SEMESTER PROJECT Submitted by Syed faraz ahmed (ee-2008-093) Yousuf khan (ee-2008-75) Ahmed hussain (ee-2008-117

) Mateen iftikhar(ee-2008-065)

 They are found between the radio waves and the infrared waves in the electromagnetic spect .3 Ghz to 300 Ghz. The wavelengths can be from as long as one meter to as short as one millimeter. Microwave radiation are the radiating wave movements in which microwave energy travels. Microwaves have a frequency range of 0.

the microwave oven (in the picture) is used for heating up our food by microwaves. . some examples are food. They can pass through nonmetal materials such as plastic and glass. What are microwaves? Microwaves are absorbed by materials that have a high water content and produce heat. fruits.  Microwaves take a straight line path. but get reflected off metal surfaces. This is where the microwave kitchen appliances work. vegetables etc.

an electron tube called magnetron . a wave guide fan and a oven chamber. The microwaves are reflected in the oven chamber and are absorbed by the food . The transformer passes electric energy to the magnetron and the magnetron converts this electric energy into microwave radiation. A microwave oven consists: a high voltage transformer.

Foods that have higher concentrations of water molecules cook faster. . The microwave absorption. happens when the water molecules in the food begin to vibrate. This molecular movement produces heat and the resultant heat cooks the food.


3 to 30 centimeter produces these rays in nature when passing electric . Microwave radiation is part of the electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength of long-term in “cm” measured from 0.

 Microwave oven uses microwave radiation to heat food in the subject inside the oven  microwave radiation are radio waves with frequencies 2500 MHz and the radio waves at this frequency has an important property .

radio waves Temperature of food particles at the same time and at the same temperature because all the particles are raised at the same time is not transmitted to the heat conduction   . consisting of food. The microwave oven cook food from the inside to outside Absorbs water and fat and sugar molecules.

 The food particles that contain water. plastic and glass. fats and sugars absorb microwave radiation through atoms and molecules of food and absorption of this radiation gives energy make the move significantly and collide and produce heat for heating cooking That the material. ceramics and pottery does not absorb microwave radiation and is not affected. and this means that they will not rise the temperature. and the shiny metallic materials such as aluminum that reflects the rays is therefore prohibited for use within microwave ovens   Depends artistic design of the oven on overlapping combinations of electrical circuits and mechanical devices for the production and organization of the energy needed for heating and cooking.  .

frequency division multiplex was used to send up to 5. such as determining the distance to the Moon or mapping the invisible surface of Venusthrough cloud cover.400 telephone channels on each microwave radio channel. weather forecasting. (Radio astronomy is a subfield of astronomy that studies celestial objects at radio frequencies. most long distance telephone calls were carried via networks of microwave radio relay links run by carriers such as AT&T Long Lines. up to 70 km away. with as many as ten radio channels combined into one antenna for the hop to the next site. Microwave radio is used in broadcasting and telecommunication t ransmissions  Wireless Internet Access services have been used for almost a decade in many countries in the   Radar   Radar uses microwave radiation to detect the range. and other characteristics of remote objects Now radar is widely used for applications such as air traffic control.   Radio astronomy   Most radio astronomy uses microwaves. ) Usually the naturally-occurring microwave radiation is observed. speed. and speed limit enforcement. .  Communication Before the advent of fiberoptic transmission. but active radar experiments have also been done with objects in the solar system. navigation of ships.

2 GHz and 1. Microwave heating is used in industrial processes for drying and curing products. fats.Navigation  Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) including the American Global Positioning System (GPS) and the Russian GLONASS broadcast navigational signals in various bands between about 1. Microwaves can be used to transmit power over long distances   .   Power A microwave oven passes (non-ionizing) microwave radiation (at a frequency near 2. causing dielectric heating by absorption of energy in the water.6 GHz.45 GHz) through food. and sugar contained in the food.

can be an antenna. An antenna is a device that: (or aerial) is an electrical device which converts electric currents into radio waves. Any conductor that can intercept an RF field can be an antenna. . It is usually used with a radio transmitter or radio receiver. and vice versa. Any conductor through which an RF current is flowing.

A good antenna works A bad antenna is a waste of time & money Antenna systems can be very inexpensive and simple They can also be very. The first antennas were built in 1888 by German physicist Heinrich Hertz in his pioneering experiments to prove the existence of electromagnetic waves predicted by the theory of James Clerk Maxwell. very expensive . electrically connected (often through a transmission line) to the receiver or transmitter. Typically an antenna consists of an arrangement of metallic conductors ("elements").

. The real part of this impedance is the sum of the radiation and loss resistances The imaginary part of this impedance represents power temporarily stored by the antenna. Bandwidth: Is the range of frequencies over which one or more antenna parameters stay within a certain range. Directivity or Gain: Is the ratio of the power radiated by an antenna in its direction of maximum radiation to the power radiated by a reference antenna in the same direction. Is measured in dBi (dB referenced to an isotropic antenna) or dBd (dB referenced to a half wavelength dipole) Feed point impedance ( also called input or drive impedance): Is the impedance measured at the input to the antenna.

Isotropic antenna radiates equally in all directions. this term is applied to antennas whose directivity is much higher than that of a halfwavelength dipole.  Directional antenna Directional antenna is an antenna. used as a useful reference to describe real antennas. Note: Usually. . Its radiation pattern is represented by a sphere whose center coincides with the location of the isotropic radiator. Isotropic antenna or isotropic radiator is a hypothetical (not physically realizable) concept. which radiates (or receives) much more power in (or from) some directions than in (or from) others.

which has a non-directional pattern in a plane It is usually directional in other planes . An antenna.

Wire Antennas Short Dipole Antenna Dipole Antenna Half-Wave Dipole Broadband Dipoles Monopole Antenna Folded Dipole Antenna Small Loop Antenna Microstrip Antennas Rectangular Microstrip (Patch) Antennas Planar Inverted-F Antennas (PIFA) .

   Corner ReflectorParabolic Reflector (Dish Antenna) Travelling Wave Antennas Helical AntennasYagi-Uda Antennas Spiral Antennas   Aperture Antennas Slot AntennaCavityBacked Slot Antenna Inverted-F Antenna Slotted Waveguide Antenna Horn Antenna .

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