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**AND CURRENT MIRRORS
**

CURRENT SINKS AND SOURCES

Characterization of Current Sinks and Sources:

1. Minimum voltage (V

MIN

) across sink or source

for which the current is no longer constant.

2. Output resistance which is a measure of the

flatness of the current sink or source.

Increasing the output impedance

R

OUT

of a Current Source

| |

2 ds 2 mbs 2 ds 2 m 2 ds

out

out

out

r g r g 1 r r

i

v

r + + + = =

Normally g

m

~ 10g

mbs

~ 100g

ds

giving us

2 ds 2 m

out

r rg r =

CURRENT MIRRORS AND CURRENT AMPLIFIERS

Sources of Errors

If the devices are matched

(

¸

(

¸

+

+

(

¸

(

¸

=

1

2

2 1

1 2

1

1

DS

DS

i

o

V

V

L W

L W

i

i

ì

ì

If V

DS1

= V

DS2

then

(

¸

(

¸

=

2 1

1 2

L W

L W

i

i

i

o

Matching Accuracy of Current Mirrors

Layout Technique to Remove Layout Error

( ) | | r i r v g v g i v

out

ds sb mb gs m out out

+ + ÷ =

( ) ( )

ds m ds mb ds m ds

out

out

out

r r g 1 r g r g r r

i

v

r ~ + + + = =

( )

2 m 1 m 3 ds 3 m 1 ds

2 m 2 ds

3 ds 3 m 1 ds 1 m 2 ds

out

g g if r g r

g r

r g r g r

r = ~ =

WILSON CURRENT MIRROR

This modification to the Simple Current mirror

does ensure an increased output impedance, but

does not ensure V

DS1

= V

DS2

. V

min

obtained in

this configuration is the sum of the voltage,

V

DS1

(sat) and V

DS3

(sat), the minimum drain to

source voltage required to keep M3 and M1 in

saturation. Defining V

ON

= V

GS

– V

TH

, and

assuming that all transistors have same W/L

ratio, we have V

DS1

= V

GS1

= V

ON

+ V

TH

and

V

DS3

(min) = V

ON

and V

min

= 2V

ON

+ V

TH

.

MODIFIED WILSON CURRENT MIRROR

CASCODE CURRENT MIRROR

REGULATED CASCODE CURRENT MIRROR

If all transistors have the same size, V

GS2

= V

DS1

=

V

GS

= V

DS4

, giving us a very good match in mirroring.

CURRENT MIRROR WITH LOW V

min

and

GOOD MIRRORING PROPERTY

We see that in the Cascode

Current Mirror, the voltage

V

GG2

was obtained as 2V

GS

and hence we had a V

min

of

2V

GS

– V

TH

= 2V

ON

+V

TH

.

However if we can obtain

V

GG2

= 2V

ON

+ V

TH

, V

min

can

be reduced to 2V

ON

.

WIDE RANGE CASCODE CURRENT MIRROR

Current Mirror Accuracy Output impedance V

min

Simple Poor r

ds

V

ON

Wilson Poor 2V

ON

+ V

TH

Improved Excellent 2V

ON

+ V

TH

Cascode Excellent 2V

ON

+ V

TH

Regulated Cascode Good 2V

ON

+ V

TH

Cascode Excellent 2V

ON

2

ds m

r g

2

ds m

r g

2

ds m

r g

3

ds

2

m

r g

2

ds m

r g

COMPARISON OF VARIOUS CURRENT

MIRROR ARCHITECTURE

.

CURRENT SINKS AND SOURCES Characterization of Current Sinks and Sources: 1. 2. . Output resistance which is a measure of the flatness of the current sink or source. Minimum voltage (VMIN) across sink or source for which the current is no longer constant.

.

.

Increasing the output impedance ROUT of a Current Source .

vout rout rds 2 r1 gm2rds 2 gmbs 2rds 2 i out Normally gm 10gmbs 100gds giving us rout rgm2rds2 .

CURRENT MIRRORS AND CURRENT AMPLIFIERS .

Sources of Errors .

If the devices are matched io W2 L1 1 VDS 2 i i W1L2 1 VDS1 If VDS1 = VDS2 then io W2 L1 i i W1 L2 .

Matching Accuracy of Current Mirrors .

.

.

Layout Technique to Remove Layout Error .

.

vout iout gm vgs gmb vsb rds iout r rout vout rds r gm rds gmb rds 1 gm r rds iout .

WILSON CURRENT MIRROR rout rds2 gm1 rds1 gm3 rds3 rds1 gm3 rds3 if gm1 gm2 rds2 gm2 .

Defining VON = VGS – VTH. VDS1(sat) and VDS3(sat). but does not ensure VDS1 = VDS2.This modification to the Simple Current mirror does ensure an increased output impedance. we have VDS1 = VGS1 = VON + VTH and VDS3(min) = VON and Vmin = 2VON + VTH. the minimum drain to source voltage required to keep M3 and M1 in saturation. . and assuming that all transistors have same W/L ratio. Vmin obtained in this configuration is the sum of the voltage.

MODIFIED WILSON CURRENT MIRROR .

CASCODE CURRENT MIRROR .

giving us a very good match in mirroring.REGULATED CASCODE CURRENT MIRROR If all transistors have the same size. VGS2 = VDS1 = VGS = VDS4. .

.

However if we can obtain VGG2 = 2VON + VTH. Vmin can be reduced to 2VON.CURRENT MIRROR WITH LOW Vmin and GOOD MIRRORING PROPERTY We see that in the Cascode Current Mirror. the voltage VGG2 was obtained as 2VGS and hence we had a Vmin of 2VGS – VTH = 2VON +VTH. .

.

WIDE RANGE CASCODE CURRENT MIRROR .

COMPARISON OF VARIOUS CURRENT MIRROR ARCHITECTURE Current Mirror Simple Wilson Improved Cascode Regulated Cascode Cascode Accuracy Poor Poor Excellent Excellent Good Excellent Output impedance rds Vmin VON 2VON + VTH 2VON + VTH 2VON + VTH 2VON + VTH 2VON 2 gm rds 2 3 gm rds 2 gm rds 2 gm rds 2 gm rds .

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