.Period is proportional to the threehalves power of the orbital radius is know as Kepler’s third law. 44 . appearing in fixed positions in the sky and can serve as “stationary”. the time it takes for the earth to turn once about its axis. “synchronous satellites”: orbital period is chosen to be one day.
The earth itself has a radius of 6.Example 11: The Orbital Radius for Synchronous Satellites The period T of a synchronous satellite is one day. T=8.64*104s 2r T GM E 3/ 2 45 . Find the distance r from the center of the earth and the height H of the satellite above the earth’s surface.38*106m.
m2 / kg2 )(5.64 104 s) (6.981024 kg) 3/ 2 r 2 2 r = 4.T GM E (8.23*107m0.64*107m=3.67 1011 N .23*107m H=4.59*107m (22300 mi) 46 .
M small r small. or equal to the radius of the satellite orbiting Jupiter? Less than. such that the orbital speeds are the same. greater than. GM v r MMars smaller Since v is the same.Check your understanding 3 Two satellites are placed in orbit. Mars has the smaller mass. Is the radius of the satellite in orbit about Mars less than. 47 . one about Mars and the other about Jupiter.
Apparent Weightlessness and Artificial Gravity The idea of life on board an orbiting satellite conjures up visions of astronauts floating around in a state of “weightlessness” 48 .
Conceptual Example 12: Apparent Weightlessness and FreeFall
Objects in uniform circular motion continually accelerate or “fall” toward the center of the circle, in order to remain on the circular path. The only difference between the satellite and the elevator is that the satellite moves on a circle, so that its “falling” does not bring it closer to the earth. True weight is the gravitational force (F=GmME/r2) that the earth exerts on an object and is not zero.
49
Example 13: Artificial Gravity
At what speed must the surface of the space station (r=1700m) move in the figure, so that the astronaut at point P experiences a push on his feet that equals his earth weight?
50
FC=mv2/r
Earth weight of the astronaut (mass=m) is mg.
FC=mg=mv2/r
v rg (1700m)(9.80m / s ) 130m / s
2
51
Its period of rotation is chosen so the outer ring (r0=2150m) simulates the acceleration due to gravity on earth (9. What should be the radius r1 of the inner ring. while the inner ring (radius=r1) simulates gravity on Mars .80 m/s2).72 m/s2)? 52 The outer ring (radius=r0) simulates gravity on earth. so it simulates the acceleration due to gravity on the surface of Mars (3.Example 14: A Rotating Space Laboratory A space laboratory is rotating to create artificial gravity.
Centripetal acceleration: speed v and radius r: ac=v2/r. v 2r / T T is the period of the motion. Both rings have the same period. The laboratory is rigid. 2r 2 2 v T 4 r ac 2 r r T 2 53 . All points on a rigid object make one revolution in the same time.
4 (2150 m) 9.72 m / s 2 T2 Inner ring Outer ring Dividing the inner ring expression by the outer ring expression.80 m / s r1 = 816 m 54 .80 m / s T2 2 2 4 2 r1 3.72 m / s 2 2 2150 m 9. r1 3.
Check your understanding 4 The acceleration due to gravity on the moon is onesixth that on earth. or equal to the true weight of the same person on the earth? (b)Is the apparent weight of a person in orbit about the moon less than. greater than. or equal to the apparent weight of the same person in orbit about the earth? (a) Less than (b) Equal to 55 . greater than. (a) Is the true weight of a person on the moon less than.
“nonuniform” 56 . the speed varies in this stunt.Vertical Circular Motion Usually.
because the speed changes and the weight does not have the same effect at every point.mv1 (1) F mg N1 r =FC1 2 mv (3) FN 3 mg r =FC3 2 3 (2) FN 2 =FC2 2 mv 2 r (4) FN 4 2 mv 4 r =FC4 The magnitude of the normal force changes. 57 .
v3 rg Weight mg provides all the centripetal force. They must have at least a minimum speed at the top of the circle to remain on the track.The weight is tangent to the circle at points 2 and 4 and has no component pointing toward the center. 58 . The rider experiences an apparent weightlessness. v3 is a minimum when FN3 is zero. along with the mass and radius. the normal forces can be determined. If the speed at each of the four places is known.
automobile A is traveling at a speed of 18 m/s in uniform circular motion as it negotiates a turn.5 m/s2. It has a centripetal acceleration whose magnitude is also 3.Concepts & Calculation Examples 15: Acceleration At time t=0 s.5 m/s2. 59 .0 s. automobile A is traveling at a speed of 18 m/s along a straight road and its picking up speed with an acceleration that has a magnitude of 3. At time t=0 s. Determine the speed of each automobile when t=2.
B has an acceleration with a constant magnitude of 3. which points toward the center of the circle at every instant.Which automobile has a constant acceleration? Both its magnitude and direction must be constant. a constant magnitude of 3. a centripetal acceleration.5 m/s2 and its direction always points forward along the straight road. Which automobile do the equations of kinematics apply? Apply for automobile A.5 m/s2. 60 . A has constant acceleration.
Speed of automobile A at t=2. i. v=18 m/s.0 s v=v0+at=18 m/s+(3.0 s)=25 m/s B is in uniform circular motion and goes around the turn. its speed is the same as it was at t=0 s.e. At a time of t=2.5 m/s2)(2. 61 ..0 s.
0m/s. Ball A travels at a constant speed of vA=5. Each ball has a mass of m=0. and the length of each half of the rod is L=0.40m. 62 . This arrangement is held by the empty end and is whirled around in a horizontal circle at a constant rate.50kg. while an identical ball B is attached to the center of the rod. so each ball is in uniform circular motion. Find the tension in each half of the rod.Concepts & Calculation Example 16: Centripetal Force Ball A is attached to one end of a rigid massless rod.
Because A travels farther than B in the same time. or vB=2. This force alone provides the centripetal force keeping ball A on its circular path of radius 2L How many tension forces contribute to the centripetal force that acts on ball B? Two tension forces act on ball B. it is not. Speed of ball B is one half the speed of ball A . which is 2 (2L). A travels a distance equal to the circumference of its path. due to the tension in the rod between the two balls.How many tension forces contribute to the centripetal force that acts on ball A? A single tension force of magnitude TA acts on ball A.5 m/s 63 . B is only2 L . TBTA Is the speed of ball B the same as the speed of ball A? No.
40 m) 2 2 mv B mv A (0.40 m 2(0.0m / s 2 ) TB L 2L 0.50 kg)(5.2 mv A Ball A TA 2L 2 mv B Ball B TB TA L Centripetal force FC Centripetal force FC 2 mv A (0.50 kg)( 5.0m / s 2 ) TA 16 N 2L 2(0.40 m) =23N 64 .5m / s 2 ) (0.50 kg)( 2.
6m = 25 OA = ? 65 .Problem 4 R = 3.
Problem 4 REASONING AND SOLUTION Since the speed of the object on and off the circle remains constant at the same value. both on and off the circle. the object always travels the same distance in equal time intervals. we know that the distance OA is equal to the distance along the arc of the circle from O to P. 66 . Furthermore since the object travels the distance OA in the same time it would have moved from O to P on the circle.
Circumference = 2 r 2 (3. 67 .6m. we conclude that the distance OA is 1.6 m 22.6m (22.6 m) = 22. from the argument given above.6/360)m 360o 1o 25o (22.6/360)*25m and.
3). 68 . it was shown that the magnitudes of the centripetal acceleration for the two cases are Radius 33 m Radius 24 m a C 35 m / s 2 a C 48 m / s 2 According to Newton's second law.Problem 43 REASONING In Example 3. the centripetal force is FC ma C (see Equation 5.
Similarly.2 10 N b. Therefore.7 10 N 2 4 69 .SOLUTION a. 2 turn of 4 FC ma C ( 350 kg)(35 m / s ) 1. when the sled undergoes the radius 33 m. FC ma C ( 350 kg)(48 m / s ) 1. when the radius of the turn is 24 m.
The centripetal force necessary to keep the partner swinging along the arc of a circle is provided by the resultant of the force supplied by the man and the weight of the partner. 70 .Problem 46 REASONING AND SOLUTION The force P supplied by the man will be largest when the partner is at the lowest point in the swing. The diagram at the right shows the forces acting on the partner in this situation.
80 m/s2 )] (4. is equal to mg. W. it follows that m = (W/g) and (W/g )v2 [(475 N)/(9.From the figure mv 2 P mg r Therefore mv 2 P mg r Since the weight of the partner.00 m/s)2 P W (475 N) = 594 N r (6.50 m) 71 .
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