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PHIL160 INTRODUCTIO N TO ETHICS FEBRUARY, 2011

4/28/12

Slides by G. Salmieri Revised by J.G.

The human good: a complete life of rational activity in accordance with virtue. The virtues that make our rational activities excellent will be states of those parts of the human soul in whose activities reason is involved. Capacity Nutritive Soul (All living things) Activity Absorbing food Growing Reproducing Virtue Not applicable Perceptual Soul Perceiving (Animals) Desiring Moving Rational Soul (Man) 4/28/12 Virtues of character Virtues of thought Thinking .

Each virtue is a mean between two vices (one of excess and one of deficiency).Virtue of Character There are many virtues of character. which determine how the capacity is exercised.) to use it. etc. . In some cases the right way to use it will be quite a lot. The right way lies in a mean not in that it is exactly halfway in between the excess and the deficiency. there is a right amount (in terms of intensity. to the right degree. Each is a state [hexis] (as opposed to a passion or a capacity to feel a passion). at the right time. etc. It makes the capacity get exercised in the right way. and one can either exceed this 4/28/12or fall short of it. Corresponding to each passion (and the capacity to feel it) there are multiple states.—all as determined by “correct reason” [orthos logos] or “practical wisdom”/“prudence” [phronesis. frequency. but only in the sense that for each capacity.

the Vanity superlative honor due to virtuous men) trivial honors ambitiousness unambitiousness Self-effacing “Irony”* boorishness truth-telling about one’s merits in boastfulness social situations amusement in social situations (joking in particular buffoonery 4/28/12 . Excess confidencerashness fearcowardice intemperance Deficiency cowardice desire for bodily pleasures insensibility Anger giving wealth giving and spending large sums irascibility wastefulness tastelessness or vulgarity In-irascibility Un-gererosity Niggardliness Stinginess Humility Pride / Highmindedness [Megalopsuchia] Virtue re.Virtues of Character (or of Habit) Virtue Bravery / Courage [Andreia] Temperance / Moderation [Sophrosunē] Mildness Generosity Munificence Area of concern feelings concerning a noble death. small honors Truthfulness Wittiness honors (specifically.

The Human Soul and its Virtues: Capacity Nutritive Soul Activity Absorbing food Growing Reproducing Perceiving Desiring Moving Thinking Virtue Not applicable Perceptual Soul (listens to reason) The Virtues of Character The Virtues of Thought Rationa l Soul (has reason) 4/28/12 .

The Human Soul and its Virtues: Capacity Nutritive Soul Activity Absorbing food Growing Reproducing Perceiving Desiring Moving Virtue Not applicable Perceptual Soul (listens to reason) The Virtues of Character Rationa Calculative l Soul (has reason) Deliberation [Boulē] The (Thinking about what to Virtues of do) Thought Contemplation [Theoria] (Thinking about things that one cannot change) Theoretical 4/28/12 .

The Human Soul and its Virtues: Capacity Nutritive Soul Activity Absorbing food Growing Reproducing Perceiving Desiring Moving Virtue Not applicable Perceptual Soul (listens to reason) The ‘Virtues of Character’ or ‘of Habit’ Rationa Calculati Productiv Thinking about how to l Soul ve e make things The ‘Virtues of (has Practical Thinking about what to Thought’/ reason) do ‘Intellectu Theoretical Contemplation al Virtues’ (Thinking about things 4/28/12 that one cannot change) .

The Human Soul and its Virtues: Capacity Nutritive Soul Activity Absorbing food Growing Reproducing Perceiving Desiring Moving Virtue Not applicable Perceptual Soul (listens to reason) The Virtues of Character Rationa Calculati Productiv Thinking about how to l Soul ve e make things (has reason) Practical Thinking about what to do Theoretical Contemplation (thinking about things that one cannot change) 4/28/12 .

Nous.The Human Soul and its Virtues: Capacity Nutritive Soul Activity Absorbing food Growing Reproducing Perceiving Desiring Moving Virtue Not applicable Perceptual Soul (listens to reason) The Virtues of Character Rationa Calculati Productiv Thinking about how The Arts l Soul ve e to make things [Technai] (has reason) Practical Thinking about what Practical to do Wisdom [Phronēsis] Theoretical Contemplation (Thinking about things that one cannot change) Epistēmē. and Sophia 4/28/12 .

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